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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110067

Реферат

This study focuses on factors that shape vaccine attitudes and behaviours in the context of a low-trust society. Our analysis focuses on the Polish vaccination programme against COVID-19, primarily on (1) the evaluation of the information campaign, (2) trust in the institutions, (3) trust in other people, (4) attitudes toward vaccine safety and efficacy, (5) attitudes toward restrictions related to vaccination (e.g., restricted access to certain services for unvaccinated persons) and the introduction of mandatory vaccination, (6) the evaluation of the government's actions during the pandemic, and (7) political preferences. The study was conducted with a sample of 1143 adult residents in Poland (CATI). The explanation of the factors determining the COVID-19 vaccine was based on structural equation modelling (SEM). The model showed that the declared fact of vaccination was largely determined by a positive attitude toward restrictions related to vaccination and trust in vaccines. The formation of the provaccine attitude was to an extent determined by the assessment of the government's campaign and actions during pandemic. While institutional trust had a positive effect on support for the ruling coalition (0.56), the latter on its own had the opposite effect (-0.61) on the formation of provaccine attitude. In the group who both trust institutions and support the parties currently in power, there are more of those who simultaneously reject the restrictions and mandatory vaccination and remain sceptical about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines than those who both trust in the vaccine safety and efficacy and accept the restrictions and mandatory vaccination. This indicates that in the context of strong political polarisation, ideological affiliations may play a greater role in shaping vaccine attitudes and behaviours than institutional trust.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Trust , COVID-19 Vaccines , Poland , COVID-19/prevention & control , Latent Class Analysis , Vaccination , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110063

Реферат

Evidence about how the pandemic affected household violence in Canada is mixed, but inarguably, the risk factors increased. This study used data from the 2020 Canadian Perspective Survey Series and the 2020 and 2021 Surveys of COVID-19 and Mental Health to examine the following: changes in the prevalence of concern about violence in individuals' own homes during the pandemic; the characteristics of those who expressed concern; and the prevalence of concerns for specific household members. Among Canadians, the prevalence of concern about violence in individuals' own homes decreased significantly between July and Fall 2020 (5.8% to 4.2%). Among women, the characteristics that were significantly associated with higher adjusted odds of concern about household violence included larger household size and lower household income. Lower education among women was associated with lower adjusted odds of concern. The associations with higher adjusted odds of concern among men included: being an immigrant, larger household size, and lower household income. From Fall 2020 to Spring 2021, the prevalence of concerns for oneself and for a child/children increased (1.7% to 2.5% and 1.0% to 2.5%, respectively), but concern for other adults in the household decreased (1.9% to 1.2%). Ongoing surveillance is needed to understand vulnerable populations' exposure to household violence and to inform policies and programs.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Male , Child , Adult , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Canada/epidemiology , Violence
3.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604685, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109900

Реферат

Objectives: Adverse mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are well documented; however, there remains limited data detailing trends in mental health at different points in time and across population sub-groups most impacted. This paper draws on data from three rounds of a nationally representative cross-sectional monitoring survey to characterize the mental health impacts of COVID-19 on adults living in Canada (N = 9,061). Methods: Descriptive statistics were used to examine the mental health impacts of the pandemic using a range of self-reported measures. Multivariate logistic regression models were then used to quantify the independent risks of experiencing adverse mental health outcomes for priority population sub-groups, adjusting for age, gender, and survey round. Results: Data illustrate significant disparities in the mental health consequences of the pandemic, with inequitable impacts for sub-groups who experience structural vulnerability related to pre-existing mental health conditions, disability, LGBTQ2+ identity, and Indigenous identity. Conclusion: There is immediate need for population-based approaches to support mental health in Canada and globally. Approaches should attend to the root causes of mental health inequities through promotion and prevention, in addition to treatment.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Inequities , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 966606, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109877

Реферат

With the rapid development of digital technology, mobile Internet use is increasing in popularity in China. Previous studies have shown that mobile Internet use has a positive or negative effect on mental distress. Using CFPS2020 data, this paper finds that mobile Internet use significantly alleviates mental distress in Chinese adults. Heterogeneity analysis indicates that mobile Internet use can significantly alleviate mental distress among adults between the ages of 30 and 70, without a bachelor's degree or residing outside the province of Hubei. Furthermore, mobile Internet use significantly reduces mental distress through two mediators: trust and happiness. It also shows that watching short videos or learning online is associated with reduced mental distress, as opposed to online shopping, chatting, or playing games. However, the mental distress of new mobile Internet users in 2020 has not been alleviated. This paper enriches the relevant theoretical research and provides a practical reference for using the mobile Internet to ease mental distress during epidemics.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Internet Use , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 950532, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109875

Реферат

Background: We aimed to comprehensively analyze awareness, knowledge and attitude toward influenza vaccine and the factors associated to vaccine acceptance among the young and middle-aged general population, healthcare workers, and health-related administrators in China. The factors influencing the promotion of influenza vaccination were also evaluated among healthcare workers and administrators. Methods: This is a multicenter, cross-sectional study. General population adults, healthcare workers (HCWs), and health administrators were enrolled in seven regions across China during the 2020-2021 flu season. Data were collected via an online questionnaire, which included information request as to awareness, knowledge, and attitude toward influenza vaccination. Statistical significance set at p-values < 0.05. Results: A total of 3,239 individuals were included in our analyses. There were gaps in consciousness to action, especially between awareness (87.1%) and knowledge (57.7%), and between willingness (57.3%) and vaccination (22.3%). The downward trends were similar in all three groups. HCW group and the health administrator group showed more positive propensity to accept influenza vaccines than the general population group. For the general population group, those with a lower educational level (lower than a bachelor's degree) were less likely to be vaccinated (aOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.96). For the HCW group, practitioners older than 45 years were more reluctant to be vaccinated than those under 25 years (aOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.86). For the health administrator group, personnel aged 26 years and above were less inclined to be vaccinated (aORs = 0.17-0.20). In all groups, people who had received influenza vaccines in the past 5 years (aOR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.31-2.26 in general population group, 13.05, 95% CI: 7.71-22.10 in HCW group, and 19.30, 95% CI: 9.66-42.63 in health administrator group) were more likely to be vaccinated in future seasons. People who were not covered by the free program or those without awareness of the related programs were less likely to be vaccinated (aORs < 0.63). Most (70.8%) of HCWs showed intention to recommend the influenza vaccine. Clinical doctors, those who had flu shots themselves, and those who had more knowledge, were more like to make recommendations. Health administrators stated that insufficient budget resources and workforce, and low public awareness are main difficulties in the promotion of influenza vaccine. Conclusion: The influencing factors of the attitude toward influenza vaccination vary across populations. Governments need to carry out focused vaccination promotion programs, especially for healthcare workers, to improve the coverage of influenza vaccination.


Тема - темы
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Middle Aged , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Population Groups , Vaccination , China
6.
Work ; 73(s1): S169-S176, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109710

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought about change in the work environment, increasing remote and hybrid mode of work, presenting a compelling need to study visual ergonomics in this new work environment. OBJECTIVE: To assess computer vision symptoms and visual ergonomics in remote and hybrid work settings during the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on eye to screen relationship. METHODS: The computer-vision symptom scale (CVSS17) questionnaire and questions about human factors and ergonomics were included in the survey conducted in September 2021. Sixty-six working professionals (mean age 37 years±5), working from home (n = 44) or in hybrid mode (n = 22) were included in the study. Cramer's V was used for the correlation coefficient between two categorical variables for assessing eye health in changing work environments. RESULTS: Compared to our previous study, the correlation between computer vision syndrome (CVS) symptoms is markedly higher. The population working in hybrid mode experienced eye heaviness with strain to see well (V = 0.6872, p = 0.002) and dryness in the eyes (V = 0.5912, p = 0.0179). The population working from home who are bothered by surrounding lights also report dryness in the eyes (V = 0.3846, p = 0.0005). Screen use hours are higher in work from home situations (43% work more than 9 hrs) than those in hybrid mode of work (4% work more than 9 hrs). CONCLUSION: A definite increase in CVS in most of the population working remotely or in hybrid environments is established through this study. User-friendly strategies for raising awareness of applied visual ergonomics can prevent rampant onset of CVS in the working population.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ergonomics , Workplace , Computers , Syndrome
7.
Euro Surveill ; 27(44)2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109635

Реферат

BackgroundSince the roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines in late 2020 and throughout 2021, European governments have relied on mathematical modelling to inform policy decisions about COVID-19 vaccination.AimWe present a scenario-based modelling analysis in the Netherlands during summer 2021, to inform whether to extend vaccination to adolescents (12-17-year-olds) and children (5-11-year-olds).MethodsWe developed a deterministic, age-structured susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model and compared modelled incidences of infections, hospital and intensive care admissions, and deaths per 100,000 people across vaccination scenarios, before the emergence of the Omicron variant.ResultsOur model projections showed that, on average, upon the release of all non-pharmaceutical control measures on 1 November 2021, a large COVID-19 wave may occur in winter 2021/22, followed by a smaller, second wave in spring 2022, regardless of the vaccination scenario. The model projected reductions in infections/severe disease outcomes when vaccination was extended to adolescents and further reductions when vaccination was extended to all people over 5 years-old. When examining projected disease outcomes by age group, individuals benefitting most from extending vaccination were adolescents and children themselves. We also observed reductions in disease outcomes in older age groups, particularly of parent age (30-49 years), when children and adolescents were vaccinated, suggesting some prevention of onward transmission from younger to older age groups.ConclusionsWhile our scenarios could not anticipate the emergence/consequences of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, we illustrate how our approach can assist decision making. This could be useful when considering to provide booster doses or intervening against future infection waves.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Child, Preschool , Netherlands/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination
8.
Euro Surveill ; 27(39)2022 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109633

Реферат

BackgroundAfter an outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant in the district of Schwaz/Austria, vaccination with Comirnaty vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA, BioNTech-Pfizer) had been offered to all adult inhabitants (≥ 16 years) in March 2021. This made Schwaz one of the most vaccinated regions in Europe at that time (70% of the adult population took up the offer). In contrast, all other Austrian districts remained with low vaccine coverage.AimWe studied whether this rapid mass vaccination campaign provided indirect protection to unvaccinated individuals such as children (< 16 years) living in the same district.MethodsTo study the effect of the campaign we used two complementary approaches. We compared infection rates among the population of children (< 16 years) in Schwaz with (i) the child population from similar districts (using the synthetic control method), and (ii) with the child population from municipalities along the border of Schwaz not included in the campaign (using an event study approach).ResultsBefore the campaign, we observed very similar infection spread across the cohort of children in Schwaz and the control regions. After the campaign, we found a significant reduction of new cases among children of -64.5% (95%-CI: -82.0 to -30.2%) relative to adjacent border municipalities (using the event study model). Employing the synthetic control method, we observed a significant reduction of -42.8% in the same cohort.ConclusionOur results constitute novel evidence of an indirect protection effect from a group of vaccinated individuals to an unvaccinated group.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Measles , Adult , Austria/epidemiology , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Measles/epidemiology , Measles Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(6): 546-554, 2022 Nov 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109627

Реферат

Background: There are some adverse effects with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, but the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on attacks in hereditary angioedema (HAE) is not well defined. Objective: We aimed to investigate the influence of COVID-19 vaccination on the course of HAE. Method: The COVID-19 vaccination status was determined in 140 adult patients with HAE. The number and severity of attacks recorded from patients' diaries were evaluated at four different periods, comprising 1 month before the first dose, the period between the first and the second doses of COVID-19 vaccine in all the patients, the period between the second dose and the third doses in those who received three doses, and 1 month after the last vaccination dose. The disease and attack severities were assessed with the disease severity score (DSS) and 10-point visual analog scale, respectively. The patients were divided into two main groups as group 1 (those who had at least two doses of COVID-19 vaccines [n = 114]) and group 2 (those who had no vaccination [n = 26]). Only Sinovac and Biontech, which were only approved in Turkey. Results: The mean ± standard deviation DSS was significantly higher in the patients who experienced an attack after vaccination within 48 hours (6.61 ± 1.88 versus 4.14 ± 1.69; p < 0.001). Long-term prophylaxis was less common in the patients with an increased number of attacks (n = 5 (27.8%) versus n = 54 (56.3%); p = 0.027). The number of patients with less than a high school education was higher in group 2 (n = 23 [88.5%]) than in group 1 (n = 26 [3.1%]) (p < 0.001). The number of patients who had concerns about the triggering of a vaccine-induced HAE attack or about the possible vaccine adverse effects was higher in group 2 (n = 26 [100%]) than in group 1 (n = 74 [64.9%]). Conclusion: It seems that COVID-19 vaccination does not increase HAE attacks regardless of the type of the vaccines. We recommend that HAE activity should be under control before COVID-19 vaccination, and the patients should be well informed about the safety of the vaccines.


Тема - темы
Angioedemas, Hereditary , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Angioedemas, Hereditary/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disease Progression , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e38604, 2022 10 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109557

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Virtual care use increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of that shift on patient and provider experiences is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patient and provider experiences with virtual visits across an academic, ambulatory hospital in Toronto, Canada and assessed predictors of positive experience with virtual care. METHODS: Survey data were analyzed from consenting patients who attended at least one virtual visit (video or telephone) and from consenting providers who delivered at least one virtual visit. Distributions for demographic variables and responses to survey questions are reported, with statistical significance assessed using chi-square tests and t tests. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to identify any patient predictors of responses. RESULTS: During the study period, 253 patients (mean age 45.1, SD 15.6 years) completed 517 video visit surveys, and 147 patients (mean age 41.6, SD 16.4 years) completed 209 telephone visit surveys. A total of 75 and 94 providers completed the survey in June 2020 and June 2021, respectively. On a scale from 1 to 10 regarding likelihood to recommend virtual care to others, fewer providers rated a score of 8 or above compared with patients (providers: 62/94, 66% for video and 49/94, 52% for telephone; patients: 415/517, 80% for video and 150/209, 72% for telephone). Patients of non-White ethnicity had lower odds of rating a high score of 9 or 10 compared with White patients (odds ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Patient experiences with virtual care were generally positive, but provider experiences were less so. Findings suggest potential differences in patient experience by ethnicity, warranting further investigation into equity concerns with virtual care.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ontario/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care , Hospitals
11.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 258(4): 327-332, 2022 Nov 23.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109461

Реферат

Antithrombin deficiency is a high-risk factor for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy, whereas cerebral venous thrombosis is rare. Cerebral venous thrombosis related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has been reported; however, there are a few reports of cerebral venous thrombosis after a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination. A 25-year-old female in her sixth week of pregnancy presented with headache 24 days after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The following day, she presented with altered sensorium and was diagnosed with severe cerebral venous thrombosis. She demonstrated heparin resistance and was found to have an inherited antithrombin deficiency. A heterozygous missense variant in SERPINC1 (c.379T>C, p.Cys127Arg, 'AT Morioka') was detected by DNA analysis. Despite intensive care with unfractionated heparin, antithrombin concentrate, and repeated endovascular treatments, she died on the sixth day of hospitalization. Cerebral venous thrombosis in pregnant women with an antithrombin deficiency can follow a rapid and fatal course. Treatment with unfractionated heparin and antithrombin concentrate may be ineffective in severe cerebral venous thrombosis cases with antithrombin deficiency. Early recognition of antithrombin deficiency and an immediate switch to other anticoagulants may be required. Although the association between cerebral venous thrombosis and the vaccine is uncertain, COVID-19 vaccinations may require careful evaluation for patients with prothrombic factors.


Тема - темы
Antithrombin III Deficiency , COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnant Women , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine , Heparin , RNA, Messenger , Antithrombin III Deficiency/complications , Antithrombin III Deficiency/genetics , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1645-1651, 2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109341

Реферат

We examined use of and willingness to use video telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic in a longitudinally followed cohort. Between February 2019 and March 2021, use and willingness to use increased among nearly all subgroups, with large increases among Black adults and adults with lower educational attainment. In March 2021 Black adults, adults ages 20-39, and high-income adults reported the greatest willingness to use video telehealth.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cohort Studies
13.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1645-1651, 2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109340

Реферат

We examined use of and willingness to use video telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic in a longitudinally followed cohort. Between February 2019 and March 2021, use and willingness to use increased among nearly all subgroups, with large increases among Black adults and adults with lower educational attainment. In March 2021 Black adults, adults ages 20-39, and high-income adults reported the greatest willingness to use video telehealth.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cohort Studies
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275832, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109322

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Studies from Asia, Europe and the USA indicate that widely available haematological parameters could be used to determine the clinical severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and predict management outcome. There is limited data from Africa on their usefulness in patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). We performed an evaluation of baseline haematological parameters as prognostic biomarkers in ICU COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively on patients with confirmed COVID-19, admitted to the adult ICU in a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, between March 2020 and February 2021. Robust Poisson regression methods and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to explore the association of haematological parameters with COVID-19 severity and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 490 patients (median age 54.1 years) were included, of whom 237 (48%) were female. The median duration of ICU stay was 6 days and 309/490 (63%) patients died. Raised neutrophil count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were associated with worse outcome. Independent risk factors associated with mortality were age (ARR 1.01, 95%CI 1.0-1.02; p = 0.002); female sex (ARR 1.23, 95%CI 1.05-1.42; p = 0.008) and D-dimer levels (ARR 1.01, 95%CI 1.002-1.03; p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that raised neutrophil count, NLR and D-dimer at the time of ICU admission were associated with higher mortality. Contrary to what has previously been reported, our study revealed females admitted to the ICU had a higher risk of mortality.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , South Africa/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Hospitalization , Retrospective Studies
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0273290, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109302

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic disease represent an at-risk group in the face of the COVID-19 crisis as they need to regularly monitor their lifestyle and emotional management. Coping with the illness becomes a challenge due to supply problems and lack of access to health care facilities. It is expected these limitations, along with lockdown and social distancing measures, have affected the routine disease management of these patients, being more pronounced in low- and middle-income countries with a flawed health care system. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe a protocol for a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of the Adhera® MejoraCare Digital Program, an mHealth intervention aimed at improving the quality of life of patients with chronic diseases during the COVID-19 outbreak in Paraguay. METHOD: A two-arm randomized controlled trial will be carried out, with repeated measures (baseline, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month) under two conditions: Adhera® MejoraCare Digital Program or waiting list. The primary outcome is a change in the quality of life on the EuroQol 5-Dimensions 3-Levels Questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L). Other secondary outcomes, as the effect on anxiety and health empowerment, will be considered. All participants must be 18 years of age or older and meet the criteria for chronic disease. A total of 96 participants will be recruited (48 per arm). CONCLUSIONS: It is expected that the Adhera® MejoraCare Digital Program will show significant improvements in quality of life and emotional distress compared to the waiting list condition. Additionally, it is hypothesized that this intervention will be positively evaluated by the participants in terms of usability and satisfaction. The findings will provide new insights into the viability and efficacy of mHealth solutions for chronic disease management in developing countries and in times of pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04659746.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Paraguay/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Chronic Disease , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
16.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 84, 2022 09 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109076

Реферат

The widespread use of face masks in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic has promoted research on their effect on the perception and recognition of faces. There is growing evidence that masks hinder the recognition of identity and expression, as well as the interpretation of speech from facial cues. It is less clear whether and in what manner masks affect the perception of age from facial cues. Recent research has emphasized the role of the upper region of the face, a part not covered by a mask, in the evaluation of age. For example, smile-related wrinkles in the region of the eyes make smiling faces appear older than neutral faces of the same individuals (the aging effect of smiling, AES). In two experiments, we tested the effect of face masks on age evaluations of neutral and smiling faces in a range of different age groups from 20 to 80 years. The results showed that smiling faces were perceived as older than neutral faces even when individuals were wearing a face mask-and there was no effect of masks on bias in age evaluations. Additional analyses showed reduced accuracy in age evaluations for smiling compared to neutral faces and for masked compared to unmasked faces. The results converge on previous studies emphasizing the importance of the upper region of the face in evaluations of age.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Smiling , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , Young Adult
17.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 73, 2022 07 30.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109073

Реферат

Mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a growing interest in the functional impact of masks on speech and communication. Prior work has shown that masks dampen sound, impede visual communication cues, and reduce intelligibility. However, more work is needed to understand how speakers change their speech while wearing a mask and to identify strategies to overcome the impact of wearing a mask. Data were collected from 19 healthy adults during a single in-person session. We investigated the effects of wearing a KN95 mask on speech intelligibility, as judged by two speech-language pathologists, examined speech kinematics and acoustics associated with mask-wearing, and explored KN95 acoustic filtering. We then considered the efficacy of three speaking strategies to improve speech intelligibility: Loud, Clear, and Slow speech. To inform speaker strategy recommendations, we related findings to self-reported speaker effort. Results indicated that healthy speakers could compensate for the presence of a mask and achieve normal speech intelligibility. Additionally, we showed that speaking loudly or clearly-and, to a lesser extent, slowly-improved speech intelligibility. However, using these strategies may require increased physical and cognitive effort and should be used only when necessary. These results can inform recommendations for speakers wearing masks, particularly those with communication disorders (e.g., dysarthria) who may struggle to adapt to a mask but can respond to explicit instructions. Such recommendations may further help non-native speakers and those communicating in a noisy environment or with listeners with hearing loss.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Communication Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognition , Humans , Masks , N95 Respirators , Pandemics , Speech Intelligibility
18.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 64, 2022 07 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109070

Реферат

Use of face masks is one of the measures adopted by the general community to stop the transmission of disease during this ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This wide use of face masks has indeed been shown to disrupt day-to-day face recognition. People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have predisposed impairment in face recognition and are expected to be more vulnerable to this disruption in face recognition. Here, we recruited typically developing adult participants and those with ASD, and we measured their non-verbal intelligence, autism spectrum quotient, empathy quotient, and recognition performances of faces with and without a face mask covering the lower halves of the face. When faces were initially learned unobstructed, we showed that participants had a general reduced face recognition performance for masked faces. In contrast, when masked faces were first learned, typically developing adults benefit with an overall advantage in recognizing both masked and unmasked faces; while adults with ASD recognized unmasked faces with a significantly more reduced level of performance than masked faces-this face recognition discrepancy is predicted by a higher level of autistic traits. This paper also discusses how autistic traits influence processing of faces with and without face masks.


Тема - темы
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Recognition, Psychology
19.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 255, 2022 Nov 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108983

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Although the Multidimensional Interaction Model of Stress, Anxiety and Coping (MIMSAC) has been known for years, there is a lack of research examining this theory longitudinally in stressful events. This study aims to revisit the MIMSAC among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with the longitudinal design was performed during the first (W1, March 30-April 29, 2020) and second wave (W2, November 3-December 3, 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 216 university students with a mean age of 22 years (ranging from 20 to 36, M = 22.13, SD = 2.04) participated in the study. An online survey included Perceived Stress Scale, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. RESULTS: Due to the MIMSAC, all variables changed substantially across W1 and W2, adapting to an unpredictable environment. Women scored higher than men in stress, anxiety, emotion- and avoidance-oriented coping styles. We found the indirect effect of emotion-oriented coping on the stress-anxiety relationship and task-oriented coping on the anxiety-stress interaction. Avoidance was not found as a mediator in the stress-anxiety interaction. CONCLUSION: Emotion-oriented coping adversely affected mental health, increasing anxiety in response to stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Task-oriented coping efficiently decreased stress in reaction to high anxiety, but only in men. Avoidance seems to be an ineffective coping style during the COVID-19 pandemic. Campus intervention programs should focus on reducing negative emotions and increasing the frequency of task-oriented coping strategies among university students.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Stress, Psychological , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders
20.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 301, 2022 Nov 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108780

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PURPOSE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute and critical disease among children and adults, and previous studies have shown that the administration of corticosteroids remains controversial. Therefore, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of corticosteroids. METHODS: The RCTs investigating the safety and efficacy of corticosteroids in ARDS were searched from electronic databases (Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Chi square test and I2 with the inspection level of 0.1 and 50%, respectively. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs (n = 1607) were included for analysis. Corticosteroids were found to reduce the risk of death in patients with ARDS (relative risk (RR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-0.87; P < 0.01). Moreover, no significant adverse events were observed, compared to placebo or standard support therapy. Further subgroup analysis showed that variables, such as adults (RR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.70-0.88; P < 0.01), non-COVID-19 (RR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62-0.83; P < 0.01), methylprednisolone (RR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.56-0.88; P < 0.01), and hydrocortisone (RR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63-0.98; P = 0.03) were associated with 28-day mortality among patients who used corticosteroids. However, no association was found, regarding children (RR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.01-4.10; P = 0.30). CONCLUSION: The use of corticosteroids is an effective approach to reduce the risk of death in ARDS patients. However, this effect is associated with age, non-COVID-19 diseases, and methylprednisolone and hydrocortisone use. Therefore, evidence suggests patients with age ≥ 18 years and non-COVID-19 should be encouraged during the corticosteroid treatment. However, due to substantial differences in the use of corticosteroids among these studies, questions still remain regarding the dosage, optimal corticosteroid agent, and treatment duration in patients with ARDS.


Тема - темы
Hydrocortisone , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Child , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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