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1.
Viral Immunol ; 35(9): 579-585, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107328

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) (LIGHT) is an interesting costimulatory molecule associated with T lymphocyte activation, and it mainly exerts its biological effects by binding to its receptors herpesvirus invasion mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin-ß receptor. Research shows that TNFSF14 plays a critical regulatory role in immune responses to viral infection, but its role is different in different diseases. TNFSF14 can be a cytokine neutralization target during novel coronavirus infection, and anti-TNFSF14 monoclonal antibody treatment can reduce the risk of respiratory failure and mortality. When the host is infected with adenovirus, TNFSF14 can be used as an inflammatory biomarker to indicate whether there was an adenovirus infection in the host and the degree of disease caused by viral infection. When hosts suffer influenza virus infection, the TNFSF14-HVEM signaling pathway can stimulate the maturation and proliferation of memory CD8+ T cells, which helps the host immune system stimulate a second immune response against respiratory virus infection. TNFSF14 can act as an immune adjuvant and enhance the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA vaccine when the host is infected with HPV. During hepatitis virus infection, TNFSF14 acts as a proinflammatory factor, participates in inflammation and causes tissue damage. In conclusion, TNFSF14 plays different and significant roles in diverse viral infections. This article reviews the current research on TNFSF14 in antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Humanos , Membro 14 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Membro 14 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Antivirais , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
2.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 3189-3200, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106905

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In order to identify therapeutic targets in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is important to identify molecules involved in the biological responses that are modulated in COVID-19. Lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are involved in the pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis are one of the candidate molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the serum levels of autotaxin (ATX), which are enzymes involved in the synthesis of lysophosphatidic acids. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled 134 subjects with COVID-19 and 58 normal healthy subjects for the study. We measured serum ATX levels longitudinally in COVID-19 patients and investigated the time course and the association with severity and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The serum ATX levels were reduced in all patients with COVID-19, irrespective of the disease severity, and were negatively associated with the serum CRP, D-dimer, and anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody levels. DISCUSSION: Considering the biological properties of LPAs in the pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, modulation of ATX might be compensatory biological responses to suppress immunological overreaction especially in the lung, which is an important underlying mechanism for the mortality of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients showed a decrease in the serum levels of ATX, irrespective of the disease severity. Key MessagesAutotaxin (ATX) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which has been reported to be involved in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Patients with COVID-19 show decrease in the serum levels of ATX. Modulation of ATX might be compensatory biological responses to suppress immunological overreaction.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases , Humanos , COVID-19/sangue , Fibrose , Pulmão , Lisofosfolipídeos , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/sangue , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2875-2884, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of the novel corona virus (SARS-Cov-2) in the late 2019 and not only the endoscopy practice and training but also the health care systems around the globe suffers. This systematic review focused the impact of Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) on the endoscopy practice. METHODS: A web search of different databases combining different search terms describing the endoscopy practice and the COVID-19 pandemic was done. Articles were screened for selection of relevant articles in two steps: title and abstract step and full-text screening step, by two independent reviewers and any debate was solved by a third reviewer. RESULTS: Final studies included in qualitative synthesis were 47. The data shown in the relevant articles were evident for marked reduction in the volume of endoscopy, marked affection of colorectal cancer screening, impairments in the workflow, deficiency in personal protective equipment (PPE) and increased likelihood of catching the infection among both the staff and the patients. CONCLUSION: The main outcomes from this review are rescheduling of endoscopy procedures to be suitable with the situation of COVID-19 pandemic in each Country. Also, the endorsement of the importance of PPE use for health care workers and screening of COVID-19 infection pre-procedure.Key messagesThe data focussing Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and COVID-19 emerged from different areas around the globe. The data presented on the published studies were heterogeneous. However, there were remarkable reductions in the volume of GI endoscopy worldwideStaff reallocation added a burden to endoscopy practiceThere was a real risk for COVID-19 spread among both the staff and the patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal
4.
N Engl J Med ; 387(19): e56, 2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106625
7.
N Engl J Med ; 387(10): 955, 2022 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106611
10.
Hamostaseologie ; 42(5): 285-286, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106603

RESUMO

In the last couple of years sex specific health issues have continually been gaining attraction by physicians of different medical specialities. Sex differences have been described e.g. in the pathogenesis and mortality in patients affected by COVID-19, in metabolic regulation and cancer mechanisms.1 2 3 In the field of haemostasis, many aspects concerning risk factors, clinical presentation and management of thromboembolic disease and bleeding disorders also display sex differences.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , COVID-19 , Trombose , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Hemostasia , Saúde da Mulher
12.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(6): 2825-2834, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians and researchers have increasingly used remote online assessments to pursue their activities, but mostly with tests not validated for videoconference administration. This study aims to validate the remote online administration of picture description in Canadian French neurotypical speakers and to explore the thematic unit (TU) checklist recently developed. METHOD: Spoken discourse elicited through the picture description task of the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised (WAB-R) was collected from Canadian French neurotypical speakers from Québec aged between 50 and 79 years old. Forty-seven participants completed the task in person, and 49 participants completed the task by videoconference. Videos of each discourse sample were transcribed using CHAT conventions. Microstructural variables were extracted using the CLAN (Computerized Language ANalysis) program, whereas thematic informativeness was scored for each sample using TUs. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare both groups on each TU; t tests were also performed on the total score of TUs and microstructural variables. RESULTS: Groups were matched on sex, age, and education variables. The t tests revealed no intergroup difference for the total TU score and for the microstructural variables (e.g., mean length of utterances and number of words per minute). Chi-square tests showed no significant intergroup difference for all 16 TUs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support remote online assessment of the picnic scene of the WAB-R picture description in Canadian French neurotypical speakers. These results also validate the 16 TUs most consistently produced. The use of videoconference could promote and improve the recruitment of participants who are usually less accessible, such as people using assistive mobility technologies. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21476961.


Assuntos
Afasia , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idioma , Pandemias , Canadá , Comunicação por Videoconferência
13.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1188, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106511

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has evolved continuously and accumulated spike mutations with each variant having a different binding for the cellular ACE2 receptor. It is not known whether the interactions between such mutated spikes and ACE2 glycans are conserved among different variant lineages. Here, we focused on three ACE2 glycosylation sites (53, 90 and 322) that are geometrically close to spike binding sites and investigated the effect of their glycosylation pattern on spike affinity. These glycosylation deletions caused distinct site-specific changes in interactions with the spike and acted cooperatively. Of note, the particular interaction profiles were conserved between the SARS-CoV-2 parental virus and the variants of concern (VOCs) Delta and Omicron. Our study provides insights for a better understanding of the importance of ACE2 glycosylation on ACE2/SARS-CoV-2 spike interaction and guidance for further optimization of soluble ACE2 for therapeutic use.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicosilação , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Ligação Proteica
14.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1179, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106510

RESUMO

Understanding the antigenic signatures of all human coronaviruses (HCoVs) Spike (S) proteins is imperative for pan-HCoV epitopes identification and broadly effective vaccine development. To depict the currently elusive antigenic signatures of α-HCoVs S proteins, we isolated a panel of antibodies against the HCoV-229E S protein and characterized their epitopes and neutralizing potential. We found that the N-terminal domain of HCoV-229E S protein is antigenically dominant wherein an antigenic supersite is present and appears conserved in HCoV-NL63, which holds potential to serve as a pan-α-HCoVs epitope. In the receptor binding domain, a neutralizing epitope is captured in the end distal to the receptor binding site, reminiscent of the locations of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD cryptic epitopes. We also identified a neutralizing antibody that recognizes the connector domain, thus representing the first S2-directed neutralizing antibody against α-HCoVs. The unraveled HCoVs S proteins antigenic similarities and variances among genera highlight the challenges faced by pan-HCoV vaccine design while supporting the feasibility of broadly effective vaccine development against a subset of HCoVs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Humano 229E , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Antígenos Virais , Epitopos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
15.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1170, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106509

RESUMO

The trimeric spike (S) glycoprotein, which protrudes from the SARS-CoV-2 viral envelope, binds to human ACE2, initiated by at least one protomer's receptor binding domain (RBD) switching from a "down" (closed) to an "up" (open) state. Here, we used large-scale molecular dynamics simulations and two-dimensional replica exchange umbrella sampling calculations with more than a thousand windows and an aggregate total of 160 µs of simulation to investigate this transition with and without glycans. We find that the glycosylated spike has a higher barrier to opening and also energetically favors the down state over the up state. Analysis of the S-protein opening pathway reveals that glycans at N165 and N122 interfere with hydrogen bonds between the RBD and the N-terminal domain in the up state, while glycans at N165 and N343 can stabilize both the down and up states. Finally, we estimate how epitope exposure for several known antibodies changes along the opening path. We find that the BD-368-2 antibody's epitope is continuously exposed, explaining its high efficacy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Polissacarídeos , Epitopos
17.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e79, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106291

RESUMO

AIMS: Mental health-related stigma and discrimination are a complex and widespread issue with negative effects on numerous aspects of life of people with lived experience of mental health conditions. Research shows that social contact is the best evidence-based intervention to reduce stigma. Within the context of a rapid development of remote technology, and COVID-19-related restrictions for face-to-face contact, the aim of this paper is to categorise, compare and define indirect social contact (ISC) interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination in mental health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: MEDLINE, Global Health, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were searched using a strategy including terms related to 'stigma and discrimination', 'intervention', 'indirect social contact', 'mental health' and 'low- and middle-income countries'. Relevant information on ISC interventions was extracted from the included articles, and a quality assessment was conducted. Emerging themes were coded using a thematic synthesis method, and a narrative synthesis was undertaken to present the results. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the review overall. One study was ineffective; this was not considered for the categorisation of interventions, and it was considered separately for the comparison of interventions. Of the eight effective studies included in synthesis, interventions were categorised by content, combination of stigma-reducing strategies, medium of delivery, delivery agents, target condition and population, as well as by active or passive interaction and follow-up. Most of the interventions used education and ISC. Recovery and personal experience were important content components as all studies included either one or both. Cultural adaptation and local relevance were also important considerations. CONCLUSIONS: ISC interventions were effective in overall terms for both the general public and healthcare providers, including medical students. A new definition of ISC interventions in LMICs is proposed. More research and better reporting of intervention details are needed to explore the effectiveness of ISC strategies in LMICs, especially in regions where little relevant research has been conducted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Estigma Social , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
18.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 23: e67, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world since the initial outbreak in Wuhan, China. With the emergence of the Omicron variant, South Africa is presently the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare workers have been at the forefront of the pandemic in terms of screening, early detection and clinical management of suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases. Since the beginning of the outbreak, little has been reported on how healthcare workers have experienced the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa, particularly within a low-income, rural primary care context. METHODS: The purpose of the present qualitative study design was to explore primary healthcare practitioners' experiences regarding the COVID-19 pandemic at two selected primary healthcare facilities within a low-income rural context in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 15 participants, which consisted of nurses, physiotherapists, pharmacists, community caregivers, social workers and clinical associates. The participants were both men and women who were all above the age of 20. Data were collected through individual, in-depth face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed manually by thematic analysis following Tech's steps of data analysis. RESULTS: Participants reported personal, occupational and community-related experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa. Personal experiences of COVID-19 yielded superordinate themes of psychological distress, self-stigma, disruption of the social norm, Epiphany and conflict of interest. Occupational experiences yielded superordinate themes of staff infections, COVID-19-related courtesy stigma, resource constraints and poor dissemination of information. Community-related experiences were related to struggles with societal issues, clinician-patient relations and COVID-19 mismanagement of patients. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that primary healthcare practitioners' experiences around COVID-19 are attributed to the catastrophic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic with the multitude of psychosocial consequences forming the essence of these experiences. Ensuring availability of reliable sources of information regarding the pandemic as well as psychosocial support could be valuable in helping healthcare workers cope with living and working during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Atenção Primária à Saúde
19.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 23: e56, 2022 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted healthcare worldwide. It has altered service delivery and posed challenges to practitioners in relation to workload, well-being and support. Within primary care, changes in physicians' activities have been identified and innovative work solutions implemented. However, evidence is lacking regarding the impact of the pandemic on pharmacy personnel who work in primary care. AIM: To explore the impact of the pandemic on the working practice (including the type of services provided) and job satisfaction of pharmacists and pharmacy technicians within Scottish general practice. Due to the stressful nature of the pandemic, we hypothesise that job satisfaction will have been negatively affected. METHODS: An online questionnaire was distributed in May-July 2021, approximately 15 months since initial lockdown measures in the UK. The questionnaire was informed by previous literature and underwent expert review and piloting. Analysis involved descriptive statistics, non-parametric statistical tests and thematic analysis. RESULTS: 180 participants responded (approximated 16.1% response rate): 134 pharmacists (74.4%) and 46 technicians (25.6%). Responses indicated greater involvement with administrative tasks and a reduction in the provision of clinical services, which was negatively perceived by pharmacists. There was an increase in remote working, although most participants continued to have a physical presence within general practices. Face-to-face interactions with patients reduced, which was negatively perceived by participants, and telephone consults were considered efficient yet less effective. Professional development activities were challenged by increased workloads and reduced support available. Although workplace stress was apparent, there was no indication of widespread job dissatisfaction. CONCLUSION: The pandemic has impacted pharmacists and technicians, but it is unknown if changes will be permanent, and there is a need to understand which changes should continue. Future research should explore the impact of altered service delivery, including remote working, on patient care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Farmácia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , Atenção Primária à Saúde
20.
Health Promot Int ; 36(5): 1324-1333, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107483

RESUMO

Global shifts toward a disease-oriented, vertical approach to health has involved limiting the right for communities to participate in decision-making. Ecuador's authoritarian legacy has forced civil society and social organizations to adopt 'coping strategies', while large protests recently derived into violent struggles. The country has been severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic amid corruption scandals involving hospital and food purchases by government during the response. This study critically examines how Ecuador's government took into consideration 'community participation' as a value and tenet of health promotion. Our systematic textual analysis focuses on 53 consecutive resolutions by the National Emergency Operations Committee (EOC) leading the decision-making processes, which, explicitly requires community participation. Results show that the 'lifecycle' of the central government's evolving policy framing centered on law enforcement and the private sector, followed by the social sector. Further, there is no evidence of stakeholders from civil society or organizations taking part in decision-making. Having legitimized the exclusion of community participation in Ecuador's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is possible that the government will fail to consider the wider social implications of its impact. In particular, the limits to local governments becoming informed and making decisions without mediation by the National EOC will further impede community participation in health decision-making in the future. This implies that local knowledge and experiences will also not inform health policy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Participação da Comunidade , Equador , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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