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2.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 30(3): 201-204, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the analysis was to determine the probable places of coronavirus transmission in association with the work and compare the situation between 2020 and 2021. METHODS: The work analysed data from the Information System of Infectious Diseases managed by the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic in the period from March 2020 - December 2021. RESULTS: 2,483,219 COVID-19 cases were officially confirmed (732,202 during 2020 and 1,338,790 in 2021), from them 140,368 (6%) represented work-related disease, 520,830 cases (21%) work-related contact, and 1,822,021 (73%) out-of-work contact. There were identified 13 occupations with the highest incidence of COVID-19 in the observed period (458,341 cases), in descending order - clerk, machinist, teacher, craftsman, worker/agency worker, driver, sales worker/cashier, warehouse worker/expediter, nurse, manager, food worker, paramedic, and social worker. Comparing 2020 and 2021, there was a difference in the ranking of occupations by incidence of disease. In 2021, the risk of infection acquiring increased for the occupations clerk, machinist, craftsman, worker/agency worker, manager, and food worker, while it decreased for the health professions (nurse, other paramedic, physician) and for social worker; 5,514 cases of COVID-19 were recognized as an occupational disease in 2020 and 2021, from them 5,483 cases (99.4%) in the health and social care economic activity sector. CONCLUSION: The available data show probable exposures to an infectious agent (without proof of specific contact with the source of the infection), of which 27% cases of COVID-19 are related to work (cases of work-related disease and work-related contact represented together the closest relationship to work). Different relevant anti-epidemic measures in the workplace have considerable practical importance for epidemic control. The use of personal protection of the mouth and nose with respirators/muffs is essential to reduce the risk of airborne transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Profissionais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Elife ; 112022 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217486

RESUMO

Background: Viral sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has been used for outbreak investigation, but there is limited evidence supporting routine use for infection prevention and control (IPC) within hospital settings. Methods: We conducted a prospective non-randomised trial of sequencing at 14 acute UK hospital trusts. Sites each had a 4-week baseline data collection period, followed by intervention periods comprising 8 weeks of 'rapid' (<48 hr) and 4 weeks of 'longer-turnaround' (5-10 days) sequencing using a sequence reporting tool (SRT). Data were collected on all hospital-onset COVID-19 infections (HOCIs; detected ≥48 hr from admission). The impact of the sequencing intervention on IPC knowledge and actions, and on the incidence of probable/definite hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), was evaluated. Results: A total of 2170 HOCI cases were recorded from October 2020 to April 2021, corresponding to a period of extreme strain on the health service, with sequence reports returned for 650/1320 (49.2%) during intervention phases. We did not detect a statistically significant change in weekly incidence of HAIs in longer-turnaround (incidence rate ratio 1.60, 95% CI 0.85-3.01; p=0.14) or rapid (0.85, 0.48-1.50; p=0.54) intervention phases compared to baseline phase. However, IPC practice was changed in 7.8 and 7.4% of all HOCI cases in rapid and longer-turnaround phases, respectively, and 17.2 and 11.6% of cases where the report was returned. In a 'per-protocol' sensitivity analysis, there was an impact on IPC actions in 20.7% of HOCI cases when the SRT report was returned within 5 days. Capacity to respond effectively to insights from sequencing was breached in most sites by the volume of cases and limited resources. Conclusions: While we did not demonstrate a direct impact of sequencing on the incidence of nosocomial transmission, our results suggest that sequencing can inform IPC response to HOCIs, particularly when returned within 5 days. Funding: COG-UK is supported by funding from the Medical Research Council (MRC) part of UK Research & Innovation (UKRI), the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) (grant code: MC_PC_19027), and Genome Research Limited, operating as the Wellcome Sanger Institute. Clinical trial number: NCT04405934.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecção Hospitalar , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Hospitais
4.
Glob Heart ; 17(1): 40, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217353

RESUMO

Background and aims: Limited data exist on the cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 from low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to describe cardiovascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in low, lower-middle, upper-middle- and high-income countries (LIC, LMIC, UMIC, HIC). Methods: Through a prospective cohort study, data on demographics and pre-existing conditions at hospital admission, clinical outcomes at hospital discharge (death, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), renal failure, neurological events, and pulmonary outcomes), 30-day vital status, and re-hospitalization were collected. Descriptive analyses and multivariable log-binomial regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity/income groups, and clinical characteristics, were performed. Results: Forty hospitals from 23 countries recruited 5,313 patients with COVID-19 (LIC = 7.1%, LMIC = 47.5%, UMIC = 19.6%, HIC = 25.7%). Mean age was 57.0 (±16.1) years, male 59.4%, pre-existing conditions included: hypertension 47.3%, diabetes 32.0%, coronary heart disease 10.9%, and heart failure 5.5%. The most frequently reported cardiovascular discharge diagnoses were cardiac arrest (5.5%), acute heart failure (3.8%), and myocardial infarction (1.6%). The rate of in-hospital deaths was 12.9% (N = 683), and post-discharge 30 days deaths was 2.6% (N = 118) (overall death rate 15.1%). The most common causes of death were respiratory failure (39.3%) and sudden cardiac death (20.0%). The predictors of overall mortality included older age (≥60 years), male sex, pre-existing coronary heart disease, renal disease, diabetes, ICU admission, oxygen therapy, and higher respiratory rates (p < 0.001 for each). Compared to Caucasians, Asians, Blacks, and Hispanics had almost 2-4 times higher risk of death. Further, patients from LIC, LMIC, UMIC versus. HIC had 2-3 times increased risk of death. Conclusions: The LIC, LMIC, and UMIC's have sparse data on COVID-19. We provide robust evidence on COVID-19 outcomes in these countries. This study can help guide future health care planning for the pandemic globally.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Assistência ao Convalescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Br J Gen Pract ; 72(720): e456-e463, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early evidence has shown that anticoagulant reduces the risk of thrombotic events in those infected with COVID-19. However, evidence of the role of routinely prescribed oral anticoagulants (OACs) in COVID-19 outcomes is limited. AIM: To investigate the association between OACs and COVID-19 outcomes in those with atrial fibrillation and a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2. DESIGN AND SETTING: On behalf of NHS England, a population-based cohort study was conducted. METHOD: The study used primary care data and pseudonymously-linked SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing data, hospital admissions, and death records from England. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for COVID-19 outcomes comparing people with current OAC use versus non-use, accounting for age, sex, comorbidities, other medications, deprivation, and general practice. RESULTS: Of 71 103 people with atrial fibrillation and a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2, there were 52 832 current OAC users and 18 271 non-users. No difference in risk of being tested for SARS-CoV-2 was associated with current use (adjusted HR [aHR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95 to 1.04) versus non-use. A lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (aHR 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.95) and a marginally lower risk of COVID-19-related death (aHR, 0.74, 95% CI = 0.53 to 1.04) were associated with current use versus non-use. CONCLUSION: Among those at low baseline stroke risk, people receiving OACs had a lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and severe COVID-19 outcomes than non-users; this might be explained by a causal effect of OACs in preventing severe COVID-19 outcomes or unmeasured confounding, including more cautious behaviours leading to reduced infection risk.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , COVID-19 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
6.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1605211, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215482

RESUMO

Objective: Social distancing has been confirmed to reduce the incidence of not only the COVID-19, but also the incidence of other diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of social distancing policies on the incidence of infectious eye diseases by monitoring their nationwide incidence data in all age groups. Methods: In this study, to analyse the impact of COVID-19 policy on IEDSC, the time periods were divided into two interventions. The first intervention was the first COVID-19 patient report in Korea on 19 January 2020. The second intervention was relaxation of the social distancing policy on 6 May 2020. Segmented regression analysis of the interrupted time series was used to assess COVID-19 policies on the IEDSC. Results: After the first incidence of a COVID-19 patient, IEDSCs decreased significantly in all age groups, while the relaxation of the social distancing policy increased IEDSCs significantly, mostly in all groups. Conclusion: In the post-COVID-19 era, we hope that national-level interventions such as reducing air pollution and employing precautionary measures will significantly reduce the financial burden of developing infectious ophthalmic diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Oftalmopatias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Incidência , SARS-CoV-2 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272609, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a substantial decline in in-person care in inpatient and outpatient settings during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Avoidance of needed in-person care may contribute to an avoidable decline in patient health and an increase in mortality. While several systems and behavioral theories have been put forward to explain the decline, there is a lack of studies informed by patients' own experiences. The current study applied a socio-ecological model encompassing patient, environmental, and institutional-related variables to examine patient-reported factors associated with avoidance of in-person care. METHODS: Between October and December 2020, a total of 3840 persons responded to a nationwide online questionnaire that was administered using ResearchMatch and Facebook. Self-reported avoidance of in-person care among those who needed it was the main outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with avoidance of needed care. FINDINGS: Out of a total of 3372 respondents who reported that they needed in-person care during the early phase of the pandemic, 257 (7.6%) avoided it. Patient-related variables associated with avoiding needed care included younger age (odds ratio (OR), 1.46, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.94, p<0.01; <45 y/o vs 45+), inability to afford care (OR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.34, p<0.01), and greater COVID-related stress (OR = 1.36, CI 1.01 to 1.83, p<0.05). More frequent discussions about COVID with family and friends was the only significant environment-related avoidance of care variable (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.91, p < .05). Institution-related care avoidance variables included a negative patient healthcare experience rating (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.42, p<0.001), poor awareness of the institution's safety protocol (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.51, p<0.01), and low ratings of the institution's effectiveness in communicating their safety protocol (OR = 3.45, 95% CI 1.94 to 6.12, p<0.001). The final model predicted 11.9% of the variance in care avoidance. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that care avoidance of in-person care during the initial phase of the pandemic was influenced by a patient's demographics as well as environmental and healthcare institutional factors. Patients' previous experiences and their awareness of healthcare systems' safety protocols are important factors in care avoidance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Pandemias , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
8.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 243, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the vaccines against COVID-19 are highly effective, COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough is possible despite being fully vaccinated. With SARS-CoV-2 variants still circulating, describing the characteristics of individuals who have experienced COVID-19 vaccine breakthroughs could be hugely important in helping to determine who may be at greatest risk. METHODS: With the approval of NHS England, we conducted a retrospective cohort study using routine clinical data from the OpenSAFELY-TPP database of fully vaccinated individuals, linked to secondary care and death registry data and described the characteristics of those experiencing COVID-19 vaccine breakthroughs. RESULTS: As of 1st November 2021, a total of 15,501,550 individuals were identified as being fully vaccinated against COVID-19, with a median follow-up time of 149 days (IQR: ​107-179). From within this population, a total of 579,780 (<4%) individuals reported a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. For every 1000 years of patient follow-up time, the corresponding incidence rate (IR) was 98.06 (95% CI 97.93-98.19). There were 28,580 COVID-19-related hospital admissions, 1980 COVID-19-related critical care admissions and 6435 COVID-19-related deaths; corresponding IRs 4.77 (95% CI 4.74-4.80), 0.33 (95% CI 0.32-0.34) and 1.07 (95% CI 1.06-1.09), respectively. The highest rates of breakthrough COVID-19 were seen in those in care homes and in patients with chronic kidney disease, dialysis, transplant, haematological malignancy or who were immunocompromised. CONCLUSIONS: While the majority of COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough cases in England were mild, some differences in rates of breakthrough cases have been identified in several clinical groups. While it is important to note that these findings are simply descriptive and cannot be used to answer why certain groups have higher rates of COVID-19 breakthrough than others, the emergence of the Omicron variant of COVID-19 coupled with the number of positive SARS-CoV-2 tests still occurring is concerning and as numbers of fully vaccinated (and boosted) individuals increases and as follow-up time lengthens, so too will the number of COVID-19 breakthrough cases. Additional analyses, to assess vaccine waning and rates of breakthrough COVID-19 between different variants, aimed at identifying individuals at higher risk, are needed.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Varicela , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
9.
BMJ ; 377: e070102, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the change in odds of covid-19 over time following primary series completion of the inactivated whole virus vaccine CoronaVac (Sinovac Biotech) in São Paulo State, Brazil. DESIGN: Test negative case-control study. SETTING: Community testing for covid-19 in São Paulo State, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged ≥18 years who were residents of São Paulo state, had received two doses of CoronaVac, did not have a laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection before vaccination, and underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 from 17 January to 14 December 2021. Cases were matched to test negative controls by age (in 5 year bands), municipality of residence, healthcare worker status, and epidemiological week of RT-PCR test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: RT-PCR confirmed symptomatic covid-19 and associated hospital admissions and deaths. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for sex, number of covid-19 associated comorbidities, race, and previous acute respiratory illness. RESULTS: From 202 741 eligible people, 52 170 cases with symptomatic covid-19 and 69 115 test negative controls with covid-19 symptoms were formed into 43 257 matched sets. Adjusted odds ratios of symptomatic covid-19 increased with time since completion of the vaccination series. The increase in odds was greater in younger people and among healthcare workers, although sensitivity analyses suggested that this was in part due to bias. In addition, the adjusted odds ratios of covid-19 related hospital admission or death significantly increased with time compared with the odds 14-41 days after series completion: from 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.51) at 70-97 days up to 1.94 (1.41 to 2.67) from 182 days onwards. CONCLUSIONS: Significant increases in the risk of moderate and severe covid-19 outcomes occurred three months after primary vaccination with CoronaVac among people aged 65 and older. These findings provide supportive evidence for the implementation of vaccine boosters in these populations who received this inactivated vaccine. Studies of waning should include analyses designed to uncover common biases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
11.
Lancet ; 400(10350): 452-461, 2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2211742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients often report various symptoms after recovery from acute COVID-19. Previous studies on post-COVID-19 condition have not corrected for the prevalence and severity of these common symptoms before COVID-19 and in populations without SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to analyse the nature, prevalence, and severity of long-term symptoms related to COVID-19, while correcting for symptoms present before SARS-CoV-2 infection and controlling for the symptom dynamics in the population without infection. METHODS: This study is based on data collected within Lifelines, a multidisciplinary, prospective, population-based, observational cohort study examining the health and health-related behaviours of people living in the north of the Netherlands. All Lifelines participants aged 18 years or older received invitations to digital COVID-19 questionnaires. Longitudinal dynamics of 23 somatic symptoms surrounding COVID-19 diagnoses (due to SARS-CoV-2 alpha [B.1.1.7] variant or previous variants) were assessed using 24 repeated measurements between March 31, 2020, and Aug 2, 2021. Participants with COVID-19 (a positive SARS-CoV-2 test or a physician's diagnosis of COVID-19) were matched by age, sex, and time to COVID-19-negative controls. We recorded symptom severity before and after COVID-19 in participants with COVID-19 and compared that with matched controls. FINDINGS: 76 422 participants (mean age 53·7 years [SD 12·9], 46 329 [60·8%] were female) completed a total of 883 973 questionnaires. Of these, 4231 (5·5%) participants had COVID-19 and were matched to 8462 controls. Persistent symptoms in COVID-19-positive participants at 90-150 days after COVID-19 compared with before COVID-19 and compared with matched controls included chest pain, difficulties with breathing, pain when breathing, painful muscles, ageusia or anosmia, tingling extremities, lump in throat, feeling hot and cold alternately, heavy arms or legs, and general tiredness. In 12·7% of patients, these symptoms could be attributed to COVID-19, as 381 (21·4%) of 1782 COVID-19-positive participants versus 361 (8·7%) of 4130 COVID-19-negative controls had at least one of these core symptoms substantially increased to at least moderate severity at 90-150 days after COVID-19 diagnosis or matched timepoint. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the nature and prevalence of post-COVID-19 condition, while correcting for individual symptoms present before COVID-19 and the symptom dynamics in the population without SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic. Further research that distinguishes potential mechanisms driving post-COVID-19-related symptomatology is required. FUNDING: ZonMw; Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport; Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs; University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen; Provinces of Drenthe, Friesland, and Groningen.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 843: 157101, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2211383

RESUMO

Wastewater-based epidemiology has attracted attention as a COVID-19 surveillance tool. Here, we developed a practical method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater (the EPISENS-S method), which employs direct RNA extraction from wastewater pellets formed via low-speed centrifugation. The subsequent multiplex one-step RT-preamplification reaction with forward and reverse primers for SARS-CoV-2 and a reverse primer only for pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) allowed for qPCR quantification of the targets with different abundances in wastewater from the RT-preamplification product. The detection sensitivity of the method was evaluated using wastewater samples seeded with heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 in concentrations of 2.11 × 103 to 2.11 × 106 copies/L. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity of the EPISENS-S method was two orders of magnitude higher than that of the conventional method (PEG precipitation, followed by regular RT-qPCR; PEG-QVR-qPCR). A total of 37 untreated wastewater samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants in Sapporo, Japan when 1.6 to 18 new daily reported cases per 100,000 people were reported in the city (March 4 to July 8, 2021), were examined using the EPISENS-S method to confirm its applicability to municipal wastewater. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was quantified in 92 % (34/37) of the samples via the EPISENS-S method, whereas none of the samples (0/37) was quantifiable via the PEG-QVR-qPCR method. The PMMoV concentrations measured by the EPISENS-S method ranged from 2.60 × 106 to 1.90 × 108 copies/L, and the SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations normalized by PMMoV ranged from 5.71 × 10-6 to 9.51 × 10-4 . The long-term trend of normalized SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration in wastewater was consistent with that of confirmed COVID-19 cases in the city. These results demonstrate that the EPISENS-S method is highly sensitive and suitable for routine COVID-19 wastewater surveillance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
13.
J Healthc Qual Res ; 37(6): 408-414, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2210804

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic caused the cancellation of elective interventions. After the improvement of the epidemiological situation, new models of care were applied in hospitals to restart the programmed surgical activity. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the organizational model established to recover surgical activity during the transition period of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective observational study comparing patients who underwent schedule surgery from September 1 until October 31, 2020, study group, with a control group of the same period of time corresponding to the year 2019 at the General Hospital from the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital. RESULTS: The total population included 1,825 patients, 888 in the study group and 937 in the control group. Global surgical activity decreased 6.43% during the study period compared to the same period in 2019, with a 25.5% decrease in cancer surgeries. Seven patients became infected with SARS-CoV-2 during their hospital stay. In hospital mortality was 0.9% in the study group compared to 0.7% in control group (p=0.8). The survival rate in cancer patients at 90 days was lower in the study group (95.7% vs 98.7%; p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The change in the management model during the transition period of the COVID-19 pandemic allowed the recovery of programmed surgical activity to levels similar to those existing prior to the pandemic with a greater impact on cancer surgery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo de Internação
14.
Can J Psychiatry ; 66(6): 577-585, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The co-occurrence of different classes of population-level stressors, such as social unrest and public health crises, is common in contemporary societies. Yet, few studies explored their combined mental health impact. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of repeated exposure to social unrest-related traumatic events (TEs), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-related events (PEs), and stressful life events (SLEs) on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms, and the potential mediating role of event-based rumination (rumination of TEs-related anger, injustice, guilt, and insecurity) between TEs and PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Community members in Hong Kong who had utilized a screening tool for PTSD and depressive symptoms were invited to complete a survey on exposure to stressful events and event-based rumination. RESULTS: A total of 10,110 individuals completed the survey. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that rumination, TEs, and SLEs were among the significant predictors for PTSD symptoms (all P < 0.001), accounting for 32% of the variance. For depression, rumination, SLEs, and PEs were among the significant predictors (all P < 0.001), explaining 24.9% of the variance. Two-way analysis of variance of different recent and prior TEs showed significant dose-effect relationships. The effect of recent TEs on PTSD symptoms was potentiated by prior TEs (P = 0.005). COVID-19 PEs and prior TEs additively contributed to PTSD symptoms, with no significant interaction (P = 0.94). Meanwhile, recent TEs were also potentiated by SLEs (P = 0.002). The effects of TEs on PTSD symptoms were mediated by rumination (ß = 0.38, standard error = 0.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.36 to 0.41), with 40.4% of the total effect explained. All 4 rumination subtypes were significant mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Prior and ongoing TEs, PEs, and SLEs cumulatively exacerbated PTSD and depressive symptoms. The role of event-based rumination and their interventions should be prioritized for future research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão , Ruminação Cognitiva/classificação , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Saúde Mental , Técnicas Psicológicas , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sociológicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(11): e417-e425, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nonmedical switching (NMS) is a change in a patient's treatment regimen for reasons other than lack of efficacy, intolerance, adverse effects, or poor adherence. We describe the impact of NMS on patients, health care workers, and health systems, focusing on NMS to in-class biologic alternatives in US patients with chronic, immune-mediated rheumatic and dermatologic conditions. Additionally, we evaluate the ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic may exacerbate the physical, psychological, and economic impacts of NMS. STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. METHODS: We performed a search of MEDLINE's PubMed database from October 2015 to October 2020, with a repeat search in October 2021. Search terms included relevant keywords pertaining to NMS, biologics, and disease areas. Results were supplemented by a search of key congress abstracts from 2015 to 2021 and a targeted internet search. RESULTS: NMS increases medication abandonment, errors, and adverse effects, and it can lead to longer patient visits, increased follow-up visits, additional laboratory tests and procedures, and greater overall health care resource utilization (HCRU). The increased HCRU associated with NMS increases patients' financial burden due to additional co-pays and out-of-pocket costs. CONCLUSIONS: The decision to switch treatments should result from shared decision-making between health care providers (HCPs) and patients to achieve the best clinical outcomes and optimal HCRU. The issues related to NMS may be compounded by the financial and psychosocial stress on HCPs and patients created by the COVID-19 pandemic. HCPs should advocate for continuous patient treatment and be familiar with continuity of care legislation, appeals processes, and manufacturer assistance programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Gastos em Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde
17.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(11): 600-604, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206465

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant disruption, then recovery, of health care services use. Prior research has not examined the relative rates of resumption of high-value and low-value care. We examined the use of 6 common low-value services that received a D grade from the US Preventive Services Task Force compared with clinically comparable high-value services in a large commercially insured population nationwide from before the pandemic to April 1, 2021. We found that, overall, low-value services and high-value services were disrupted similarly. In aggregate, low-value care declined to 56.2% and high-value care to 53.2% in the initial month of the pandemic (April 2020) relative to baseline (number of visits in 2019 normalized by relevant enrolled population), then rebounded to 83.1% of baseline for low-value services and 95.0% of baseline for high-value services by January 2021. Substantial heterogeneity appeared across clinical contexts, such as prostate cancer screening for men 70 years and older rebounding to 111.8% of baseline and asymptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening remaining at 38.5% of baseline in January 2021. This suggests that although, on average, resuming lower-value services may have been perceived to be a lesser priority by providers and patients, the pandemic may have had heterogeneous effects on consumer and provider decision-making along the dimension of clinical value. This enhances our understanding of how disruptions affect the relationship between clinical value and usage of different services and suggests the need for more targeted interventions to reduce low-value care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos
19.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(5, sept-oct): 522-529, 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204880

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Presentar el diseño de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut) 2022 y cuantificar el avance de la Ensanut Continua 2020-2024. Material y métodos. La Ensanut 2022 es la tercera encuesta de la serie de en-cuestas denominada Ensanut Continua 2020-2024. En este documento se describe el alcance de la Ensanut 2022 y sus procedimientos de muestreo, medición y organización logís-tica. Además, se presenta el avance esperado de la Ensanut Continua 2020-2024 al concluir la Ensanut 2022. Resulta-dos. La Ensanut 2022 obtendrá, a nivel nacional, al menos 10 160 entrevistas completas de hogar y 9 441 resultados de seropositividad a SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONES: La Ensanut 2022 estimará la prevalencia de seropositividad a SARS-CoV-2 a nivel nacional y regional y avanzará en la acumulación de información para alcanzar los objetivos de la Ensanut Con-tinua 2020-2024.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(4, jul-ago): 342-343, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204870
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