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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Препринт в английский | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308842

Реферат

Recent executive orders have led some Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) providers to interpret themselves as “essential personnel” during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we argue against a blanket interpretation that being labeled “essential personnel” means that all in person ABA services for all clients should continue during the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe this argument holds even if ABA providers are not in a jurisdiction currently under an active shelter at home or related order. First, we provide a brief description of risks associated with continued in person ABA service delivery as well as risks associated with the temporary suspension or transition to remote ABA service delivery. For many clients, continued in person service delivery carries a significant risk of severe harm to the client, their family and caregivers, the staff, and a currently overburdened healthcare system. In these situations, ABA providers should temporarily suspend services or transition to telehealth or other forms of remote service delivery until information from federal, state, and local healthcare experts deem in person contact safe. In rare cases, temporary suspension or transition to remote service delivery may place the client or others at risk of significant harm. In these situations in person services should likely continue and ongoing assessment and risk mitigation are essential.

2.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 48(2): 176-185, 2022 03 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684254

Реферат

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent economic crisis has provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of economic shifts on substance use. Existing literature on this relationship is limited and conflicting, warranting further exploration.Objective: This study aimed to identify relationships between socioeconomic status (SES), demographic variables, and substance use patterns before and after government-mandated business closures due to COVID-19.Methods: Participants were recruited based on self-reported substance use through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Qualifying participants (N = 315, 43% female, mean age = 35.35) reported their substance use and SES for two-week periods before and after pandemic-related business closures. Regression models analyzed relationships between substance use and study variables.Results: Regression models found that, during COVID-19 closures, greater financial strain predicted decreased benzodiazepine (ß = -1.12) and tobacco (ß = 1.59) use. Additionally, certain predictor variables (e.g., participants' age [ß = 1.22], race [ß = -4.43], psychiatric disorders including ADHD [ß = -2.73] and anxiety [ß = 1.53], and concomitant substance use [ß = 3.38]) predicted changes in substance use patterns; however, the directionality of these associations varied across substances.Conclusion: Specific substance use patterns were significantly and differentially impacted by economic strain, psychiatric diagnoses, and concomitant substance use. These results can help direct harm reduction efforts toward populations at greatest risk of harmful substance use following the pandemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Anxiety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2071, 2021 11 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526613

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Co-design has the potential to create interventions that lead to sustainable health behaviour change. Evidence suggests application of co-design in various health domains has been growing; however, few public-facing digital interventions have been co-designed to specifically address the needs of adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aims to: (1) co-design, with key stakeholders, a digital dietary intervention to promote health behaviour change among adults at risk of T2D, and (2) evaluate the co-design process involved in developing the intervention prototype. METHODS: The co-design study was based on a partnership between nutrition researchers and designers experienced in co-design for health. Potential end-users (patients and health professionals) were recruited from an earlier stage of the study. Three online workshops were conducted to develop and review prototypes of an app for people at risk of T2D. Themes were inductively defined and aligned with persuasive design (PD) principles used to inform ideal app features and characteristics. RESULTS: Participants were predominantly female (range 58-100%), aged 38 to 63 years (median age = 59 years), consisting of a total of 20 end-users and four experts. Participants expressed the need for information from credible sources and to provide effective strategies to overcome social and environmental influences on eating behaviours. Preferred app features included tailoring to the individual's unique characteristics, ability to track and monitor dietary behaviour, and tools to facilitate controlled social connectivity. Relevant persuasive design principles included social support, reduction (reducing effort needed to reach target behaviour), tunnelling (guiding users through a process that leads to target behaviour), praise, rewards, and self-monitoring. The most preferred prototype was the Choices concept, which focusses on the users' journey of health behaviour change and recognises progress, successes, and failures in a supportive and encouraging manner. The workshops were rated successful, and feedback was positive. CONCLUSIONS: The study's co-design methods were successful in developing a functionally appealing and relevant digital health promotion intervention. Continuous engagement with stakeholders such as designers and end-users is needed to further develop a working prototype for testing.


Тема - темы
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Female , Health Behavior , Health Promotion , Humans , Middle Aged , Persuasive Communication , Social Support
4.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388081

Реферат

To examine innate immune responses in early SARS-CoV-2 infection that may change clinical outcomes, we compared nasopharyngeal swab data from 20 virus-positive and 20 virus-negative individuals. Multiple innate immune-related and ACE-2 transcripts increased with infection and were strongly associated with increasing viral load. We found widespread discrepancies between transcription and translation. Interferon proteins were unchanged or decreased in infected samples suggesting virally-induced shut-off of host anti-viral protein responses. However, IP-10 and several interferon-stimulated gene proteins increased with viral load. Older age was associated with modifications of some effects. Our findings may characterize the disrupted immune landscape of early disease.

5.
Minerva Med ; 113(2): 300-308, 2022 Apr.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249753

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The aim of this open supplement study was to evaluate the effects of Pycnogenol® in comparison with controls on symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome and in improving endothelial function, microcirculation, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress over 3 months in symptomatic subjects recovering from COVID-19. METHODS: Sixty subjects recovering from symptomatic COVID-19 were included. One group of 30 followed a standard recovery management while 30 comparable subjects received a supplement of 150 mg Pycnogenol® daily (in 3 doses of 50 mg) in addition to standard management. RESULTS: Two groups of selected subjects were comparable at baseline. The groups progressively improved both with the SM (standard management) and with the SM in combination with the supplement. Patients, supplemented with Pycnogenol® showed significantly better improvement compared to the control group patients. No side effects from the supplementation were observed; tolerability was optimal. The progressive evolution over time was visible in all target measurements. Physiological tests: endothelial function, low in all subjects at inclusion was assessed by flow mediated dilation (FMD) and finger reactive hyperemia in the microcirculation (laser Doppler measurements) after the release of an occluding suprasystolic cuff. It was significantly improved in the Pycnogenol® group after one month and after 3 months (P<0.05 vs. controls). The rate of ankle swelling (RAS) by strain gauge decreased significantly in the supplemented group (P<0.05) in comparison with controls showing an improvement of the capillary filtration rate. At inclusion, the kidney cortical flow velocity indicated a decrease in perfusion (lower systolic and diastolic flow velocity) in all patients. Kidney cortical flow velocity increased significantly with the supplement (P<0.05) in comparison with controls with improvement in systolic velocity and in diastolic component. High sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and Il-6 plasma levels decreased progressively over 3 months with a significant more pronounced decrease in the supplement group (P<0.05). The number of patients with normal plasma IL-6 levels at the end of the study was higher (P<0.05) with the supplement. ESR followed the same pattern with a progressive and a more significant decrease in the supplemented subjects (P<0.02). Oxidative stress decreased significantly in the supplemented group (P<0.05) compared with the control group. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the supplemented group (P<0.05) at the end of the study. Finally, the scores of Quality-of-life, mood and fatigue questionnaire and the Karnofsky Scale Performance Index significantly improved in the supplement group (P<0.05) compared to controls after 1 and 3 months. All other blood parameters (including platelets and clotting factors) were within normal values at the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Pycnogenol® may offer a significant option for managing some of the signs and symptoms associated with post-COVID-19 syndrome. This pilot evaluation offers some potential rationale for the use of Pycnogenol® in this condition that will have significant importance in the coming years.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Dietary Supplements , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Microcirculation , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Registries , Risk Factors
6.
Physiol Rep ; 9(4): e14761, 2021 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100463

Реферат

COVID-19 causes severe disease with poor outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that early SARS-CoV-2 viral infection disrupts innate immune responses. These changes may be important for understanding subsequent clinical outcomes. We obtained residual nasopharyngeal swab samples from individuals who requested COVID-19 testing for symptoms at drive-through COVID-19 clinical testing sites operated by the University of Utah. We applied multiplex immunoassays, real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and quantitative proteomics to 20 virus-positive and 20 virus-negative samples. ACE-2 transcripts increased with infection (OR =17.4, 95% CI [CI] =4.78-63.8) and increasing viral N1 protein transcript load (OR =1.16, CI =1.10-1.23). Transcripts for two interferons (IFN) were elevated, IFN-λ1 (OR =71, CI =7.07-713) and IFN-λ2 (OR =40.2, CI =3.86-419), and closely associated with viral N1 transcripts (OR =1.35, CI =1.23-1.49 and OR =1.33 CI =1.20-1.47, respectively). Only transcripts for IP-10 were increased among systemic inflammatory cytokines that we examined (OR =131, CI =1.01-2620). We found widespread discrepancies between transcription and translation. IFN proteins were unchanged or decreased in infected samples (IFN-γ OR =0.90 CI =0.33-0.79, IFN-λ2,3 OR =0.60 CI =0.48-0.74) suggesting viral-induced shut-off of host antiviral protein responses. However, proteins for IP-10 (OR =3.74 CI =2.07-6.77) and several interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) increased with viral load (BST-1 OR =25.1, CI =3.33-188; IFIT1 OR =19.5, CI =4.25-89.2; IFIT3 OR =245, CI =15-4020; MX-1 OR =3.33, CI =1.44-7.70). Older age was associated with substantial modifications of some effects. Ambulatory symptomatic patients had an innate immune response with SARS-CoV-2 infection characterized by elevated IFN, proinflammatory cytokine and ISG transcripts, but there is evidence of a viral-induced host shut-off of antiviral responses. Our findings may characterize the disrupted immune landscape common in patients with early disease.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Nasopharyngeal Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Load/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cytokines/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Diseases/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sex Factors , Young Adult
7.
J Food Prot ; 84(3): 352-358, 2021 03 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067879

Реферат

ABSTRACT: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has presented new challenges to food manufacturers. During the early phase of the pandemic, several large outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in food manufacturing plants resulting in deaths and economic loss, with approximately 15% of personnel diagnosed as asymptomatic for COVID-19. Spread by asymptomatic and presymptomatic individuals has been implicated in large outbreaks of COVID-19. In March 2020, we assisted in implementation of environmental monitoring programs for SARS-CoV-2 in zones 3 and 4 of 116 food production facilities. All participating facilities had already implemented measures to prevent symptomatic personnel from coming to work. During the study period, from 17 March to 3 September 2020, 1.23% of the 22,643 environmental samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that infected individuals were actively shedding virus. Virus contamination was commonly found on frequently touched surfaces such as doorknobs, handles, table surfaces, and sanitizer dispensers. Most processing plants managed to control their environmental contamination when they became aware of the positive findings. Comparisons of positive test results for plant personnel and environmental surfaces in one plant revealed a close correlation. Our work illustrates that environmental monitoring for SARS-CoV-2 can be used as a surrogate for identifying the presence of asymptomatic and presymptomatic personnel in workplaces and may aid in controlling infection spread.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Plants, Edible , Prevalence
9.
The International Journal of Community and Social Development ; : 2516602620959506, 2020.
Статья | Sage | ID: covidwho-798806

Реферат

This pandemic has led to an emphasis on containment and treatment, even at great expense to many economies, and to the development of a vaccine. All of these are reasonably feasible in the developed world, but they are problematic in many other contexts with significant consequences already emerging. Accounts of past pandemics have highlighted significant social consequences, often mentioned in the current context but not addressed. Will some of these social and more longer-term consequences come back to haunt the West in the future? Moreover, will the developed world ensure that the developing world is able to handle all aspects of this pandemic and minimise suffering?

10.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 96(5): 1080-1086, 2020 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740805

Реферат

We aimed to examine factors impacting variability in cardiac procedural deferral during the COVID-19 pandemic and assess cardiologists' perspectives regarding its implications. Unprecedented cardiac procedural deferral was implemented nationwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. A web-based survey was administered by Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the American College of Cardiology Interventional Council to cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) directors and interventional cardiologists across the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among 414 total responses, 48 states and 360 unique cardiac catheterization laboratories were represented, with mean inpatient COVID-19 burden 16.4 ± 21.9%. There was a spectrum of deferral by procedure type, varying by both severity of COVID-19 burden and procedural urgency (p < .001). Percutaneous coronary intervention volumes dropped by 55% (p < .0001) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement volumes dropped by 64% (p = .004), with cardiologists reporting an increase in late presenting ST-elevation myocardial infarctions and deaths among patients waiting for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Almost 1/3 of catheterization laboratories had at least one interventionalist testing positive for COVID-19. Salary reductions did not influence procedural deferral or speed of reinstituting normal volumes. Pandemic preparedness improved significantly over time, with the most pressing current problems focused on inadequate testing and staff health risks. During the COVID-19 pandemic, cardiac procedural deferrals were associated with procedural urgency and severity of hospital COVID-19 burden. Yet patients did not appear to be similarly influenced, with cardiologists reporting increases in late presenting ST-elevation myocardial infarctions independent of local COVID-19 burden. The safety and importance of seeking healthcare during this pandemic deserves emphasis.


Тема - темы
Betacoronavirus , Cardiac Imaging Techniques , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
11.
BMJ ; 369: m1925, 2020 05 18.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-291307
12.
Behav Anal Pract ; 13(2): 299-305, 2020 Jun.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108791

Реферат

Recent executive orders have led some applied behavior analysis (ABA) providers to interpret themselves as "essential personnel" during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we argue against a blanket interpretation that being labeled "essential personnel" means that all in-person ABA services for all clients should continue during the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe this argument holds even if ABA providers are not in a jurisdiction currently under an active shelter-at-home or related order. First, we provide a brief description of risks associated with continued in-person ABA service delivery, as well as risks associated with the temporary suspension of services or the transition to remote ABA service delivery. For many clients, continued in-person service delivery carries a significant risk of severe harm to the client, family and caregivers, staff, and a currently overburdened health care system. In these situations, ABA providers should temporarily suspend services or transition to telehealth or other forms of remote service delivery until information from federal, state, and local health care experts deems in-person contact safe. In rare cases, temporary suspension of services or a transition to remote service delivery may place the client or others at risk of significant harm. In these situations, in-person services should likely continue, and ongoing assessment and risk mitigation are essential.

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