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EuropePMC; 2021.
Препринт в английский | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308782


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic appears to have struck Italy in two waves. Objective: To analyse the differences between the first (W1) and the second wave (W2). Methods: Our analysis was based on weekly data retrieved from the Official Bulletin of the Italian Civil Protection Department from 1 March 2020 to 21 January 2021. Results: W1 lasted about 23 weeks, from March to 15 August 2020. W2 started on 16 August and was still underway on 21 January 2021.W2 is much more severe than W1 in terms of positive cases and deaths, and its decay is much slower.We have identified at least six different causes of these differences: the colder season, the impact of seasonalinfluenza, viral mutation, the lack of a plan to tackle viral resurgence, poor care of elderly people, and lack of oralhygiene as an important preventive measure. Moreover, in an attempt to give the best possible informationthrough the media, the experts have instead caused feelings of uncertainty and fear. Conclusions: There are several reasons for the differences between W1 and W2: the start of the colder seasonduring W2, poor care of elderly people, the delay in providing seasonal influenza vaccination, the lack of anational plan against COVID-19 resurgence, confusion over the lockdown measures, lack of information aboutoral hygiene, and confusing information given through the media.

Minerva Med ; 113(1): 135-140, 2022 Feb.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285637


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of Pycnogenol® (150 mg/day) (Horphag Research, London, UK) and Centella asiatica (Centellicum® 3×225 mg/day; Horphag Research) (PY-CE) for 8 months in subjects with sequelae of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). Recently, post-COVID-19 lung disease is emerging with large numbers of patients left with chronic lung conditions. Considering the antifibrotic activity of the combination PY-CE, we also tested this supplementary management in post-COVID-19 lung patients. METHODS: Nineteen subjects with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) were included in the study. High Resolution CT scans at inclusion confirmed the presence of lung fibrosis: 10 patients were treated with the Pycnogenol® Centellicum® combination and 9 subjects with standard management (SM) served as controls. Oxidative stress that was very high in all subjects at inclusion, decreased significantly in the supplement group (P<0.05). The Karnofsky Performance Scale Index significantly improved in the supplement group in comparison with controls (P<0.05). The symptoms (fatigue, muscular pain, dyspnea) were significantly lower after 8 months in supplemented patients (P<0.05) as compared with controls. RESULTS: At the end of the study, the small cystic lesions (honeycombing) and traction bronchiectasis were stable or in partial regression in 4 subjects in the supplemented group (vs. none in the control group) with a significant improvement in tissue edema in the supplemented subjects. On ultrasound lung scans the white (more echogenic) fibrotic component at inclusion was 18.5±2.2% in the images in controls vs. 19.4±2.7% in the supplement group. At the end of the study, there was no improvement in controls (18.9±2.5%) vs. a significant improvement in supplemented subjects (16.2±2.1%; P<0.05). In addition, 18 subjects with post-COVID-19 lung disease were included in the study; 10 patients were treated with the Pycnogenol® Centellicum® combination and evaluated after 4 weeks; 8 patients served as controls. Preliminary results show that symptoms associated with post-COVID-19 lung disease after 4 weeks were significantly improved with the supplement combination (P<0.05). Oxidative stress and the Karnofsky Performance Scale Index were significantly improved in the supplements group as compared with controls (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: According to these observations, Pycnogenol® controls and decreases edema and Centellicum® by modulating the apposition of collagen, slows down the development of irregular cicatrization, the keloidal scarring and fibrosis. More time is needed to evaluate this effect in a larger number of post-COVID-19 patients with lung disease. This disease has affected millions of subjects worldwide, leaving severe consequences. Pycnogenol® and Centellicum® may improve the residual clinical picture in post-COVID-19 lung disease (PCL) patients and may reduce the number of subjects evolving into lung fibrosis. The evolution from edema to fibrosis seems to be slower or attenuated with this supplement combination both in Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and in PCL patients.

Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology
Minerva Med ; 113(2): 300-308, 2022 Apr.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249753


BACKGROUND: The aim of this open supplement study was to evaluate the effects of Pycnogenol® in comparison with controls on symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome and in improving endothelial function, microcirculation, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress over 3 months in symptomatic subjects recovering from COVID-19. METHODS: Sixty subjects recovering from symptomatic COVID-19 were included. One group of 30 followed a standard recovery management while 30 comparable subjects received a supplement of 150 mg Pycnogenol® daily (in 3 doses of 50 mg) in addition to standard management. RESULTS: Two groups of selected subjects were comparable at baseline. The groups progressively improved both with the SM (standard management) and with the SM in combination with the supplement. Patients, supplemented with Pycnogenol® showed significantly better improvement compared to the control group patients. No side effects from the supplementation were observed; tolerability was optimal. The progressive evolution over time was visible in all target measurements. Physiological tests: endothelial function, low in all subjects at inclusion was assessed by flow mediated dilation (FMD) and finger reactive hyperemia in the microcirculation (laser Doppler measurements) after the release of an occluding suprasystolic cuff. It was significantly improved in the Pycnogenol® group after one month and after 3 months (P<0.05 vs. controls). The rate of ankle swelling (RAS) by strain gauge decreased significantly in the supplemented group (P<0.05) in comparison with controls showing an improvement of the capillary filtration rate. At inclusion, the kidney cortical flow velocity indicated a decrease in perfusion (lower systolic and diastolic flow velocity) in all patients. Kidney cortical flow velocity increased significantly with the supplement (P<0.05) in comparison with controls with improvement in systolic velocity and in diastolic component. High sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and Il-6 plasma levels decreased progressively over 3 months with a significant more pronounced decrease in the supplement group (P<0.05). The number of patients with normal plasma IL-6 levels at the end of the study was higher (P<0.05) with the supplement. ESR followed the same pattern with a progressive and a more significant decrease in the supplemented subjects (P<0.02). Oxidative stress decreased significantly in the supplemented group (P<0.05) compared with the control group. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the supplemented group (P<0.05) at the end of the study. Finally, the scores of Quality-of-life, mood and fatigue questionnaire and the Karnofsky Scale Performance Index significantly improved in the supplement group (P<0.05) compared to controls after 1 and 3 months. All other blood parameters (including platelets and clotting factors) were within normal values at the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Pycnogenol® may offer a significant option for managing some of the signs and symptoms associated with post-COVID-19 syndrome. This pilot evaluation offers some potential rationale for the use of Pycnogenol® in this condition that will have significant importance in the coming years.

Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Dietary Supplements , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Microcirculation , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Registries , Risk Factors
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