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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 760288, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488433

RESUMO

Both age and obesity are leading risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Specifically, although most infections occur in individuals under the age of 55 years, 95% of hospitalizations, admissions to the intensive care unit, and deaths occur in those over the age of 55 years. Moreover, hospitalized COVID-19 patients have a higher prevalence of obesity. It is generally believed that chronic low-grade inflammation and dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses that are associated with aging and obesity are responsible for this elevated risk of severe disease. However, the impact of advanced age and obesity on the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection remains poorly defined. In this study, we assessed changes in the concentration of soluble immune mediators, IgG antibody titers, frequency of circulating immune cells, and cytokine responses to mitogen stimulation as a function of BMI and age. We detected significant negative correlations between BMI and myeloid immune cell subsets that were more pronounced in aged patients. Similarly, inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes was also negatively correlated with BMI in aged patients. These data suggest that the BMI-dependent impact on host response to SARS-CoV-2 is more pronounced on innate responses of aged patients.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cell Rep ; 37(5): 109942, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471904

RESUMO

Anti-viral monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatments may provide immediate but short-term immunity from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in high-risk populations, such as people with diabetes and the elderly; however, data on their efficacy in these populations are limited. We demonstrate that prophylactic mAb treatment blocks viral replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts in aged, type 2 diabetic rhesus macaques. mAb infusion dramatically curtails severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-mediated stimulation of interferon-induced chemokines and T cell activation, significantly reducing development of interstitial pneumonia. Furthermore, mAb infusion significantly dampens the greater than 3-fold increase in SARS-CoV-2-induced effector CD4 T cell influx into the cerebrospinal fluid. Our data show that neutralizing mAbs administered preventatively to high-risk populations may mitigate the adverse inflammatory consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/líquido cefalorraquidiano , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Complicações do Diabetes/imunologia , Complicações do Diabetes/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Neurite (Inflamação)/imunologia , Neurite (Inflamação)/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia
4.
J Exp Med ; 218(5)2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387678

RESUMO

Christos Kyratsous, Vice President of Research, Infectious Diseases, and Viral Vector Technologies at Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, and Alina Baum, Associate Director, Infectious Diseases Associate at Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, discuss the development of antibody therapeutics targeting the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunização Passiva
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720090, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374235

RESUMO

Male sex and old age are risk factors for COVID-19 severity, but the underlying causes are unknown. A possible explanation for this might be the differences in immunological profiles in males and the elderly before the infection. With this in mind, we analyzed the abundance of circulating proteins and immune populations associated with severe COVID-19 in 2 healthy cohorts. Besides, given the seasonal profile of COVID-19, the seasonal response against SARS-CoV-2 could also be different in the elderly and males. Therefore, PBMCs of female, male, young, and old subjects in different seasons of the year were stimulated with heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 to investigate the season-dependent anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response. We found that several T cell subsets, which are known to be depleted in severe COVID-19 patients, were intrinsically less abundant in men and older individuals. Plasma proteins increasing with disease severity, including HGF, IL-8, and MCP-1, were more abundant in the elderly and males. Upon in vitro SARS-CoV-2 stimulation, the elderly produced significantly more IL-1RA and had a dysregulated IFNγ response with lower production in the fall compared with young individuals. Our results suggest that the immune characteristics of severe COVID-19, described by a differential abundance of immune cells and circulating inflammatory proteins, are intrinsically present in healthy men and the elderly. This might explain the susceptibility of men and the elderly to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Fatores Imunológicos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(15): 19920-19941, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355316

RESUMO

Immunosenescence is a multi-faceted phenomenon at the root of age-associated immune dysfunction. It can lead to an array of pathological conditions, including but not limited to a decreased capability to surveil and clear senescent cells (SnCs) and cancerous cells, an increased autoimmune responses leading to tissue damage, a reduced ability to tackle pathogens, and a decreased competence to illicit a robust response to vaccination. Cellular senescence is a phenomenon by which oncogene-activated, stressed or damaged cells undergo a stable cell cycle arrest. Failure to efficiently clear SnCs results in their accumulation in an organism as it ages. SnCs actively secrete a myriad of molecules, collectively called senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which are factors that cause dysfunction in the neighboring tissue. Though both cellular senescence and immunosenescence have been studied extensively and implicated in various pathologies, their relationship has not been greatly explored. In the wake of an ongoing pandemic (COVID-19) that disproportionately affects the elderly, immunosenescence as a function of age has become a topic of great importance. The goal of this review is to explore the role of cellular senescence in age-associated lymphoid organ dysfunction and immunosenescence, and provide a framework to explore therapies to rejuvenate the aged immune system.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Imunossenescência , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos
7.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355052

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a global pandemic characterized by an exaggerated immune response and respiratory illness. Age (>60 years) is a significant risk factor for developing severe COVID-19. To better understand the host response of the aged airway epithelium to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we performed an in vitro study using primary human bronchial epithelial cells from donors >67 years of age differentiated on an air-liquid interface culture. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to early induction of a proinflammatory response and a delayed interferon response. In addition, we observed changes in the genes and pathways associated with cell death and senescence throughout infection. In summary, our study provides new and important insights into the temporal kinetics of the airway epithelial innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in older individuals.


Assuntos
Brônquios/imunologia , Brônquios/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , Morte Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Senescência Celular/genética , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/genética , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Interferons/biossíntese , Interferons/genética , Masculino , RNA-Seq , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690534, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348488

RESUMO

High quality medical assistance and preventive strategies, including pursuing a healthy lifestyle, result in a progressively growing percentage of older people. The population and workforce is aging in all countries of the world. It is widely recognized that older individuals show an increased susceptibility to infections and a reduced response to vaccination suggesting that the aged immune system is less able to react and consequently protect the organism. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is dramatically showing us that the organism reacts to novel pathogens in an age-dependent manner. The decline of the immune system observed in aging remains unclear. We aimed to understand the role of B cells. We analyzed peripheral blood from children (4-18 years); young people (23-60 years) and elderly people (65-91 years) by flow cytometry. We also measured antibody secretion by ELISA following a T-independent stimulation. Here we show that the elderly have a significant reduction of CD27dull memory B cells, a population that bridges innate and adaptive immune functions. In older people, memory B cells are mostly high specialized antigen-selected CD27bright. Moreover, after in vitro stimulation with CpG, B cells from older individuals produced significantly fewer IgM and IgA antibodies compared to younger individuals. Aging is a complex process characterized by a functional decline in multiple physiological systems. The immune system of older people is well equipped to react to often encountered antigens but has a low ability to respond to new pathogens.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , COVID-19 , Memória Imunológica , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 693054, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334935

RESUMO

Advanced age is associated with severe symptoms and death upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses have shown to be protective toward critical COVID-19 manifestations, suggesting that suboptimal cellular immunity may contribute to the age-pattern of the disease. The induction of a CD8+ T-cell response against an emerging pathogen like SARS-CoV-2 relies on the activation of naive T cells. To investigate whether the primary CD8+ T-cell response against this virus is defective in advanced age, we used an in vitro approach to prime SARS-CoV-2-specific naive CD8+ T cells from healthy, unexposed donors of different age groups. Compared to younger adults, older individuals display a poor SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell priming capacity in terms of both magnitude and quality of the response. In addition, older subjects recognize a lower number of epitopes. Our results implicate that immune aging is associated with altered primary SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T-cell responses.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , ELISPOT , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 701085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332120

RESUMO

COVID-19 disease outcome is highly dependent on adaptive immunity from T and B lymphocytes, which play a critical role in the control, clearance and long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2. To date, there is limited knowledge on the composition of the T and B cell immune receptor repertoires [T cell receptors (TCRs) and B cell receptors (BCRs)] and transcriptomes in convalescent COVID-19 patients of different age groups. Here, we utilize single-cell sequencing (scSeq) of lymphocyte immune repertoires and transcriptomes to quantitatively profile the adaptive immune response in COVID-19 patients of varying age. We discovered highly expanded T and B cells in multiple patients, with the most expanded clonotypes coming from the effector CD8+ T cell population. Highly expanded CD8+ and CD4+ T cell clones show elevated markers of cytotoxicity (CD8: PRF1, GZMH, GNLY; CD4: GZMA), whereas clonally expanded B cells show markers of transition into the plasma cell state and activation across patients. By comparing young and old convalescent COVID-19 patients (mean ages = 31 and 66.8 years, respectively), we found that clonally expanded B cells in young patients were predominantly of the IgA isotype and their BCRs had incurred higher levels of somatic hypermutation than elderly patients. In conclusion, our scSeq analysis defines the adaptive immune repertoire and transcriptome in convalescent COVID-19 patients and shows important age-related differences implicated in immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Convalescença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314554

RESUMO

Immunosenescence is a process associated with aging that leads to dysregulation of cells of innate and adaptive immunity, which may become dysfunctional. Consequently, older adults show increased severity of viral and bacterial infections and impaired responses to vaccinations. A better understanding of the process of immunosenescence will aid the development of novel strategies to boost the immune system in older adults. In this review, we focus on major alterations of the immune system triggered by aging, and address the effect of chronic viral infections, effectiveness of vaccination of older adults and strategies to improve immune function in this vulnerable age group.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade , Viroses/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Fatores Etários , Animais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Viroses/terapia , Viroses/virologia
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 685344, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295638

RESUMO

Vaccination is the best prophylaxis for the prevention of infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019. However, the efficacy of vaccines and onset of adverse reactions vary among individuals. Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) regulate the immune responses after vaccination by delivering microRNAs (miRNAs) to myeloid and lymphoid cells. Among these, miR-192 levels in serum EVs increase with aging, in an IL-6-dependent manner, reducing excessive IL-6 expression in aged mice, creating a negative feedback loop. Excessive IL-6 expression reduces vaccination efficacy in aged mice, while EV miR-192 improves efficacy in these aged mice as well, making this miRNA an interesting focus of study. miR-21 levels in serum EVs also increase with aging, and regulates the expression of IL-12 required for Th1 responses; therefore, EV miR-21 is expected to regulate vaccine efficacy. miR-451a, another important miRNA, is abundant in serum EVs and controls the expression of cytokines, such as type I interferon and IL-6. However, levels differ among individuals and correlate with local inflammatory symptoms experienced after a seasonal flu vaccination. These findings suggest the importance of EV miRNAs as a tool to improve vaccine efficacy and also as biomarkers to predict the immune response and adverse reactions after vaccinations.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , MicroRNAs/sangue , Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/biossíntese , Subunidade p35 da Interleucina-12/biossíntese , Subunidade p35 da Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Vacinação
15.
Nature ; 596(7872): 417-422, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287811

RESUMO

Although two-dose mRNA vaccination provides excellent protection against SARS-CoV-2, there is little information about vaccine efficacy against variants of concern (VOC) in individuals above eighty years of age1. Here we analysed immune responses following vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine2 in elderly participants and younger healthcare workers. Serum neutralization and levels of binding IgG or IgA after the first vaccine dose were lower in older individuals, with a marked drop in participants over eighty years old. Sera from participants above eighty showed lower neutralization potency against the B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta) and P.1. (Gamma) VOC than against the wild-type virus and were more likely to lack any neutralization against VOC following the first dose. However, following the second dose, neutralization against VOC was detectable regardless of age. The frequency of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific memory B cells was higher in elderly responders (whose serum showed neutralization activity) than in non-responders after the first dose. Elderly participants showed a clear reduction in somatic hypermutation of class-switched cells. The production of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 by SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific T cells was lower in older participants, and both cytokines were secreted primarily by CD4 T cells. We conclude that the elderly are a high-risk population and that specific measures to boost vaccine responses in this population are warranted, particularly where variants of concern are circulating.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Imunidade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Imunização Secundária , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Switching de Imunoglobulina , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipermutação Somática de Imunoglobulina , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(7): 753-762, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265532

RESUMO

The Human Immunomics Initiative (HII), a joint project between the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the Human Vaccines Project (HVP), focuses on studying immunity and the predictability of immuneresponsiveness to vaccines in aging populations. This paper describes the hypotheses and methodological approaches of this new collaborative initiative. Central to our thinking is the idea that predictors of age-related non-communicable diseases are the same as predictors for infectious diseases like COVID-19 and influenza. Fundamental to our approach is to differentiate between chronological, biological and immune age, and to use existing large-scale population cohorts. The latter provide well-typed phenotypic data on individuals' health status over time, readouts of routine clinical biochemical biomarkers to determine biological age, and bio-banked plasma samples to deep phenotype humoral immune responses as biomarkers of immune age. The first phase of the program involves 1. the exploration of biological age, humoral biomarkers of immune age, and genetics in a large multigenerational cohort, and 2. the subsequent development of models of immunity in relation to health status in a second, prospective cohort of an aging population. In the second phase, vaccine responses and efficacy of licensed COVID-19 vaccines in the presence and absence of influenza-, pneumococcal- and pertussis vaccines routinely offered to elderly, will be studied in older aged participants of prospective population-based cohorts in different geographical locations who will be selected for representing distinct biological and immune ages. The HII research program is aimed at relating vaccine responsiveness to biological and immune age, and identifying aging-related pathways crucial to enhance vaccine effectiveness in aging populations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
18.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(4): 340-345, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261063

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Drug allergy management has previously not been emphasized in the elderly. However, the geriatric population poses several unique characteristics, challenges for drug allergy testing and considerations in the management. Especially in the era of COVID-19, the elderly population is a vulnerable cohort and reviewing the management during this unprecedented time is both timely and relevant. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, larger scale studies focusing on the epidemiology and prevalence trends of drug allergies among older adults has been summarized in this review. Emphasis on anaphylaxis in the older adults has been studied. SUMMARY: There are many implications of these findings. Epidemiological studies are useful in realizing the burden and spectrum of drug allergies on our healthcare system. It has allowed us to identify certain barriers in drug allergy management and develop ways to overcome these challenges through. Lastly, we have proposed an approach to drug allergy management based on previous studies as well as from our perspective and local experience.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/terapia , Carga Global da Doença , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia , Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
19.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259430

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) gave rise to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A strong correlation has been demonstrated between worse COVID-19 outcomes, aging, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is primarily derived from obesity-induced systemic chronic low-grade inflammation with numerous complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The majority of COVID-19 deaths occurs in people over the age of 65. Individuals with MetS are inclined to manifest adverse disease consequences and mortality from COVID-19. In this review, we examine the prevalence and molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced risk of COVID-19 in elderly people and individuals with MetS. Subsequently, we discuss current progresses in treating COVID-19, including the development of new COVID-19 vaccines and antivirals, towards goals to elaborate prophylactic and therapeutic treatment options in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Quimioprevenção/tendências , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Quimioprevenção/métodos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Populações Vulneráveis
20.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211022262, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259152

RESUMO

In COVID-19 disease, are reported gender differences in relation to severity and death. The aim of this review is to highlight gender differences in the immune response to COVID-19. The included studies were identified using PubMed, until 30 October 2020. The search included the following keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, gender, age, sex, and immune system. Literature described that females compared to males have greater inflammatory, antiviral, and humoral immune responses. In female, estrogen is a potential ally to alleviate SARS-COV-2 disease. In male, testosterone reduces vaccination response and depresses the cytokine response. In the older patients, and in particular, in female older patients, it has been reported a progressive functional decline in the immune systems. Differences by gender were reported in infection diseases, including SARS-CoV-2. These data should be confirmed by the other epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Imunidade/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Testosterona/metabolismo , Vacinação
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