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1.
J Exp Med ; 218(9)2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467276

RESUMO

The three classes of interferons (IFNs) share the ability to inhibit viral replication, activating cell transcriptional programs that regulate both innate and adaptive responses to viral and intracellular bacterial challenge. Due to their unique potency in regulating viral replication, and their association with numerous autoimmune diseases, the tightly orchestrated transcriptional regulation of IFNs has long been a subject of intense investigation. The protective role of early robust IFN responses in the context of infection with SARS-CoV-2 has further underscored the relevance of these pathways. In this viewpoint, rather than focusing on the downstream effects of IFN signaling (which have been extensively reviewed elsewhere), we will summarize the historical and current understanding of the stepwise assembly and function of factors that regulate IFNß enhancer activity (the "enhanceosome") and highlight opportunities for deeper understanding of the transcriptional control of the ifnb gene.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Interferon beta/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Transcrição Genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
3.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 200, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first step in SARS-CoV-2 infection is binding of the virus to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the airway epithelium. Asthma affects over 300 million people world-wide, many of whom may encounter SARS-CoV-2. Epidemiologic data suggests that asthmatics who get infected may be at increased risk of more severe disease. Our objective was to assess whether maintenance inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), a major treatment for asthma, is associated with airway ACE2 expression in asthmatics. METHODS: Large airway epithelium (LAE) of asthmatics treated with maintenance ICS (ICS+), asthmatics not treated with ICS (ICS-), and healthy controls (controls) was analyzed for expression of ACE2 and other coronavirus infection-related genes using microarrays. RESULTS: As a group, there was no difference in LAE ACE2 expression in all asthmatics vs controls. In contrast, subgroup analysis demonstrated that LAE ACE2 expression was higher in asthmatics ICS+ compared to ICS‾ and ACE2 expression was higher in male ICS+ compared to female ICS+ and ICS‾ of either sex. ACE2 expression did not correlate with serum IgE, absolute eosinophil level, or change in FEV1 in response to bronchodilators in either ICS- or ICS+. CONCLUSION: Airway ACE2 expression is increased in asthmatics on long-term treatment with ICS, an observation that should be taken into consideration when assessing the use of inhaled corticosteroids during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/enzimologia , Asma/genética , COVID-19/enzimologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Virais/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/enzimologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima , Internalização do Vírus , Adulto Jovem
4.
Microvasc Res ; 138: 104232, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446976

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces neurological complications remain to be elucidated. We aimed to identify possible effects of hypoxia on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry mediators, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) protein, in human brain endothelial cells, in vitro. hCMEC/D3 cells were exposed to different oxygen tensions: 20% (Control group), 8% or 2% O2 (Hypoxia groups). Cells were harvested 6-, 24- and 48 h following hypoxic challenge for assessment of mRNA and protein, using qPCR and Western Blot. The response of the brain endothelial cells to hypoxia was replicated using modular incubator chambers. We observed an acute increase (6 h, p < 0.05), followed by a longer-term decrease (48 h, p < 0.05) in ACE2 mRNA and protein expression, accompanied by reduced expression of TMPRSS2 protein levels (48 h, p < 0.05) under the more severe hypoxic condition (2% O2). No changes in levels of von Willebrand Factor (vWF - an endothelial cell damage marker) or interleukin 6 (IL-6 - a pro-inflammatory cytokine) mRNA were observed. We conclude that hypoxia regulates brain endothelial cell ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in vitro, which may indicate human brain endothelial susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent brain sequelae.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , COVID-19/virologia , Células Endoteliais/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/enzimologia , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular , Células Endoteliais/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 573: 158-163, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446454

RESUMO

The angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldesterone system (RAAS) that mediates numerous effects in the cardiovascular system. It is also the cellular point of contact for the coronavirus spike protein. Cleavage of the receptor is both important to its physiological function as well as being necessary for cell entry by the virus. Shedding of ACE2 by the metalloprotease ADAM17 releases a catalytically active soluble form of ACE2, but cleavage by the serine protease TMPRSS2 is necessary for virion internalization. Complicating the issue is the observation that circulating ACE2 can also bind to the virus effectively blocking attachment to the membrane-bound receptor. This work investigates the possibility that the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection can abrogate shedding by ADAM17, thereby favoring cleavage by TMPRSS2 and thus cell entry by the virion.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAM17/química , Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/química , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
6.
Laeknabladid ; 107(10): 460-468, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444585

RESUMO

Introduction Infections due to COVID-19 can lead to life threatening pneumonia. Accompanying severe disease are more prominent pulmonary changes on Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the chest. The goal of this study was to describe pulmonary CT changes during acute COVID-19 and at follow up and whether the extent of changes correlate with severity of illness, demographics or other risk factors. Materials and methods Included in this study are all individuals that had confirmed COVID-19 and came for a follow up CT of the chest at Landspitali from May to September 2020. Information regarding medical history was obtained retrospectively from medical charts. All CT scans were reviewed using an international staging system to evaluate the extent of lung changes. Results Eighty-five patients with a mean age of 59 years were included in the study. Sixty patients (71%) were hospitalized during the acute phase and 18 (21%) were admitted to the ICU. During the acute phase more pronounced lung involvement was seen in males and patients admitted to the ICU. At follow-up females had less lung involvement but there was a significant relationship between a higher CT score and age, ICU admissions and days in the ICU. Full recovery was seen at follow-up CT in 31% of patients (median 68,5 days between acute and follow-up imaging). Conclusion Patients with severe COVID-19 have more pronounced lung involvement on CT than patients with milder disease during the acute phase and follow-up. Older patients and males are at greater risk of acute and persistent COVID-19 related lung changes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Islândia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
7.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 34(5): 293-302, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440594

RESUMO

Background: The precaution of airborne transmission of viruses, such as influenza, SARS, MERS, and COVID-19, is essential for reducing infection. In this study, we applied a zero-valent nanosilver/titania-chitosan (nano-Ag0/TiO2-CS) filter bed, whose broad-spectrum antimicrobial efficacy has been proven previously, for the removal of viral aerosols to minimize the risk of airborne transmission. Methods: The photochemical deposition method was used to synthesize the nano-Ag0/TiO2-CS antiviral material. The surface morphology, elemental composition, and microstructure of the nano-Ag0/TiO2-CS were analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and a transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The MS2 bacteriophages were used as surrogate viral aerosols. The antiviral efficacy of nano-Ag0/TiO2-CS was evaluated by the MS2 plaque reduction assay (PRA) and filtration experiments. In the filtration experiments, the MS2 aerosols passed through the nano-Ag0/TiO2-CS filter, and the MS2 aerosol removal efficiency was evaluated by an optical particle counter and culture method. Results and Conclusions: In the MS2 PRA, 3 g of nano-Ag0/TiO2-CS inactivated 97% of MS2 bacteriophages in 20 mL liquid culture (2 ± 0.5 × 1016 PFU/mL) within 2 hours. The removal efficiency of nano-Ag0/TiO2-CS filter (thickness: 6 cm) for MS2 aerosols reached up to 93%. Over 95% of MS2 bacteriophages on the surface of the nano-Ag0/TiO2-CS filter were inactivated within 20 minutes. The Wells-Riley model predicted that when the nano-Ag0/TiO2-CS filter was used in the ventilation system, airborne infection probability would reduce from 99% to 34.6%. The nano-Ag0/TiO2-CS filter could remain at 50% of its original antiviral efficiency after continuous operation for 1 week, indicating its feasibility for the control of the airborne transmission.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Microbiologia do Ar , Quitosana/química , Filtração/instrumentação , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Levivirus/isolamento & purificação , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata/química , Titânio/química , Aerossóis , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Levivirus/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
8.
Elife ; 102021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441362

RESUMO

The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and infectiousness is poorly known. Using data from a cohort of cases and high-risk contacts, we reconstructed viral load at the time of contact and inferred the probability of infection. The effect of viral load was larger in household contacts than in non-household contacts, with a transmission probability as large as 48% when the viral load was greater than 1010 copies per mL. The transmission probability peaked at symptom onset, with a mean probability of transmission of 29%, with large individual variations. The model also projects the effects of variants on disease transmission. Based on the current knowledge that viral load is increased by two- to eightfold with variants of concern and assuming no changes in the pattern of contacts across variants, the model predicts that larger viral load levels could lead to a relative increase in the probability of transmission of 24% to 58% in household contacts, and of 15% to 39% in non-household contacts.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Carga Viral , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 126, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections by the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 are presently a global emergency. The current vaccination effort may reduce the infection rate, but strain variants are emerging under selection pressure. Thus, there is an urgent need to find drugs that treat COVID-19 and save human lives. Hence, in this study, we identified phytoconstituents of an edible vegetable, Bitter melon (Momordica charantia), that affect the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. METHODS: Components of Momordica charantia were tested to identify the compounds that bind to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. An MTiOpenScreen web-server was used to perform docking studies. The Lipinski rule was utilized to evaluate potential interactions between the drug and other target molecules. PyMol and Schrodinger software were used to identify the hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was employed to assess the interaction between an extract component (erythrodiol) and the spike protein. RESULTS: Our in-silico evaluations showed that phytoconstituents of Momordica charantia have a low binding energy range, -5.82 to -5.97 kcal/mol. A docking study revealed two sets of phytoconstituents that bind at the S1 and S2 domains of SARS-CoV-2. SPR showed that erythrodiol has a strong binding affinity (KD = 1.15 µM) with the S2 spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Overall, docking, ADME properties, and SPR displayed strong interactions between phytoconstituents and the active site of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that phytoconstituents from bitter melon are potential agents to treat SARS-CoV-2 viral infections due to their binding to spike proteins S1 and S2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Momordica charantia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
10.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048026, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440891

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a highly heterogeneous and complex medical disorder; indeed, severe COVID-19 is probably amongst the most complex of medical conditions known to medical science. While enormous strides have been made in understanding the molecular pathways involved in patients infected with coronaviruses an overarching and comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is lacking. Such an understanding is essential in the formulation of effective prophylactic and treatment strategies. Based on clinical, proteomic, and genomic studies as well as autopsy data severe COVID-19 disease can be considered to be the connection of three basic pathologic processes, namely a pulmonary macrophage activation syndrome with uncontrolled inflammation, a complement-mediated endothelialitis together with a procoagulant state with a thrombotic microangiopathy. In addition, platelet activation with the release of serotonin and the activation and degranulation of mast cells contributes to the hyper-inflammatory state. Auto-antibodies have been demonstrated in a large number of hospitalized patients which adds to the end-organ damage and pro-thrombotic state. This paper provides a clinical overview of the major pathogenetic mechanism leading to severe COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Ativação do Complemento , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/virologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/sangue , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/imunologia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/virologia , Ativação Plaquetária , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Serotonina/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/sangue , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/imunologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/fisiopatologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/virologia
12.
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257775, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to investigate whether FIB-4 index is useful in predicting mortality in patients with concurrent hematological malignancies and COVID-19. We also aimed to determine the optimal cut-off point for the prediction. METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective cohort study conducted in Dharmais National Cancer Hospital, Indonesia. Consecutive sampling of adults with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 was performed between May 2020 and January 2021. COVID-19 screening test using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of nasopharyngeal samples were performed prior to hospitalization for chemotherapy. FIB-4 index is derived from [age (years) × AST (IU/L)]/[platelet count (109/L) × âˆšALT (U/L)]. The primary outcome of this study is mortality, defined as clinically validated death/non-survivor during a 3-months (90 days) follow-up. RESULTS: There were a total of 70 patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 in this study. Median FIB-4 Index was higher in non-survivors (13.1 vs 1.02, p<0.001). FIB-4 index above 3.85 has a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 84%, PLR of 5.27, and NLR of 0.32. The AUC was 0.849 95% CI 0.735-0.962, p<0.001. This cut-off point was associated with OR of 16.70 95% CI 4.07-66.67, p<0.001. In this study, a FIB-4 >3.85 confers to 80% posterior probability of mortality and FIB-4 <3.85 to 19% probability. FIB-4 >3.85 was associated with shorter time-to-mortality (HR 9.10 95% CI 2.99-27.65, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that FIB-4 >3.85 (HR 4.09 95% CI 1.32-12.70, p = 0.015) and CRP> 71.57 mg/L (HR 3.36 95% CI 1.08-10.50, p = 0.037) were independently associated with shorter time-to-mortality. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that a FIB-4 index >3.85 was independent predictor of mortality in patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Contagem de Plaquetas/métodos , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257729, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435620

RESUMO

Prior to the COVID 19 pandemic, discussions about online learning referred to the use of e-learning platforms and social networks as auxiliary tools in the educational process. Due to the pandemic, universities were forced to adopt an exclusive online teaching process and most universities today use platforms dedicated to online learning such as Moodle platforms. In this context, we were interested in analyzing the attitude of students regarding the way social networks could be integrated into the educational process, and if the positive attitude of students towards social networks and their use for academic purposes, proven in previous studies, remains positive under the conditions generated by the pandemic. In this regard, the present study aimed at identifying the attitude of Romanian students towards the use of Facebook and Instagram as educational tools and the circumstances in which students believe these platforms could be used by them and their teachers. An online survey was conducted on 872 students from public higher education institutions in Romania. Based on the exploratory factor analysis and the parametric test, the empirical results show that students have a slightly positive attitude towards using Facebook in the educational process, but they have a more reticent, less positive attitude towards using Instagram. Thus, the most appropriate contexts in which these platforms could be used are represented by extracurricular activities. A higher preference for the use of Facebook rather than Instagram, was identified among master and PhD students. No major differences were revealed in student subgroups sorted by gender or study domain.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância/métodos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Romênia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435612

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Twitter represents a mainstream news source for the American public, offering a valuable vehicle for learning how citizens make sense of pandemic health threats like Covid-19. Masking as a risk mitigation measure became controversial in the US. The social amplification risk framework offers insight into how a risk event interacts with psychological, social, institutional, and cultural communication processes to shape Covid-19 risk perception. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis was conducted on 7,024 mask tweets reflecting 6,286 users between January 24 and July 7, 2020, to identify how citizens expressed Covid-19 risk perception over time. Descriptive statistics were computed for (a) proportion of tweets using hyperlinks, (b) mentions, (c) hashtags, (d) questions, and (e) location. RESULTS: Six themes emerged regarding how mask tweets amplified and attenuated Covid-19 risk: (a) severity perceptions (18.0%) steadily increased across 5 months; (b) mask effectiveness debates (10.7%) persisted; (c) who is at risk (26.4%) peaked in April and May 2020; (d) mask guidelines (15.6%) peaked April 3, 2020, with federal guidelines; (e) political legitimizing of Covid-19 risk (18.3%) steadily increased; and (f) mask behavior of others (31.6%) composed the largest discussion category and increased over time. Of tweets, 45% contained a hyperlink, 40% contained mentions, 33% contained hashtags, and 16.5% were expressed as a question. CONCLUSIONS: Users ascribed many meanings to mask wearing in the social media information environment revealing that COVID-19 risk was expressed in a more expanded range than objective risk. The simultaneous amplification and attenuation of COVID-19 risk perception on social media complicates public health messaging about mask wearing.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Percepção/fisiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Opinião Pública , Assunção de Riscos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teaching work is stressful, moreover during the pandemic teachers' stress might have been intensified by distance education as well as by limited access to social support, which functions as a buffer in experiencing stress. The aim of the research was to investigate the relation between distance education and teachers' well-being, and their close relations and other social relations during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The research was conducted in two stages on 285 Polish primary and secondary school teachers who were recruited by means of the chain referral method. The following measures were used: The Depression Anxiety & Stress Scales-21, Berlin Social Support Scales, The Relationship Satisfaction Scale and The Injustice Experience Questionnaire. RESULTS: The teachers experienced at least mild levels of stress, anxiety and depression, both during the first as well as the second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. It has been confirmed that there is a negative relation between relationship quality change and social relations quality change, and stress, anxiety and depression. The variables taken into consideration in the research have provided the explanation for the variation of stress-from 6% in the first stage of the research to 47% in the second stage; for the variation of anxiety-from 21% to 31%; and for the variation of depression-from 12% to 46%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The research results show that due to distance work the distinction between professional work and family life might have been blurred, and as a consequence teachers' well-being could have been worsened. The isolation put on to stop the spreading of the virus might have contributed to changes in social relations, in close relations in particular, and at the same time negatively influenced teachers' abilities to effectively cope with the crisis situations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Educação à Distância/métodos , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Satisfação Pessoal , Polônia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257093, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding patients with COVID-19 and analyse the influence factors. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to collect RCTs regarding patients with COVID-19. The retrieval time was from the inception to December 1, 2020. The CONSORT 2010 statement was used to evaluate the overall reporting quality of these RCTs. RESULTS: 53 RCTs were included. The study showed that the average reporting rate for 37 items in CONSORT checklist was 53.85% with mean overall adherence score of 13.02±3.546 (ranged: 7 to 22). The multivariate linear regression analysis showed the overall adherence score to the CONSORT guideline was associated with journal impact factor (P = 0.006), and endorsement of CONSORT statement (P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Although many RCTs of COVID-19 have been published in different journals, the overall reporting quality of these articles was suboptimal, it can not provide valid evidence for clinical decision-making and systematic reviews. Therefore, more journals should endorse the CONSORT statement, authors should strictly follow the relevant provisions of the CONSORT guideline when reporting articles. Future RCTs should particularly focus on improvement of detailed reporting in allocation concealment, blinding and estimation of sample size.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Publicações/normas , Editoração/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Gerenciamento de Dados/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , PubMed/normas , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256203, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We conducted the present multicenter, retrospective study to assess the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated with critical illness among patients with COVID-19 from Egypt. METHODS: The present study was a multicenter, retrospective study that retrieved the data of all Egyptian cases with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to hospitals affiliated to the General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes (GOTHI) through the period from March to July 2020. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) laboratory test. RESULTS: This retrospective study included 2724 COVID-19 patients, of whom 423 (15.52%) were critically ill. Approximately 45.86% of the critical group aged above 60 years, compared to 39.59% in the non-critical group (p = 0.016). Multivariate analysis showed that many factors were predictors of critically illness, including age >60 years (OR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.05, 1.61], p = 0.014), low oxygen saturation (OR = 0.93, 95% CI [0.91, 0.95], p<0.001), low Glasgow coma scale (OR = 0.75, 95% CI [0.67, 0.84], p<0.001), diabetes (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.26, 2.08], p<0.001), cancer (OR = 2.47, 95% CI [1.41, 4.35], p = 0.002), and serum ferritin (OR = 1.004, 95% CI [1.0003, 1.008], p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: In the present report, we demonstrated that many factors are associated with COVID-19 critical illness, including older age groups, fatigue, elevated temperature, increased pulse, lower oxygen saturation, the preexistence of diabetes, malignancies, cardiovascular disease, renal diseases, and pulmonary disease. Moreover, elevated serum levels of ALT, AST, and ferritin are associated with worse outcomes. Further studies are required to identify independent predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Egito , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5573, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434106

RESUMO

To support COVID-19 pandemic planning, we develop a model-inference system to estimate epidemiological properties of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern using case and mortality data while accounting for under-ascertainment, disease seasonality, non-pharmaceutical interventions, and mass-vaccination. Applying this system to study three variants of concern, we estimate that B.1.1.7 has a 46.6% (95% CI: 32.3-54.6%) transmissibility increase but nominal immune escape from protection induced by prior wild-type infection; B.1.351 has a 32.4% (95% CI: 14.6-48.0%) transmissibility increase and 61.3% (95% CI: 42.6-85.8%) immune escape; and P.1 has a 43.3% (95% CI: 30.3-65.3%) transmissibility increase and 52.5% (95% CI: 0-75.8%) immune escape. Model simulations indicate that B.1.351 and P.1 could outcompete B.1.1.7 and lead to increased infections. Our findings highlight the importance of preventing the spread of variants of concern, via continued preventive measures, prompt mass-vaccination, continued vaccine efficacy monitoring, and possible updating of vaccine formulations to ensure high efficacy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Incidência , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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