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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785670

RESUMO

Under the dual impacts of climate change and COVID-19, there are great risks to the world's food security. Rice is one of the three major food crops of the world. Assessing the impact of climate change on future rice production is very important for ensuring global food security. This article divides the world's main rice-producing regions into four regions and uses a multivariate nonlinear model based on historical economic and climatic data to explore the impacts of historical extreme climatic events and economic factors on rice yield. Based on these historical models, future climatic data, and economic data under different shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs), the yields of four major rice-producing regions of the world under different climate change scenarios (SSP126, SSP245, and SSP585) are predicted. The research results reveal that under different climate change scenarios, extreme high-temperature events (Tx90p) and extreme precipitation events (Rx5day, R99pTOT) in the four major rice-producing regions have an upward trend in the future. Extreme low-temperature events (Tn10p) have a downward trend. In the rice-producing regions of Southeast Asia and South America, extreme precipitation events will increase significantly in the future. The prediction results of this model indicate that the rice output of these four major rice-producing regions will show an upward trend in the future. Although extreme precipitation events will have a negative impact on rice production, future increases in rice planting areas, economic development, and population growth will all contribute to an increase in rice production. The increase in food demand caused by population growth also brings uncertainty to global food security. This research is helpful for further understanding climate change trends and risks to global rice-production areas in the future and provides an important reference for global rice-production planning and risk management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oryza , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas , Previsões , Humanos
2.
Food Chem ; 386: 132738, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748003

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the food industry and consumers, with production gaps, shipping delays, and changes in supply and demand leading to an increased risk of food fraud. Rice has a high probability for adulteration by food fraudsters, being a staple commodity for more than half the global population, making the assessment of geographical origins of rice for authenticity important in terms of protecting businesses and consumers. In this study, we describe ICP-MS elemental profiling coupled with elementomic modelling to identify the geographical indications of Indian, Chinese, and Vietnamese rice. A PLS-DA model exhibited good discrimination (R2 = 0.8393, Q2 = 0.7673, accuracy = 1.0). Data-driven soft independent modelling of class analogy (dd-SIMCA) and K-nearest neighbours (K-NN) models have good sensitivity (98%) and specificity (100%).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oryza , China , Geografia , Humanos , Pandemias , Vietnã
3.
ChemistryOpen ; 10(12): 1244-1250, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598867

RESUMO

Rice husk, one of the main side products in the rice production, and its sustainable management represent a challenge in many countries. Herein, we describe the use of this abundant agricultural bio-waste as feedstock for the preparation of silver-containing carbon/silica nano composites with antimicrobial properties. The synthesis was performed using a fast and cheap methodology consisting of wet impregnation followed by pyrolysis, yielding C/SiO2 composite materials doped with varying amounts of silver from 28 to 0.001 wt %. The materials were fully characterized and their antimicrobial activity against ESKAPE pathogens, namely E. faecium, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli, and the pathogenic yeast C. albicans was investigated. Sensitivities of these strains against the prepared materials were demonstrated, even with exceptional low amounts of 0.015 m% silver. Hence, we report a straightforward method for the synthesis of antimicrobial agents from abundant sources which addresses urgent questions like bio-waste valorization and affordable alternatives to increasingly fewer effective antibiotics.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Oryza , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Carbono , Escherichia coli , Dióxido de Silício , Prata/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261118, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597647

RESUMO

Rice market efficiency is important for food security in countries where rice is a staple. We assess the impact of rice quality on rice prices, food security, and environmental sustainability in Bangladesh. We find that while price varies as expected for most quality attributes, it is unaffected by a broken percentage below 24.9 percent. This reveals a potential inefficiency, considering the average 5 percent broken rate observed in the market. An increase in the broken rate of milled rice within the limits supported by our findings can, ceteris paribus, increase rice rations by 4.66 million a year, or conversely, yield the current number of rice rations using 170.79 thousand fewer hectares and cutting emissions by 1.48 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent. Thus, producing rice based on quality assessment can improve food security and its sustainability.


Assuntos
Segurança Alimentar , Oryza/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Bangladesh , Comércio , Segurança Alimentar/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Estatística como Assunto
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 600, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overuse of chemical fertilizer highly influences grain filling rate and quality of rice grain. Biochar is well known for improving plant growth and grain yield under lower chemical fertilization. Therefore field trials were conducted in the early and late seasons of 2019 at Guangxi University, China to investigate the effects of combined biochar (B) and nitrogen (N) application on rice yield and yield components. There were a total of eight treatments: N1B0, 135 kg N ha- 1+ 0 t B ha- 1; N2B0,180 kg N ha- 1+ 0 t B ha- 1; N1B1,135 kg N ha- 1+ 10 t B ha- 1; N1B2,135kg N ha- 1+ 20 t B ha- 1; N1B3,135 kg N ha- 1+ 30 t B ha- 1; N2B1,180 kg N ha- 1+ 10 t B ha- 1; N2B2,180 kg N ha- 1+ 20 t B ha- 1; and N2B3,180 kg N ha- 1+ 30 t B ha- 1. RESULTS: Biochar application at 30 t ha- 1combined with low N application (135 kg ha- 1) increased the activity of starch-metabolizing enzymes (SMEs) during the early and late seasons compared with treatments without biochar. The grain yield, amylose concentration, and starch content of rice were increased in plots treated with 30 t B ha-1and low N. RT-qPCR analysis showed that biochar addition combined with N fertilizer application increased the expression of AGPS2b, SSS1, GBSS1, and GBSE11b, which increased the activity of SMEs during the grain-filling period. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the use of 20 to 30 t B ha- 1coupled with 135 kg N ha- 1 is optimal for improving the grain yield and quality of rice.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/genética , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Agricultura , Amilose/metabolismo , China , Ativação Enzimática , Enzimas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488595

RESUMO

The illegal trade of wildlife in SE Asia has been identified as the likely cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. We reviewed 198 papers on the current COVID pandemic in Cambodia, diseases such as avian influenza and Nipah virus, most likely to develop into a new pandemic in Cambodia, and common features of disease that require mitigation. Artisanal goldmining uses pure mercury in the areas where wildlife is smuggled to China. Moreover, 30-40% of Cambodians are zinc deficient. High levels of arsenic in irrigation water (>1000 µg/L) are associated with very low levels of zinc in rice (5 µg/g) and rice is the primary staple food for the region. Brown rice from nine of 15 paddy fields in the arsenic zone of Cambodia had double the new guidelines of 100 µg/kg inorganic arsenic for children's food in the EU and USA. The combination of deficiencies of essential micronutrients like zinc and pervasive presence of arsenic and mercury has the potential to compromise the immunity of many Cambodians. Innovative solutions are suggested to improve micronutrient nutrition. Toxins that suppress the immune system must be better managed to reduce the virulence of pathogens. Cambodia was not likely the source of the COVID-19 but does have problems that could result in a new pandemic.


Assuntos
Arsênio , COVID-19 , Oryza , Animais , Arsênio/análise , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480794

RESUMO

Sugar transporters play important or even indispensable roles in sugar translocation among adjacent cells in the plant. They are mainly composed of sucrose-proton symporter SUT family members and SWEET family members. In rice, 5 and 21 members are identified in these transporter families, and some of their physiological functions have been characterized on the basis of gene knockout or knockdown strategies. Existing evidence shows that most SUT members play indispensable roles, while many SWEET members are seemingly not so critical in plant growth and development regarding whether their mutants display an aberrant phenotype or not. Generally, the expressions of SUT and SWEET genes focus on the leaf, stem, and grain that represent the source, transport, and sink organs where carbohydrate production, allocation, and storage take place. Rice SUT and SWEET also play roles in both biotic and abiotic stress responses in addition to plant growth and development. At present, these sugar transporter gene regulation mechanisms are largely unclear. In this review, we compare the expressional profiles of these sugar transporter genes on the basis of chip data and elaborate their research advances. Some suggestions concerning future investigation are also proposed.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/fisiologia , Oryza/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Sacarose/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
8.
J Mol Graph Model ; 108: 107999, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330984

RESUMO

Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins are becoming increasingly popular due to the growing awareness of their health-promoting properties. The structure and mechanism of anti-cancer action of pentapeptide Glu-Gln-Arg-Pro-Arg (EQRPR) derived from a rice bran protein are not known. Theoretical and experimental methods were employed to fill this gap. The conformation analysis of the EQRPR pentapeptide was performed first and the obtained lowest energy conformer was optimized. The experimental structural data obtained by FTIR and CD spectroscopies agree well with the theoretical results. d-isomer introduced one-by-one to each position and all D-isomers of the peptide were also examined for its possible anti-proteolytic and activity enhancement properties. The molecular docking revealed avid binding of the pentapeptide to the integrins α5ß1 and αIIbß3, with Kd values of 90 nM and 180 nM, respectively. Moreover, the EQRPR and its D-isomers showed strong binding affinities to apo- and holo-forms of Mpro, spike glycoprotein, ACE2, and dACE2. The predicted results indicate that the pentapeptide may significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, the peptide has the potential to be the leading molecule in the drug discovery process as having multifunctional with diverse biological activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oryza , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oligopeptídeos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244885, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251754

RESUMO

Human influenza virus infections occur annually worldwide and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Hence, development of novel anti-influenza drugs is urgently required. Rice Power® extract developed by the Yushin Brewer Co. Ltd. is a novel aqueous extract of rice obtained via saccharization and fermentation with various microorganisms, such as Aspergillus oryzae, yeast [such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae], and lactic acid bacteria, possessing various biological and pharmacological properties. In our previous experimental screening with thirty types of Rice Power® extracts, we observed that the 30th Rice Power® (Y30) extract promoted the survival of influenza A virus-infected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Therefore, to identify compounds for the development of novel anti-influenza drugs, we aimed to investigate whether the Y30 extract exhibits anti-influenza A virus activity. In the present study, we demonstrated that the Y30 extract strongly promoted the survival of influenza A H1N1 Puerto Rico 8/34 (A/PR/8/34), California 7/09, or H3N2 Aichi 2/68 (A/Aichi/2/68) viruses-infected MDCK cells and inhibited A/PR/8/34 or A/Aichi/2/68 viruses infection and growth in the co-treatment and pre-infection experiments. The pre-treatment of Y30 extract on MDCK cells did not induce anti-influenza activity in the cell. The Y30 extract did not significantly affect influenza A virus hemagglutination, and neuraminidase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activities. Interestingly, the electron microscopy experiment revealed that the Y30 extract disrupts the integrity of influenza A virus particles by permeabilizing the viral membrane envelope, suggesting that Y30 extract has a direct virucidal effect against influenza A virus. Furthermore, we observed that compared to the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract, the water extract of Y30 extract considerably promoted the survival of cells infected with A/PR/8/34 virus. These results indicated that more anti-influenza components were present in the water extract of Y30 extract than in the EtOAc extract. Our results highlight the potential of a rice extract fermented with A. oryzae and S. cerevisiae as an anti-influenza medicine and a drug source for the development of anti-influenza compounds.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/química , Oryza/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Água/química , Acetatos/química , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Cães , Fermentação , Vírus da Influenza A/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238950

RESUMO

This study innovatively proposes a feature fusion technique to determine fatty acid content during rice storage. Firstly, a self-developed olfactory visualization sensor was used to capture the odor information of rice samples at different storage periods and a portable spectroscopy system was employed to collect the near-infrared (NIR) spectra during rice storage. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the pre-processed olfactory visualization sensor data and the NIR spectra, and the number of the best principal components (PCs) based on the single technique model was optimized during the backpropagation neural network (BPNN) modeling. Finally, the optimal PCs were fused at the feature level, and a BPNN detection model based on the fusion feature was established to achieve rapid measurement of fatty acid content during rice storage. The experimental results showed that the best BPNN model based on the fusion feature had a good predictive performance where the correlation coefficient (RP) was 0.9265, and the root mean square error (RMSEP) was 1.1005 mg/100 g. The overall results demonstrate that the detection accuracy and generalization performance of the feature fusion model are an improvement on the single-technique data model; and the results of this study can provide a new technical method for high-precision monitoring of grain storage quality.


Assuntos
Oryza , Algoritmos , Ácidos Graxos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Redes Neurais de Computação , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
11.
Talanta ; 225: 122038, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989274

RESUMO

Demand for high quality Basmati rice has increased significantly in the last decade. This commodity is highly vulnerable to fraud, especially in the post COVID-19 era. A unique two-tiered analytical system comprised of rapid on-site screening of samples using handheld portable Near-infrared NIR and laboratory confirmatory technique using a Head space gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) strategy for untargeted analysis was developed. Chemometric models built using NIR data correctly predicted nearly 100% of Pusa 1121 and Taraori, two high value types of Basmati, from potential adulterants. Furthermore, rice VOC profile fingerprints showed very good classification (R2 >0.9, Q2 > 0.9, Accuracy > 0.99) for these high quality Basmati varieties from potential adulterant varieties with aldehydes identified as key VOC marker compounds. Using a two-tiered system of a rapid method for on-site screening of many samples alongside a laboratory-based confirmatory method can classify Basmati rice varieties, protecting the supply chain from fraud.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Oryza/química , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Índia , Oryza/classificação , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
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