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Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 135, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526643


BACKGROUND: There are increasing expectations for researchers and knowledge users in the health system to use a research partnership approach, such as integrated knowledge translation, to increase the relevance and use of research findings in health practice, programmes and policies. However, little is known about how health research trainees engage in research partnership approaches such as IKT. In response, the purpose of this scoping review was to map and characterize the evidence related to using an IKT or other research partnership approach from the perspective of health research trainees in thesis and/or postdoctoral work. METHODS: We conducted this scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology and Arksey and O'Malley's framework. We searched the following databases in June 2020: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We also searched sources of unpublished studies and grey literature. We reported our findings in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews. RESULTS: We included 74 records that described trainees' experiences using an IKT or other research partnership approach to health research. The majority of studies involved collaboration with knowledge users in the research question development, recruitment and data collection stages of the research process. Intersecting barriers to IKT or other research partnerships at the individual, interpersonal and organizational levels were reported, including lack of skills in partnership research, competing priorities and trainees' "outsider" status. We also identified studies that evaluated their IKT approach and reported impacts on partnership formation, such as valuing different perspectives, and enhanced relevance of research. CONCLUSION: Our review provides insights for trainees interested in IKT or other research partnership approaches and offers guidance on how to apply an IKT approach to their research. The review findings can serve as a basis for future reviews and primary research focused on IKT principles, strategies and evaluation. The findings can also inform IKT training efforts such as guideline development and academic programme development.

Pesquisadores , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Humanos , Conhecimento
Nature ; 599(7884): 331-334, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510573
Elife ; 92020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497821
Elife ; 92020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497818


The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and distancing requirements that have disrupted both work and family life for many. Concerns exist that these disruptions caused by the pandemic may not have influenced men and women researchers equally. Many medical journals have published papers on the pandemic, which were generated by researchers facing the challenges of these disruptions. Here we report the results of an analysis that compared the gender distribution of authors on 1893 medical papers related to the pandemic with that on papers published in the same journals in 2019, for papers with first authors and last authors from the United States. Using mixed-effects regression models, we estimated that the proportion of COVID-19 papers with a woman first author was 19% lower than that for papers published in the same journals in 2019, while our comparisons for last authors and overall proportion of women authors per paper were inconclusive. A closer examination suggested that women's representation as first authors of COVID-19 research was particularly low for papers published in March and April 2020. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the research productivity of women, especially early-career women, has been affected more than the research productivity of men.

Autoria , Bibliometria , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres , COVID-19 , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social , Estados Unidos
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27423, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462562


ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted almost all sectors of academic training and research, but the impact on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research mentoring has yet to be documented. We present the perspectives of diverse, experienced mentors in a range of HIV research disciplines on the impact of COVID-19 on mentoring the next generation of HIV researchers.In November to December, 2020, we used an online data collection platform to cross-sectionally query previously-trained HIV mentors on the challenges related to mentoring during the pandemic, surprising/positive aspects of mentoring in that context, and recommendations for other mentors. Data were coded and analyzed following a thematic analysis approach.Respondents (180 of 225 mentors invited [80% response]) reported challenges related to relationship building/maintenance, disruptions in mentees' training and research progress, and mentee and mentor distress, with particular concerns regarding mentees who are parents or from underrepresented minority backgrounds. Positive/surprising aspects included logistical ease of remote mentoring, the relationship-edifying result of the shared pandemic experience, mentee resilience and gratitude, and increased enjoyment of mentoring. Recommendations included practical tips, encouragement for patience and persistence, and prioritizing supporting mentees' and one's own mental well-being.Findings revealed gaps in HIV mentors' competencies, including the effective use of remote mentoring tools, how to work with mentees in times of distress, and the prioritization of mentor well-being. Mentors are in a unique position to identify and potentially address factors that may lead to mentees leaving their fields, especially parents and those from underrepresented backgrounds. We discuss implications beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tutoria/organização & administração , Pesquisadores/educação , Estudos Transversais , Educação à Distância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Competência Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455443


PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to argue for an improved conceptualisation of health service research, using Stengers' (2018) metaphor of "slow science" as a critical yardstick. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The paper is structured in three parts. It first reviews the field of health services research and the approaches that dominate it. It then considers the healthcare research approaches whose principles and methodologies are more aligned with "slow science" before presenting a description of a "slow science" project in which the authors are currently engaged. FINDINGS: Current approaches to health service research struggle to offer adequate resources for resolving frontline complexity, principally because they set more store by knowledge generalisation, disciplinary continuity and integrity and the consolidation of expertise, than by engaging with frontline complexity on its terms, negotiating issues with frontline staff and patients on their terms and framing findings and solutions in ways that key in to the in situ dynamics and complexities that define health service delivery. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: There is a need to engage in a paradigm shift that engages health services as co-researchers, prioritising practical change and local involvement over knowledge production. Economics is a research field where the products are of natural appeal to powerful health service managers. A "slow science" approach adopted by the embedded Economist Program with its emphasis on pre-implementation, knowledge mobilisation and parallel site capacity development sets out how research can be flexibly produced to improve health services.

Atenção à Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisadores
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e25797, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443938


Early decisions relating to the implementation of virtual care relied on necessity and clinical judgement, but there is a growing need for the generation of evidence to inform policy and practice designs. The need for stronger partnerships between researchers and decision-makers is well recognized, but how these partnerships can be structured and how research can be embedded alongside existing virtual care initiatives remain unclear. We present a series of case studies that illustrate how embedded research can inform policy decisions related to the implementation of virtual care, where decisions are either to (1) discontinue (red light), (2) redesign (yellow light), or (3) scale up existing initiatives (green light). Data were collected through document review and informal interviews with key study personnel. Case 1 involved an evaluation of a mobile diabetes platform that demonstrated a mismatch between the setting and the technology (decision outcome: discontinue). Case 2 involved an evaluation of a mental health support platform that suggested evidence-based modifications to the delivery model (decision outcome: redesign). Case 3 involved an evaluation of video visits that generated evidence to inform the ideal model of implementation at scale (decision outcome: scale up). In this paper, we highlight the characteristics of the partnership and the process that enabled success and use the cases to illustrate how these characteristics were operationalized. Structured communication included monthly check-ins and iterative report development. We also outline key characteristics of the partnership (ie, trust and shared purpose) and the process (ie, timeliness, tailored reporting, and adaptability) that drove the uptake of evidence in decision-making. Across each case, the evaluation was designed to address policy questions articulated by our partners. Furthermore, structured communication provided opportunities for knowledge mobilization. Structured communication was operationalized through monthly meetings as well as the delivery of interim and final reports. These case studies demonstrate the importance of partnering with health system decision-makers to generate and mobilize scientific evidence. Embedded research partnerships founded on a shared purpose of system service provided an effective strategy to bridge the oft-cited gap between science and policy. Structured communication provided a mechanism for collaborative problem-solving and real-time feedback, and it helped contextualize emerging insights.

Atenção à Saúde , Pesquisadores , Comunicação , Humanos , Conhecimento
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440512


This article analyzes the specific and critical role of trust in scientists on both the support for and compliance with nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. We exploit large-scale, longitudinal, and representative surveys for 12 countries over the period from March to December 2020, and we complement the analysis with experimental data. We find that trust in scientists is the key driving force behind individual support for and compliance with NPIs and for favorable attitudes toward vaccination. The effect of trust in government is more ambiguous and tends to diminish support for and compliance with NPIs in countries where the recommendations from scientists and the government were not aligned. Trust in others also has seemingly paradoxical effects: in countries where social trust is high, the support for NPIs is low due to higher expectations that others will voluntary social distance. Our individual-level longitudinal data also allows us to evaluate the effects of within-person changes in trust over the pandemic: we show that trust levels and, in particular, trust in scientists have changed dramatically for individuals and within countries, with important subsequent effects on compliant behavior and support for NPIs. Such findings point out the challenging but critical need to maintain trust in scientists during a lasting pandemic that strains citizens and governments.

Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pesquisadores , Confiança , Atitude Frente a Saúde , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Governo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários