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2.
World Neurosurg ; 150: e790-e793, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global burden of neurosurgical disease is substantial, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Medical conferences are important in connecting those from LMICs to those from high-income countries for support and serve as an educational and networking tool. In this study, we sought to quantitatively assess the incorporation of global neurosurgery topics in international conferences related to the neurosurgical specialty. METHODS: A database of major international neurosurgical conferences, from the conference of a group of 9 major neurosurgical societies, that had global neurosurgery featured from 2015 to 2020 was created. We then did a retrospective analysis to study the characteristics of these conferences ranging from geographic location to number to different components of the conferences. RESULTS: There was an increase in the number of conferences with global neurosurgery since 2015. This, in addition to the occurrence of 3 wholly global neurosurgery-related conferences in recent years, is promising and suggests growth in the field. However, 52.6% of conferences took place in North American or European countries, the majority of which were high-income countries. Furthermore, a majority of the presence of global neurosurgery was in the form of individual talks (54.5%) as opposed to plenaries or sessions. CONCLUSIONS: The preponderance of conferences in North America and Europe can pose barriers for those from LMICs including travel time, expenses, and visa problems. As global neurosurgery becomes an increasing part of the global health movement, we hope that these barriers are addressed. Conferences may become an even stronger tool to promote equity in neurosurgical education and practice.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Saúde Global/tendências , Internacionalidade , Neurocirurgiões/tendências , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512303

RESUMO

The world of work is changing dramatically due to continuous technological advancements and globalization (the so-called industry 4 [...].


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Indústrias , Internacionalidade
4.
Int J Palliat Nurs ; 27(8): 410-416, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutually respectful and long-term global partnerships are critical to increasing hospice and palliative care access as a key component of universal health coverage. The importance of sustained, transnational palliative care collaboration has become more urgent since the COVID-19 pandemic. AIM: To provide an overview of characteristics for successful global palliative nursing partnerships. METHOD: The authors highlight the need to adapt approaches to meet the challenges and demands of COVID-19 in both clinical and academic spaces. Exemplars of thriving global partnerships are provided, alongside palliative nursing considerations and strategies to advance and sustain them. CONCLUSION: The role of nursing to drive and enhance palliative care partnerships, especially with equitable input from low- and middle-income country stakeholders, must be leveraged to advance shared goals and reduce serious health-related suffering around the world.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Global , Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/métodos , Participação dos Interessados , Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/tendências , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Glob Health Promot ; 28(3): 3-5, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480404
6.
J Pediatr ; 239: 59-66.e1, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in electronic screen-based media use in 3- to 7-year-old children across 6 countries as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Between April and July 2020, parents of 2516 children completed online survey measures reporting current ("now") and retrospective ("before the pandemic") screen-based media use for the purposes of entertainment, educational app use, and socializing with family and friends. Parents also reported family socioeconomic characteristics and impacts of the pandemic to their physical wellbeing (eg, whether a family member or friend had been diagnosed with COVID-19) and social disruption (eg, whether family experienced a loss of income or employment due to the pandemic). RESULTS: On average, children engaged with screens more than 50 minutes more during the pandemic than before. This was largely driven by increases in screen use for entertainment purposes (nearly 40 minutes) and for use of educational apps (over 20 minutes). There was no overall change in screen use for socializing with family and friends. Children from lower socioeconomic status households increased screen use both for entertainment and educational app use more so than did children from higher socioeconomic status households. CONCLUSIONS: The global pandemic caused by COVID-19 has increased overall electronic screen-based media use. As lives become increasingly digital by necessity, further research is needed to better understand positive and negative consequences of electronic screen-based media use.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tempo de Tela , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470938

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an excess in community mortality across the globe. We review recent evidence on the clinical pathology of COVID-19, comorbidity factors, immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and factors influencing infection outcomes. The latter specifically includes diet and lifestyle factors during pandemic restrictions. We also cover the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through food products and the food chain, as well as virus persistence on different surfaces and in different environmental conditions, which were major public concerns during the initial days of the pandemic, but have since waned in public attention. We discuss useful measures to avoid the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spread through food, and approaches that may reduce the risk of contamination with the highly contagious virus. While hygienic protocols are required in food supply sectors, cleaning, disinfection, avoidance of cross-contamination across food categories, and foodstuffs at different stages of the manufacturing process are still particularly relevant because the virus persists at length on inert materials such as food packaging. Moreover, personal hygiene (frequent washing and disinfection), wearing gloves, and proper use of masks, clothes, and footwear dedicated to maintaining hygiene, provide on-site protections for food sector employees as well as supply chain intermediates and consumers. Finally, we emphasize the importance of following a healthy diet and maintaining a lifestyle that promotes physical well-being and supports healthy immune system function, especially when government movement restrictions ("lockdowns") are implemented.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Dieta/métodos , Internacionalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257840, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456088

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has initiated an upheaval in society and has been the cause of considerable stress during this period. Healthcare professionals have been on the front line during this health crisis, particularly paramedical staff. The aim of this study was to assess the high level of stress of healthcare workers during the first wave of the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The COVISTRESS international study is a questionnaire disseminated online collecting demographic and stress-related data over the globe, during the pandemic. Stress levels were evaluated using non-calibrated visual analog scale, from 0 (no stress) to 100 (maximal stress). RESULTS: Among the 13,537 individuals from 44 countries who completed the survey from January to June 2020, we included 10,051 workers (including 1379 healthcare workers, 631 medical doctors and 748 paramedical staff). The stress levels during the first wave of the pandemic were 57.8 ± 33 in the whole cohort, 65.3 ± 29.1 in medical doctors, and 73.6 ± 27.7 in paramedical staff. Healthcare professionals and especially paramedical staff had the highest levels of stress (p < 0.001 vs non-healthcare workers). Across all occupational categories, women had systematically significantly higher levels of work-related stress than men (p < 0.001). There was a negative correlation between age and stress level (r = -0.098, p < 0.001). Healthcare professionals demonstrated an increased risk of very-high stress levels (>80) compared to other workers (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.87-2.41). Paramedical staff risk for very-high levels of stress was higher than doctors' (1.88, 1.50-2.34). The risk of high levels of stress also increased in women (1.83, 1.61-2.09; p < 0.001 vs. men) and in people aged <50 (1.45, 1.26-1.66; p < 0.001 vs. aged >50). CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the pandemic was a major stressful event for healthcare workers, especially paramedical staff. Among individuals, women were the most at risk while age was a protective factor.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Internacionalidade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(3): 682-689, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449261

RESUMO

Lessons learned from one global health program can inform responses to challenges faced by other programs. One way to disseminate these lessons is through courses. However, such courses are often delivered by and taught to people based in high-income countries and thus may not present a truly global perspective. The Synthesis and Translation of Research and Innovations from Polio Eradication (STRIPE) is a consortium of 8 institutions in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and the United States that seeks to carry out such a transfer of the lessons learned in polio eradication. This short report describes the collaborative process of developing content and curriculum for an international course, the learnings that emerged, the barriers we faced, and recommendations for future similar efforts. Various parts of our course were developed by teams of researchers from countries across South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. We held a series of regional in-person team meetings hosted in different countries to improve rapport and provide a chance to work together in person. The course content reflects the diversity of team members' knowledge in a variety of contexts. Challenges to this effort included team coordination (e.g., scheduling across time zones); hierarchies across and between countries; and the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We recommend planning for these hierarchies ahead of time and ensuring significant in-person meeting time to make the most of international collaboration.


Assuntos
Currículo , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Saúde Global/educação , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Internacionalidade , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Afeganistão , Bangladesh , República Democrática do Congo , Etiópia , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia , Nigéria , Poliomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440509

RESUMO

Global cooperation rests on popular endorsement of cosmopolitan values-putting all humanity equal to or ahead of conationals. Despite being comparative judgments that may trade off, even sacrifice, the in-group's interests for the rest of the world, moral cosmopolitanism finds support in large, nationally representative surveys from Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany, China, Japan, the United States, Colombia, and Guatemala. A series of studies probe this trading off of the in-group's interests against the world's interests. Respondents everywhere distinguish preventing harm to foreign citizens, which almost all support, from redistributing resources, which only about half support. These two dimensions of moral cosmopolitanism, equitable security (preventing harm) and equitable benefits (redistributing resources), predict attitudes toward contested international policies, actual charitable donations, and preferences for mask and vaccine allocations in the COVID-19 response. The dimensions do not reflect several demographic variables and only weakly reflect political ideology. Moral cosmopolitanism also differs from related psychological constructs such as group identity. Finally, to understand the underlying thought structures, natural language processing reveals cognitive associations underlying moral cosmopolitanism (e.g., world, both) versus the alternative, parochial moral mindset (e.g., USA, first). Making these global or local terms accessible introduces an effective intervention that at least temporarily leads more people to behave like moral cosmopolitans.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Julgamento , Linguística , Teoria Psicológica , Política Pública , Alocação de Recursos , Segurança , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257572, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435616

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the global Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) process and investigate the steps to support consolidated business planning in worldwide operations and large-scale supply chains. The paper conducts a case study at a multinational manufacturing company applying an abductive approach. It combines the deductive logic from theory and the inductive logic from field observation in an attempt to elaborate further on theory on global S&OP. The analysis is structured and guided by a novel framework for global S&OP, which is developed based on the theoretical background and the case study findings. The research findings characterise the S&OP process for global operations and identify challenges related to the need to synchronise the subsidiaries' S&OP efforts worldwide to deal with different contingencies of these subsidiaries, and to manage and analyse a large amount of information gathered. The research reveals how the subsidiaries' performance is analysed by top executives along the global S&OP process, feeding strategic initiatives in the organisation and identifying business opportunities like benchmarking among subsidiaries, synergies with other management practices, and global gains. This paper offers a novel investigation of the global steps on S&OP in a real-life setting, offering a well-documented characterisation of the process that goes beyond the traditional local approach. Moreover, it is the first study to reveal challenges and expected outcomes of such a global perspective for S&OP. The theoretical advancements of S&OP research offered herein aid scholars, opening avenues for middle-range theorising, highlighting the cross-disciplinary nature of the domain, and discussing the use of concepts from related disciplines like Economics, Psychology, and Information Systems. The research findings can also assist executives, especially from multinational manufacturers, in their efforts to consolidate global planning.


Assuntos
Comércio/organização & administração , Internacionalidade , Modelos Econômicos
14.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 395-411, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431207

RESUMO

Rising per capita consumption, economic growth, and urbanisation, particularly in developing countries, have been driving an increased global demand for food. These changing socio-economic trends, which have greatly influenced changes in dietary patterns globally and, more specifically, have increased consumption of livestock products in developing countries, are expected to endure and to place new pressures on livestock-sector infrastructure and the delivery of veterinary services. This paper summarises current trade in meat and presents plausible projections for the future. It highlights the impact of animal disease on trade and considers the effect of ongoing disease outbreaks, particularly the outbreaks of African swine fever and COVID-19, on current and future trade dynamics. The authors analysed published statistics on the demand for, and international trade in, livestock products at national and regional levels and made projections of the same up to 2050, generated from an integrated model of the global agricultural and food system. The resulting analyses identified patterns of trade consistent with growing populations, increasing incomes and changing diets in developing countries. The analyses also pointed to slow expansion of livestock production, and the impacts of countries' disease status on livestock trade. For most of the livestock products analysed, economic model projections indicate increased consolidation of production and exports among a few countries. Marked increases in the trade in livestock products suggest a changing role for Veterinary Services in facilitating trade and extension in the years to come.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , COVID-19 , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , Comércio , Países em Desenvolvimento , Internacionalidade , Gado , SARS-CoV-2 , Suínos
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1107-1116, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405476

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: National strategies to control COVID-19 pandemic consisted mostly of social distancing measures such as lockdowns, curfews, and stay-home guidelines, personal protection such as hand hygiene and mask wearing, as well as contact tracing, isolation and quarantine. Whilst policy interventions were broadly similar across the globe, there were some differences in individual and community responses. This study explored community responses to COVID-19 containment measures in different countries and synthesized a model. This exaplains the community response to pandemic containment measures in the local context, so as to be suitably prepared for future interventions and research. METHODOLOGY: A mutlinational study was conducted from April-June 2020 involving researchers from 12 countries (Japan, Austria, U.S., Taiwan, India, Sudan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand). Steps in this research consisted of carrying out open-ended questionnaires, qualitative analyses in NVivo, and a multinational meeting to reflect, exchange, and validate results. Lastly, a commuinty response model was synthesized from multinational experiences. RESULTS: Effective communication is key in promoting collective action for preventing virus transmission. Health literacy, habits and social norms in different populations are core components of public health interventions. To enable people to stay home while sustaining livelihoods, economic and social support are essential. Countries could benefit from previous pandemic experience in their community response. Whilst contact tracing and isolation are crucial intervention components, issues of privacy and human rights need to be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding community responses to containment policies will help in ending current and future pandemics in the world.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Busca de Comunicante , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Quarentena
17.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(9): 1450-1459, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) worldwide. In this review we examine the global effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on incidence of STEMI admissions, and relationship between the pandemic and door to balloon time (D2B), all-cause mortality, and other secondary STEMI outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to primarily compare D2B time and in-hospital mortality of STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI during and before the pandemic. Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the influence of geographical region and income status of a country on STEMI care. An online database search included studies that compared the aforementioned outcomes of STEMI patients during and before the pandemic. RESULTS: In total, 32 articles were analyzed. Overall, 19,140 and 68,662 STEMI patients underwent primary PCI during and before the pandemic, respectively. Significant delay in D2B was observed during the pandemic (weighted mean difference, 8.10 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.90-12.30 minutes; P = 0.0002; I2 = 90%). In-hospital mortality was higher during the pandemic (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.09-1.49; P = 0.002; I2 = 36%), however this varied with factors such as geographical location and income status of a country. Subgroup analysis showed that low-middle-income countries observed a higher rate of mortality during the pandemic (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.13-2.05; P = 0.006), with a similar but insignificant trend seen among the high income countries (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.95-1.44; P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with worse STEMI performance metrics and clinical outcome, particularly in the Eastern low-middle-income status countries. Better strategies are needed to address these global trends in STEMI care during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Psychodyn Psychiatry ; 49(3): 453-462, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394606

RESUMO

Introduction: Most psychotherapists had no choice during the COVID-19 pandemic but to offer teletherapy in order to provide needed treatment. Several psychoanalytic theorists wondered if the very concept of treatment would change without an embodied relationship in an office setting. Methods: To attempt to understand the current concept of effective psychodynamic treatment in the new norm of teletherapy, we surveyed practitioners from 56 countries and regions who remotely treated patients psychodynamically during the beginning months of the pandemic. We asked the practitioners to rank six factors felt to be important to psychodynamic treatment: use of the couch during sessions, session in-office or via teletherapy, cultural similarity between therapist and patient, number of sessions a week, patient factors (motivation, insightfulness, and high functioning) and therapist factors (empathy, warmth, wisdom, and skillfulness). Results: We received 1,490 survey responses. As predicted, we found that the therapist and patient variables were considered much more important (both tied as highest rankings) to effective treatment than any of the other variables, including if the therapy was in-office or by teletherapy. Discussion: Psychodynamic practitioners worldwide confirmed that the empathy, warmth, wisdom, and skillfulness of the therapist and the motivation, insightfulness, and level of functioning of the patient are most important to treatment effectiveness regardless if the treatment is remote or embodied.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Internacionalidade , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Relações Profissional-Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1392-1396, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384168

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 pandemic continues to produce a large number of patients with chronic respiratory failure and ventilator dependence. As such, surgeons will be called upon to perform tracheotomy for a subset of these chronically intubated patients. As seen during the SARS and the SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, aerosol-generating procedures (AGP) have been associated with higher rates of infection of medical personnel and potential acceleration of viral dissemination throughout the medical center. Therefore, a thoughtful approach to tracheotomy (and other AGPs) is imperative and maintaining traditional management norms may be unsuitable or even potentially harmful. We sought to review the existing evidence informing best practices and then develop straightforward guidelines for tracheotomy during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This communication is the product of those efforts and is based on national and international experience with the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the SARS epidemic of 2002/2003.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Traqueotomia/métodos , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Medição de Risco , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Desmame do Respirador/métodos
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