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1.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 490-521, 2022.
Artigo | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101976

RESUMO

The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections provided a rich source of new data and comprehensive reviews on antiviral therapy. For COVID-19, intramuscular sotrovimab was noninferior to intravenous sotrovimab, serostatus did not predict the efficacy of sotrovimab, and molnupiravir appeared safe and modestly effective in decreasing hospitalization rates. Trials from low- and middle-income countries provided data to support transitioning those on first-line therapy with or without virologic suppression and those virologically suppressed on second-line therapy to dolutegravir-based regimens. Additional data supported the use of lenacapavir as a long-acting antiretroviral drug. Data across the United States demonstrate the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the HIV care continuum, although enhanced outreach efforts and decentralization of antiretroviral therapy delivery were associated with improvements in care engagement outcomes. Researchers described potential mechanisms for the emergence of integrase strand transfer inhibitor resistance. Studies on proviral genotyping high-lighted the limitations of its use in predicting clinically significant resistance. Several studies looked at the epidemiology and treatment of hepatitis C and B and the status of current hepatitis C virus elimination efforts. Data presented on HIV, COVID-19, and maternal and pediatric health included 2-year virologic outcome data of very early antiretroviral therapy in potentially reducing the latent HIV reservoir in infants with HIV. Data presented on COVID-19 and HIV therapeutics in children included SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in children younger than 12 years of age, remdesivir in hospitalized infants and children, and long-acting therapies for HIV treatment in children.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Hepatite Viral Humana , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Latência Viral , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico
2.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon ; 44(1): 93, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101833

RESUMO

SUMMARY: To the editor, during these pandemic years, COVID-19 is taking away focus from other respiratory diseases such as pneumoconiosis, which should not be overlooked. We would like to emphasize the possible role of small airways in subjects with asbestos exposure. In a very interesting study, Yang et al (1) investigated the relation between increased small airway obstruction and asbestos exposure in patients with asbestosis. The authors evaluated lung function in a cohort of 281 patients with newly diagnosed asbestosis during an eight-year period, evidencing that patients with asbestosis have small airway obstructive defects that are significantly associated with asbestos exposure (1). These results are very consistent and in line with our previous study, in which we showed that a population of 655 long-term residents in an environmental asbestos (tremolite)-exposed area had a higher prevalence of smallairways disease compared to a group of 653 individuals living in areas not tremolite-exposed (2). Odds Ratio for small-airways obstruction was 3.46, irrespective of smoking status (2). To date, our knowledge on the role of small airways in pulmonary diseases is still matter of debate. Although small airways have a minor contribution to airway resistance in healthy subjects, it has been shown that small airways are the major site of airflow limitation in diseases such as asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (3). Taken these data together, we warmly encourage clinicians and researchers to always consider small airways parameters when performing lung function on asbestosexposed subjects. Moreover, long-term investigations are warranted to explore the decline in airflow over time in patients with either occupational or environmental asbestos exposure and with asbestosis.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Amianto , Asbestose , COVID-19 , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Asbestose/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Amianto/efeitos adversos , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
3.
Psychopharmacol Bull ; 52(4): 8-30, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101824

RESUMO

Objective: In a phase 2 study, pimavanserin demonstrated efficacy as adjunctive treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Subsequently, two phase 3 studies (NCT03968159 in the US; NCT03999918 in Europe) were initiated to examine the efficacy and safety of adjunctive pimavanserin in subjects with MDD and inadequate response to antidepressant treatment. Studies were combined with a prespecified statistical analysis plan owing to recruitment challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Experimental design: The randomized, double-blind studies enrolled 298 patients with MDD and inadequate response to current antidepressants. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to pimavanserin or placebo added to current antidepressant for 6 weeks. Primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 5 in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 17-item version (HAM-D-17). Principal observations: There was no effect of pimavanserin in change from baseline to week 5 in the HAM-D-17 (pimavanserin [n = 138]: least-squares mean [LSM] [standard error {SE}], -9.0 [0.58]; placebo [n = 135]: -8.1 [0.58]; mixed-effects model for repeated measures LSM [SE] difference, -0.9 [0.82], P = 0.2956). Nominal improvement with pimavanserin was observed on 2 secondary endpoints: Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 58.1% of pimavanserin-treated and 54.7% of placebo-treated patients. Conclusions: Adjunctive pimavanserin did not significantly improve depressive symptoms, although pimavanserin was well tolerated.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Pandemias , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon ; 44(1): 32-40, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101747

RESUMO

SUMMARY: SARS-CoV-2-related infection can determine hospital-acquired infections among patients and healthcare workers. Aim of this paper was to review the literature for developing a strategy for protecting healthcare workers, patients, and visitors by COVID-19 hospital infection. A critical and rapid revision of the literature and international standards and Regulations on this topic allowed us to propose an evidencebased strategy in the framework of the workplace risk assessment for preventing nosocomial COVID-19 outbreaks. The virus' high transmissibility, the high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers and false-negative Covid-19 rates on naso- and oropharingeal swabs, put hospitals at high-risk of COVID-19 outbreaks. A comprehensive strategy based on standard precautions, administrative, environmental, and engineering controls, a screening protocol for patients on their admission to hospital, and a testing-based strategy for HCWs within health surveillance programs may prevent the onset of hospital outbreaks, which are a threat to community, patients and HCWs, compromising the sustainability of healthcare facilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais
5.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(2): 426-453, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101695

RESUMO

At the 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, several speakers discussed disparities in HIV and COVID-19 infections and outcomes. Although the lifetime risk of HIV infection in the United States is higher overall in males than females, Black females have higher risk than White males. In 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, women aged 15 to 34 years accounted for more than half of all infections. Because knowledge of HIV serostatus is important for treatment and for prevention, several novel strategies were evaluated in the distribution of HIV self-test kits to undertested populations in the United States and sub-Saharan Africa. Data were presented on new products in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) pipeline, including long-acting injectable cabotegravir, islatravir, vaginal rings, and in-situ forming implants. Challenges remain in the rollout of oral PrEP, and a number of innovative strategies to address barriers were discussed. Models suggest that the greatest impact of novel PrEP agents would be to increase the pool of persons using PrEP, rather than through improved efficacy. COVID-19 caused substantial declines in HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention and treatment services, which have started to rebound, but are not yet at prepandemic levels in several settings.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico
6.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 475-489, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101547

RESUMO

The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections featured new and important findings about the neurologic complications of HIV-1, COVID-19, and other infections. Long-term analyses identified that cognitive decline over time, phenotypic aging, and stroke are associated with various comorbidities in people with HIV. Neuroimaging studies showed greater neuroinflammation, white matter damage, demyelination, and overall brain aging in people with chronic HIV infection. Childhood trauma and exposure to environmental pollutants contribute to these neuroimaging findings. Studies of blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers showed that systemic inflammation, neurodegeneration, endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and iron dysregulation are associated with worse cognition in people with HIV. Some animal studies focused on myeloid cells of the central nervous system, but other animal and human studies showed that lymphoid cells also contribute to HIV neuropathogenesis. The deleterious central nervous system effects of polypharmacy and anticholinergic drugs in people with HIV were demonstrated. In contrast, a large randomized controlled trial showed that integrase strand transfer inhibitor therapy was not associated with neurotoxicity. Studies of cryptococcal meningitis demonstrated he cost-effectiveness of single high-dose liposomal amphotericin and the prognostic value of the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay. People hospitalized with COVID-19 had more anxiety over time after discharge. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen is present in cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of viral RNA. Systemic inflammation, astrocyte activation, and tryptophan metabolism pathways are associated with post-COVID-19 neurologic syndromes. Whether these processes are independent or intertwined during HIV-1 and COVID-19 infections requires further study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Masculino , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complicações , Inflamação
7.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39 Suppl 130(3): 72-77, 2021.
Artigo | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a complex disease that is mainly characterised by chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances and may be precipitated or worsened by many stressors. The aim of this study was to observe the behaviour of FM symptoms during the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Patients who had been diagnosed as having FM for ≥3 months were recruited between February and May 2020. The collected data were age, sex, educational level and marital status; height and weight; and the scores of the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), the modified Fibromyalgia Assessment Status 2019 (FASmod), and the Polysymptomatic Distress Scale (PDS). The patients were divided into those with or without concomitant COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Eight hundred and ninety-seven (93%) of the 965 patients (881 women [91.3%] and 84 men [8.7%]) were followed up on an outpatient basis because of FM and 68 (7.0%) were either followed up as out-patients or hospitalised because of COVID-19. There was no difference in the sociodemographic data of the two groups, but there were statistically significant between-group differences in the results of the clinimetric tests. The major differences between the score of the items (those with the greatest disease impact) were the following related symptoms: sleep quality (FIQR15), fatigue/energy (FIQR13), pain (FIQR12), stiffness (FIQR14). CONCLUSIONS: The mean total and subdomain scores of all the tests were significantly higher in the patients with COVID-19, which suggests that global FM symptoms are more severe in patients with infection. Further studies of the post-COVID19 patients are being carried out in order to discover whether the worsened symptomatology continues because of their hypersensitised state.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fibromialgia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Fibromialgia/diagnóstico , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(2): 140-146, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100791

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Denial of Pregnancy is a women's subjective lack of awareness of being pregnant. It can be partial (from 20 weeks but lifted before delivery) or complete (the women notice she's pregnant when labour starts). The prevalence is around 1/500 for partial denial and 1/2500 for complete denial. This article's aim is to review the literature broadly on the subject of pregnancy denial, its psychopathological hypothesis and the state of knowledge on the outcome for mothers and children. METHODS: 26 references have been selected bases on a research on pubmed database and through bibliography on the selected papers. RESULTS: Despite a lot of psychopathological hypothesis and some epidemiological studies, no objective knowledge can lead to know what kind of women will deny their pregnancy and how to prevent it. After all the studies on mother characteristics, it seems there are no "clear-cut" explanations on why a woman denies a pregnancy or what type of women could be at risk of denial. There are no official guidelines on how to manage the condition and care for the patient long term. The first elements of research on the developmental outcome for infant seem to show a delay in psychomotor skills and possible speech disorder. They have been significant advancement on the subject of children development after pregnancy denial in the last year but the psychological and developmental impact of pregnancy denial on children and mothers is still majorly unknown. With a clinical picture known for so long, to have so little objective information on how to manage it and on the possible consequences is surprising. CONCLUSION: More research needs to be conducted to objectively know the long term effects of pregnancy denial on the whole family. International consensus should be found on the definition and care management of pregnancy denial.


Assuntos
Mães , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(1): 107-113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate risk-taking behavior and decision-making processes in recovered COVID-19 patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients recovered from COVID-19 as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests and twenty-one healthy individuals were recruited. A computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT) for measuring risk-taking behavior tendencies as a decision-making process and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and WMS-R Digit Span Forward Test (DSFT) for clinical assessments included. The assessments of the recovered patients were applied on the initial phase that the tests of the patients were negative and on the 4-week follow up phase. RESULTS: The results showed that the anxiety scores were significantly higher in the healthy control group than in the group of recovered patients. The IGT-Net 4 scores were significantly and IGT-Net total scores were marginally significantly lower in the group of recovered patients. In other words, recovered patients showed higher risk-taking behavior tendencies. This tendency difference is consistent with the anxiety levels of the groups. These IGT scores showed to be persistent in the 4-week follow up phase. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that recovered patients show higher risk-taking behavior tendencies than healthy controls and this may be the result of overcoming the COVID-19 threat.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Jogo de Azar , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Iowa , Assunção de Riscos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(1): 18-26, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic mental illness are frequently hospitalized and discharged from psychiatry wards. This situation is referred to as the "revolving door phenomenon" (RDP). In addition to factors related to the patient and the disease, limited number of beds leading to shortened hospital stay are among the reasons associated with frequent hospitalization. This study aims to compare patients with RDP and patients with single hospitalization in terms of clinical, sociodemographic, and treatment-oriented characteristics in order to evaluate the risk factors causing frequent hospitalization. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this study, patients who were admitted and hospitalized between May 1, 2011 - May 1, 2016 were retrospectively evaluated from patient records. The RDP group consisted of 74 patients and the single-hospitalization group consisted of 59 patients who met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: The RDP group had significantly higher rates of male gender, ECT history, past suicide attempts, multiple drug treatment, clozapine use, legal incidents, and noncompliance to follow up following discharge compared to the single-hospitalization group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that Turkey also has RDP patients with characteristics and hospitalization patterns similar to patients in countries with different cultural, social, and economic conditions. It is important to identify and correct factors that cause frequent hospitalization as it will reduce the burden of the health system as well as provide benefit to the patient.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 280-286, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic that endanger the health and enforced social distancing for the whole world. Social distancing may generate stress, anxiety, and depression. Understanding the psychosocial consequences of COVID19 during social distancing may help decision-makers to take suitable decisions that help in increasing awareness. Evaluate the psychosocial consequences of COVID-19 pandemic during the social distancing period and explore the relationship between social media use and psychological stress during COVID-19 outbreak among Najran city population. Research design is descriptive correlational research design. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A snowball sampling technique, was used to recruit participants live in Najran city during the COVID-19 pandemic (1508 participant). RESULTS: A statistically significant differences (P<0.05) are observed between Saudi and non-Saudi participants in all social aspects assessed except for time spent on social media. In addition, a high mean of depression, stress, and anxiety subscale scores are observed in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants with statistically significant differences (p=0.000). As well as high DASS-21 total scores in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants. Also, there are positive statistically significant correlations (≤0.05) between participants' time spent in social media and their depression, stress, anxiety, and total DASS scores during the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study indicate that COVID-19 pandemic generates stress, anxiety and depression among Najran population especially, non-Saudi. This poor psychological condition is exaggerated with prolonged social media use. COVID-19 also has negative impact on social wellbeing and use of social media cannot replace direct contact with friends. The current study results may be utilized to formulate interventions that enhance psychosocial health and resilience during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19 , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 273-279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Turkey is one of the countries affected during the period of COVID-19 outbreak. The purpose of the current study is to investigate psychological resilience and depression in individuals during the period of COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey in relation to different variables. The study also aims to explore the relationship between psychological resilience and depression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study was conducted on a total of 518 people over the social media through the Google e-forms. In the study, the "Short Psychological Resilience Scale" and the "Beck Depression Scale" were used to collect data. In the analysis of the collected data, t-test, One Way Anova, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used. RESULTS: In the current study, psychological resilience and depression were investigated in relation to different variables. Psychological resilience was found to be higher male participants, educators,university graduates and groups with not mental health problems. Depression was found to be higher females, university students, high school and lower graduates,with mental health problems. When the relationship between psychological resilience and depression was investigated, it was found that there is a medium and negative correlation between them. Moreover, the cut-off point for the depression score was set to be 17 and the rate of the people having 17 points or higher scores was found to be 16.6%. CONCLUSION: In light of the findings of the current study, it can be suggested to offer more mental health care services to those having higher levels of depression. Studies can be conducted to improve online psychological support services. A medium and negative correlation was found between psychological resilience and depression in the current study, which shows that more importance should be attached to activities to improve psychological resilience.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 266-272, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of symptoms of fear and depression among general population during the outbreak of COVID-19 seems to present an emerging problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine levels of fear and depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19 outbreak and to assess other contributing factors in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Link to an anonymous questionnaire, mainly based on The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (Ahorsu et al. 2020) and two-item and nine-item Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQs) (Maurer et al. 2018) (background information, fear assessment and information regarding depression) was distributed online to general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. RESULTS: Out of 1201 respondents, 217 (18.0%) reported experiencing fear and 341 (28.4%) reported having symptoms of depression during COVID-19 outbreak. The mean age of the subjects was 30.57±11.26. Being older (OR=1.044; 95% CI 1.031-1.057; p<0.001) and having moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR=1.093; 95% CI 1.067-1.120; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing fear; living in rural environment (OR=0.551; 95% Cl 0.325-0.935; p=0.0027) significantly decreased the risk of developing fear; being female (OR=1.750; 95% CI 1.242-2.466; p=0.001), unemployed (OR=1.557; 95% CI 1.040-2.330; p=0.032) or student (OR=1.943; 95% CI 1.450-2.604; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing moderate to severe depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19. Mann Whitney U-test showed that being older was statistically associated with fear (p<0.001) and being younger was statistically associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, based on our findings, fear and depressive symptoms in general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the outbreak of COVID-19 were present in 18.06% (fear) and 28.39% (depression) of subjects and it was statistically associated with age, gender, occupation, living environment and may present a secondary uprising problem connected to outbreak of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Medo , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Internet , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias
15.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 262-265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100756

RESUMO

Catastrophic Pandemics have been adversely impacted the globe throughout human history. As a consequence psychiatrist, psychologist and mental health practitioners performed their role to mitigate the adverse impacts through its scientific and clinical lenses. It was observed that due to advance nature of COVI-19 pandemic, more advance approach of psychological aid is required. This work gives an overview of the multi-dimensional and trans-disciplinary techniques, which can be helpful to cope up with the crises that emerged from the threat of COVID-19 Outbreak for victims, survivors, health care practitioners and community.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , COVID-19 , Humanos
16.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 256-261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100755

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on the psychological health of individuals and societies. A theoretical framework is required in order to understand this impact and strategies to mitigate it. In this paper, individual and community responses to COVID-19 are discussed from the point of view of attachment theory, a psychological theory which examines the formation and disruption of attachment bonds across the life-span from an evolutionary perspective. The contributions of this perspective to individual psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress, as well as to social responses such as interpersonal violence and stigmatization, are discussed in the light of findings from attachment research. Proposals for incorporating the knowledge derived from attachment theory into therapeutic strategies, as well as in developing community resilience in the face of COVID-19, are discussed based on the available evidence. It is hoped that this information will be of value to clinicians and researchers, as well as to those involved in planning health services and social policy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Teoria Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico , COVID-19 , Humanos
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 251-255, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100754

RESUMO

Transmission of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has now rapidly spread around the world, which has alarming implications for individuals and communities, in particular for public mental health. Significant progress has been made in the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, but the psychological crisis caused by the epidemic is still not over and may continue to exist. The public mental health in the post-COVID-19 era should not be ignored. This article provides early warning for the public's mental health in the post-COVID-19 era by listing the characteristics and duration of the public mental health crisis following the SARS outbreak. In addition, based on the current situation, specific methods and measures are proposed in order to provide effective reference for the prevention and control of psychological crisis caused by the COVID-19 epidemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
18.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 245-250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100753

RESUMO

Deep emotion traumas in societies around the globe are overcome by extreme human catastrophes such as natural disasters, social crises, war conflicts and infectious virus induced pandemic diseases, etc., can lead to enormous stress-related disorders. The current ongoing pandemic known as COVID-19 caused by novel Corona virus first appeared in Wuhan, city of China and then rapidly spread in the whole world. It has affected various frontiers of lives and caused numerous psychiatric problems like nervousness, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), fear and uncertainty, panic attacks, depression, obsessive compulsory disorder, xenophobia and racism, etc. Globally COVID-19 has persuaded public mental health crisis. Furthermore, inadequate resources of public mental health services in several countries are discussed in this review, which will be further straighten by the upcoming increase in demand for mental health services due to the COVID-19 pandemic. All mental health sciences including Psychiatry can play a very important role in the comfort of COVID-19 infected individuals and their relatives, healthcare providers and society. We need to learn more about psychological and psychiatric features of COVID-19 from the perceptions of public and global mental health in order to cope up the present deteriorating situation caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Internacionalidade , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Humanos
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 236-244, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100752

RESUMO

Infection with the new corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) was first registered in December 2019 in China, and then later spread rapidly to the rest of the world. On December 31, 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) informed the public for the first time about causes of pneumonnia of unknown origin, in the city of Wuhan (Hubei Province, China), in people who were epidemiologically linked to a seafood and wet animal whole sale local market in Wuhan. Coronavrus disease, called COVID-19 (Corona virus disease 2019), after China quickly spread to most countries in the wold, and the WHO on March 11, 2020 declared a pandmic with this virus. SARS-CoV-2, has a high level of sequential similarities to the SARS-CoV-1 and uses the same receptors when it enters the human body (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/ACE2). COVID-19 is respiratry infection that is primarily transmitted via respiratry droplets. Typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection can be very moderate (infected can be even asymptomatic) to very severe, with severe respiratory symptoms (bilateral severe pneumonia), septic schock, and fatal outcome. Numeous unknows regarding the biological, epidemilogical adn clinical characteristics of COVID-19, still exist, and make it impossible to predict with certainty the further course of the current pandemic. COVID-19 is primarily a disease of the respiratory system, but SARS-CoV-2, in a number of patients also penetrates the CNS, and apparently could be responsible for fatal outcome in some cases. The entrry of the virus into the brain can lead to neurological and psychiatric manifestationss, which are not uncommon, including headache, paresthesia, myalgia, impaired consciousnessm, confusion or delirum and cerebrovascular diseases. SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals should be evaluated in a timely manner for neurological and psychiatic symptoms because tretament of infection-related neurological and psychiatric complications is an important factor in better prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients.From the current point of view, it seems that in COVID-19 survivors, in the coming years and decades, the inflammatory systemic process and/or the inflammatory process of the brain could trigger long-term mechanisms that generally lead to an increase of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Psychosocial consequences as well as consequences for mental health are also significant, both for the general population and especially for health workers of all profiles. COVID-19 pandemia is associtaed with negative psychosocial consequences, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger and stress, sleep disorders, simpotms of posttrauamtic stres disorder, social isolation, loneliness and stigmatization.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Humanos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 229-235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100751

RESUMO

COVID-19 or Coronavirus pandemic has generated a very serious and grave global concern regarding the health of every person in the whole world. Besides, due to the rapid diffusion of the viral infection, there are already alarms on how to deal with the psychiatric aspects of COVID-19 pandemic in persons with an established diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, staff, and those in self-isolation. What is the influence of COVID-19 on mental health? The current study will review the psychiatric implications of COVID-19 pandemic on the general population, the bearing of social isolation, the prevention behaviours, and clinical cases of people who required psychiatric admission to hospital due to the emotional impact of COVID-19 social circumstances.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psiquiatria , COVID-19 , Humanos
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