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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109937

Реферат

The spread of SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease COVID-19, is difficult to control as some positive individuals, capable of transmitting the disease, can be asymptomatic. Thus, it remains critical to generate noninvasive, inexpensive COVID-19 screening systems. Two such methods include detection canines and analytical instrumentation, both of which detect volatile organic compounds associated with SARS-CoV-2. In this study, the performance of trained detection dogs is compared to a noninvasive headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) approach to identifying COVID-19 positive individuals. Five dogs were trained to detect the odor signature associated with COVID-19. They varied in performance, with the two highest-performing dogs averaging 88% sensitivity and 95% specificity over five double-blind tests. The three lowest-performing dogs averaged 46% sensitivity and 87% specificity. The optimized linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model, developed using HS-SPME-GC-MS, displayed a 100% true positive rate and a 100% true negative rate using leave-one-out cross-validation. However, the non-optimized LDA model displayed difficulty in categorizing animal hair-contaminated samples, while animal hair did not impact the dogs' performance. In conclusion, the HS-SPME-GC-MS approach for noninvasive COVID-19 detection more accurately discriminated between COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative samples; however, dogs performed better than the computational model when non-ideal samples were presented.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Odorants , Dogs , Animals , Odorants/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Solid Phase Microextraction/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1025884, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109769

Реферат

Since the first outbreak in the 19th century influenza virus has remained emergent owing to the huge pandemic potential. Only the pandemic of 1918 caused more deaths than any war in world history. Although two types of influenza- A (IAV) and B (IBV) cause epidemics annually, influenza A deserves more attention as its nature is much wilier. IAVs have a large animal reservoir and cause the infection manifestation not only in the human population but in poultry and domestic pigs as well. This many-sided characteristic of IAV along with the segmented genome gives rise to the antigenic drift and shift that allows evolving the new strains and new subtypes, respectively. As a result, the immune system of the body is unable to recognize them. Importantly, several highly pathogenic avian IAVs have already caused sporadic human infections with a high fatality rate (~60%). The current review discusses the promising strategy of using a potentially universal IAV mRNA vaccine based on conserved elements for humans, poultry, and pigs. This will better aid in averting the outbreaks in different susceptible species, thus, reduce the adverse impact on agriculture, and economics, and ultimately, prevent deadly pandemics in the human population.


Тема - темы
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Animals , Swine , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry , RNA, Messenger
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 960709, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109764

Реферат

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a highly contagious disease that affects the global pig industry. To understand mechanisms of susceptibility/resistance to PRRSV, this study profiled the time-serial white blood cells transcriptomic and serum metabolomic responses to PRRSV in piglets from a crossbred population of PRRSV-resistant Tongcheng pigs and PRRSV-susceptible Large White pigs. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) illustrated that PRRSV infection up-regulated the expression levels of marker genes of dendritic cells, monocytes and neutrophils and inflammatory response, but down-regulated T cells, B cells and NK cells markers. CIBERSORT analysis confirmed the higher T cells proportion in resistant pigs during PRRSV infection. Resistant pigs showed a significantly higher level of T cell activation and lower expression levels of monocyte surface signatures post infection than susceptible pigs, corresponding to more severe suppression of T cell immunity and inflammatory response in susceptible pigs. Differentially expressed genes between resistant/susceptible pigs during the course of infection were significantly enriched in oxidative stress, innate immunity and humoral immunity, cell cycle, biotic stimulated cellular response, wounding response and behavior related pathways. Fourteen of these genes were distributed in 5 different QTL regions associated with PRRSV-related traits. Chemokine CXCL10 levels post PRRSV infection were differentially expressed between resistant pigs and susceptible pigs and can be a promising marker for susceptibility/resistance to PRRSV. Furthermore, the metabolomics dataset indicated differences in amino acid pathways and lipid metabolism between pre-infection/post-infection and resistant/susceptible pigs. The majority of metabolites levels were also down-regulated after PRRSV infection and were significantly positively correlated to the expression levels of marker genes in adaptive immune response. The integration of transcriptome and metabolome revealed concerted molecular events triggered by the infection, notably involving inflammatory response, adaptive immunity and G protein-coupled receptor downstream signaling. This study has increased our knowledge of the immune response differences induced by PRRSV infection and susceptibility differences at the transcriptomic and metabolomic levels, providing the basis for the PRRSV resistance mechanism and effective PRRS control.


Тема - темы
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Animals , Swine , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Transcriptome , Immunity, Humoral , Adaptive Immunity/genetics
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1019723, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109736

Реферат

Objectives: Close contact with patients with COVID-19 is speculated to be the most common cause of viral transmission, but the pathogenesis of COVID-19 by close contact remains to be elucidated. In addition, despite olfactory impairment being a unique complication of COVID-19, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the olfactory cell lineage has not been fully validated. This study aimed to elucidate close-contact viral transmission to the nose and lungs and to investigate the temporal damage in the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) lineage caused by SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Syrian hamsters were orally administered SARS-CoV-2 nonvariant nCoV-19/JPN/TY/WK521/2020 as direct-infection models. On day 3 after inoculation, infected and uninfected hamsters were housed in the same cage for 30 minutes. These uninfected hamsters were subsequently assigned to a close-contact group. First, viral presence in the nose and lungs was verified in the infection and close-contact groups at several time points. Next, the impacts on the olfactory epithelium, including olfactory progenitors, immature ORNs, and mature ORNs were examined histologically. Then, the viral transmission status and chronological changes in tissue damage were compared between the direct-infection and close-contact groups. Results: In the close-contact group, viral presence could not be detected in both the nose and lungs on day 3, and the virus was identified in both tissues on day 7. In the direct-infection group, the viral load was highest in the nose and lungs on day 3, decreased on day 7, and was no longer detectable on day 14. Histologically, in the direct-infection group, mature ORNs were most depleted on day 3 (p <0.001) and showed a recovery trend on day 14, with similar trends for olfactory progenitors and immature ORNs. In the close-contact group, there was no obvious tissue damage on day 3, but on day 7, the number of all ORN lineage cells significantly decreased (p <0.001). Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted even after brief contact and subsequent olfactory epithelium and lung damage occurred more than 3 days after the trigger of infection. The present study also indicated that SARS-CoV-2 damages all ORN lineage cells, but this damage can begin to recover approximately 14 days post infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Mesocricetus , Cell Lineage , Disease Models, Animal
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1003608, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109735

Реферат

As new pathogens emerge, new challenges must be faced. This is no different in infectious disease research, where identifying the best tools available in laboratories to conduct an investigation can, at least initially, be particularly complicated. However, in the context of an emerging virus, such as SARS-CoV-2, which was recently detected in China and has become a global threat to healthcare systems, developing models of infection and pathogenesis is urgently required. Cell-based approaches are crucial to understanding coronavirus infection biology, growth kinetics, and tropism. Usually, laboratory cell lines are the first line in experimental models to study viral pathogenicity and perform assays aimed at screening antiviral compounds which are efficient at blocking the replication of emerging viruses, saving time and resources, reducing the use of experimental animals. However, determining the ideal cell type can be challenging, especially when several researchers have to adapt their studies to specific requirements. This review strives to guide scientists who are venturing into studying SARS-CoV-2 and help them choose the right cellular models. It revisits basic concepts of virology and presents the currently available in vitro models, their advantages and disadvantages, and the known consequences of each choice.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line , China
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 976137, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109734

Реферат

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric coronavirus that causes acute watery diarrhea and vomiting in unweaned piglets. Infections result in high mortality and serious economic losses to the swine industry. PEDV attenuated vaccine does not completely protect against all mutant wild-type strains, and PEDV infection can periodically occur. A sensitive, accurate, and simple detection method for PEDV is needed to reduce the occurrence of the disease. In this study, the CRISPR/Cas13a system was combined with recombinase aided amplification to develop a rapid diagnostic method to distinguish PEDV wild-type strains from attenuated vaccine strains. The method is based on isothermal detection at 37°C. The results are used for visual readout. The assay had high sensitivity and specificity, with a detection limit of 101 copies/µL for the gene of interest, and no cross-reactivity with other pathogens. The Cas13a detection worked well with clinical samples. This visual, sensitive, and specific nucleic acid detection method based on CRISPR/Cas13a should be a powerful tool for detecting PEDV.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections , Nucleic Acids , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Recombinases , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine , Swine Diseases/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics
7.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 267, 2022 Nov 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108803

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (Trem2) plays a protective role in neurodegenerative diseases. By contrast, Trem2 functions can exacerbate tissue damage during respiratory viral or liver infections. We, therefore, investigated the role of Trem2 in a viral encephalomyelitis model associated with prominent Th1 mediated antiviral immunity leading to demyelination. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and Trem2 deficient (Trem2-/-) mice were infected with a sublethal glia tropic murine coronavirus (MHV-JHM) intracranially. Disease progression and survival were monitored daily. Leukocyte accumulation and pathological features including demyelination and axonal damage in spinal cords (SC) were determined by flow cytometry and tissue section immunofluorescence analysis. Expression of select inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was measured by RT-PCR and global myeloid cell gene expression in SC-derived microglia and infiltrated bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were determined using the Nanostring nCounter platform. RESULTS: BMDM recruited to SCs in response to infection highly upregulated Trem2 mRNA compared to microglia coincident with viral control. Trem2 deficiency did not alter disease onset or severity, but impaired clinical recovery after onset of demyelination. Disease progression in Trem2-/- mice could not be attributed to altered virus control or an elevated proinflammatory response. A prominent difference was increased degenerated myelin not associated with the myeloid cell markers IBA1 and/or CD68. Gene expression profiles of SC-derived microglia and BMDM further revealed that Trem2 deficiency resulted in impaired upregulation of phagocytosis associated genes Lpl and Cd36 in microglia, but a more complex pattern in BMDM. CONCLUSIONS: Trem2 deficiency during viral-induced demyelination dysregulates expression of other select genes regulating phagocytic pathways and lipid metabolism, with distinct effects on microglia and BMDM. The ultimate failure to remove damaged myelin is reminiscent of toxin or autoimmune cell-induced demyelination models and supports that Trem2 function is regulated by sensing tissue damage including a dysregulated lipid environment in very distinct inflammatory environments.


Тема - темы
Brain , Demyelinating Diseases , Animals , Mice , Brain/metabolism , Phagocytosis/genetics , Microglia/metabolism , Demyelinating Diseases/chemically induced , Disease Progression , Gene Expression , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 392, 2022 Nov 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108779

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteric coronavirus, has become the major causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in piglets since 2010 in China. RESULTS: In the current study, 91 complete spike (S) gene sequences were obtained from PEDV positive samples collected from 17 provinces in China from March 2020 to March 2021. A phylogenetic analysis showed that 92.3% (84 out of 91) of the identified strains belonged to GII subtype, while 7.7% (7 out of 91) were categorized as S-INDEL like strains and grouped within GI-c clade. Based on a recombination analysis, six of S-INDEL like strains were recombinant strains originated from S-INDEL strain FR/001/2014 and virulent strain AJ1102. In addition, PEDV variant strains (CH/GDMM/202012, CH/GXDX/202010 et al) carrying novel insertions (360QGRKS364 and 1278VDVF1281) in the S protein were observed. Furthermore, the deduced amino acid sequences for the S protein showed that multiple amino acid substitutions in the antigenic epitopes in comparison with the vaccine strains. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, these data provide novel molecular evidence on the epidemiology and molecular diversity of PEDV in 2020-2021. This information may help design a strategy for controlling and preventing the prevalence of PEDV variant strains in China.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Phylogeny , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Amino Acid Sequence , China/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 323(5): L515-L524, 2022 Nov 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108362

Реферат

Failure to regenerate injured alveoli functionally and promptly causes a high incidence of fatality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). How elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) regulates the lineage of alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells for re-alveolarization has not been studied. This study aimed to examine the role of PAI-1-Wnt5a-ß catenin cascades in AT2 fate. Dramatic reduction in AT2 yield was observed in Serpine1Tg mice. Elevated PAI-1 level suppressed organoid number, development efficiency, and total surface area in vitro. Anti-PAI-1 neutralizing antibody restored organoid number, proliferation and differentiation of AT2 cells, and ß-catenin level in organoids. Both Wnt family member 5A (Wnt5a) and Wnt5a-derived N-butyloxycarbonyl hexapeptide (Box5) altered the lineage of AT2 cells. This study demonstrates that elevated PAI-1 regulates AT2 proliferation and differentiation via the Wnt5a/ß catenin cascades. PAI-1 could serve as autocrine signaling for lung injury repair.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Wnt-5a Protein , beta Catenin , Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , beta Catenin/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Wnt Signaling Pathway/physiology , Wnt-5a Protein/metabolism , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/cytology , Cell Proliferation
10.
J Virol ; 96(22): e0147322, 2022 Nov 23.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108213

Реферат

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is member of the family Coronaviridae and mainly causes acute diarrhea. TGEV infection is characterized by vomiting, watery diarrhea, and severe dehydration, resulting in high mortality rates in neonatal piglets. TGEV infection symptoms are related to an imbalance of sodium absorption in small intestinal epithelial cells; however, the etiology of sodium imbalance diarrhea caused by TGEV remains unclear. In this study, we performed transcriptomic analysis of intestinal tissues from infected and healthy piglets and observed that the expression of NHE3, encoding Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), the main exchanger of electroneutral sodium in intestinal epithelial cells, was significantly reduced upon TGEV infection. We also showed that specific inhibition of intestinal NHE3 activity could lead to the development of diarrhea in piglets. Furthermore, we revealed an interaction between TGEV N protein and NHE3 near the nucleus. The binding of TGEV N to NHE3 directly affected the expression and activity of NHE3 on the cell surface and affected cellular electrolyte absorption, leading to diarrhea. Molecular docking and computer-aided screening techniques were used to screen for the blocker of the interaction between TGEV N and NHE3, which identified irinotecan. We then demonstrated that irinotecan was effective in relieving TGEV-induced diarrhea in piglets. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of TGEV-induced sodium imbalance diarrhea and could lead to the design of novel antiviral strategies against TGEV. IMPORTANCE A variety of coronaviruses have been found to cause severe diarrhea in hosts, including TGEV; however, the pathogenic mechanism is not clear. Therefore, prompt determination of the mechanism and identification of efficient therapeutic agents are required, both for public health reasons and for economic development. In this study, we demonstrated that NHE3 is the major expressed protein of NHEs in the intestine, and its expression decreased by nearly 70% after TGEV infection. Also, specific inhibition of intestinal NHE3 resulted in severe diarrhea in piglets. This demonstrated that NHE3 plays an important role in TGEV-induced diarrhea. In addition, we found that TGEV N directly regulates NHE3 expression and activity through protein-protein interaction, which is essential to promote diarrhea. Molecular docking and other techniques demonstrated that irinotecan could block the interaction and diarrhea caused by TGEV. Thus, our results provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutic agents against TGEV and guidance for the development of drugs for other diarrhea-causing coronaviruses.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , Animals , Swine , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/physiology , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3/genetics , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Irinotecan , Molecular Docking Simulation , Diarrhea/veterinary , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Sodium/metabolism
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18694, 2022 Nov 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106469

Реферат

SARS-CoV-2 exhibits a diverse host species range with variable outcomes, enabling differential host susceptibility studies to assess suitability for pre-clinical countermeasure and pathogenesis studies. Baseline virological, molecular and pathological outcomes were determined among multiple species-one Old World non-human primate (NHP) species (cynomolgus macaques), two New World NHP species (red-bellied tamarins; common marmosets) and Syrian hamsters-following single-dose, atraumatic intranasal administration of SARS-CoV-2/Victoria-01. After serial sacrifice 2, 10 and 28-days post-infection (dpi), hamsters and cynomolgus macaques displayed differential virus biodistribution across respiratory, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Uniquely, New World tamarins, unlike marmosets, exhibited high levels of acute upper airway infection, infectious virus recovery associated with mild lung pathology representing a host previously unrecognized as susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Across all species, lung pathology was identified post-clearance of virus shedding (antigen/RNA), with an association of virus particles within replication organelles in lung sections analysed by electron microscopy. Disrupted cell ultrastructure and lung architecture, including abnormal morphology of mitochondria 10-28 dpi, represented on-going pathophysiological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 in predominantly asymptomatic hosts. Infection kinetics and host pathology comparators using standardized methodologies enables model selection to bridge differential outcomes within upper and lower respiratory tracts and elucidate longer-term consequences of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Tissue Distribution , Administration, Intranasal , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Macaca fascicularis
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6644, 2022 Nov 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106406

Реферат

Current COVID-19 vaccines are based on prototypic spike sequences from ancestral 2019 SARS-CoV-2 strains. However, the ongoing pandemic is fueled by variants of concern (VOC) escaping vaccine-mediated protection. Here we demonstrate how immunization in hamsters using prototypic spike expressed from yellow fever 17D (YF17D) as vector blocks ancestral virus (B lineage) and VOC Alpha (B.1.1.7) yet fails to fully protect from Beta (B.1.351). However, the same YF17D vectored vaccine candidate with an evolved antigen induced considerably improved neutralizing antibody responses against VOCs Beta, Gamma (P.1) and the recently predominant Omicron (B.1.1.529), while maintaining immunogenicity against ancestral virus and VOC Delta (B.1.617.2). Thus vaccinated animals resisted challenge by all VOCs, including vigorous high titre exposure to the most difficult to cover Beta, Delta and Omicron variants, eliminating detectable virus and markedly improving lung pathology. Finally, vaccinated hamsters did not transmit Delta variant to non-vaccinated cage mates. Overall, our data illustrate how current first-generation COVID-19 vaccines may need to be updated to maintain efficacy against emerging VOCs and their spread at community level.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Yellow Fever Vaccine , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
ACS Nano ; 16(7): 10566-10580, 2022 Jul 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106345

Реферат

Intravenously infusible nanoparticles to control bleeding have shown promise in rodents, but translation into preclinical models has been challenging as many of these nanoparticle approaches have resulted in infusion responses and adverse outcomes in large animal trauma models. We developed a hemostatic nanoparticle technology that was screened to avoid one component of the infusion response: complement activation. We administered these hemostatic nanoparticles, control nanoparticles, or saline volume controls in a porcine polytrauma model. While the hemostatic nanoparticles promoted clotting as marked by a decrease in prothrombin time and both the hemostatic nanoparticles and controls did not active complement, in a subset of the animals, hard thrombi were found in uninjured tissues in both the hemostatic and control nanoparticle groups. Using data science methods that allow one to work across heterogeneous data sets, we found that the presence of these thrombi correlated with changes in IL-6, INF-alpha, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. While these findings might suggest that this formulation would not be a safe one for translation for trauma, they provide guidance for developing screening tools to make nanoparticle formulations in the complex milieux of trauma as well as for therapeutic interventions more broadly. This is important as we look to translate intravenously administered nanoparticle formulations for therapies, particularly considering the vascular changes seen in a subset of patients following COVID-19. We need to understand adverse events like thrombi more completely and screen for these events early to make nanomaterials as safe and effective as possible.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Nanoparticles , Thrombosis , Swine , Animals , Cytokines , Polyesters , Disease Models, Animal , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Polyethylene Glycols
14.
ACS Chem Biol ; 17(7): 1937-1950, 2022 07 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106315

Реферат

Inhibition of the protein kinase CSNK2 with any of 30 specific and selective inhibitors representing different chemotypes, blocked replication of pathogenic human, bat, and murine ß-coronaviruses. The potency of in-cell CSNK2A target engagement across the set of inhibitors correlated with antiviral activity and genetic knockdown confirmed the essential role of the CSNK2 holoenzyme in ß-coronavirus replication. Spike protein endocytosis was blocked by CSNK2A inhibition, indicating that antiviral activity was due in part to a suppression of viral entry. CSNK2A inhibition may be a viable target for the development of anti-SARS-like ß-coronavirus drugs.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/genetics , Humans , Mice , Virus Internalization
15.
Water Res ; 227: 119342, 2022 Dec 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106149

Реферат

Glutaraldehyde and didecyldimethylammonium bromide (GD) is a disinfectant widely used to prevent African swine fever (ASF) in livestock farms. However, the effect of residual GD on the activated sludge microbial ecology of receiving wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) remains largely unknown. In this study, seven simulated systems were established to research the effects of GD on WWTPs and reveal the underlying mechanisms of microecological responses to GD at different concentrations. Both the nitrogen and carbon removal rates decreased with increasing GD concentrations, and nitrogen metabolism was inhibited more obviously, but the inhibition weakened with increasing stress duration. Microorganisms activated their SoxRS systems to promote ATP synthesis and electron transfer to support the hydrolysis and efflux of GD by producing a small number of ROS when exposed to GD at less than 1 mg/L. The overproduction of ROS led to a decrease of antioxidant and nitrogen removal enzyme activities, and upregulation of the porin gene increased the risk of GD entering the intracellular space upon exposure to GD at concentrations higher than 1 mg/L. Some denitrifiers survived via resistance and their basic capabilities of sugar metabolism and nitrogen assimilation. Notably, low concentrations of disinfectants could promote vertical and horizontal transfer of multiple resistance genes, especially aminoglycosides, among microorganisms, which might increase not only the adaptation capability of denitrifiers but also the risk to ecological systems. Therefore, the risks of disinfectants targeting ASF on ecology and health as well as the effects of disinfectant residuals from the COVID-19 epidemic should receive more attention.


Тема - темы
African Swine Fever , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Water Purification , Swine , Animals , Sewage , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Glutaral/pharmacology , Livestock , Reactive Oxygen Species , Nitrogen
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 112: 109280, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105144

Реферат

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a global pandemic disease that has social and economic chaos. An alternative mitigation strategy may involve the use of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)-Y derived from chicken eggs. Our study aimed to evaluate the neutralizing potential of specific IgY targeting S1, receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid (N) of SARS-CoV-2 to inhibit RBD and angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2 (ACE2) binding interaction. Hy-Line Brown laying hens were immunized with recombinant S1, RBD spike glycoprotein, and nucleocapsid (N) of SARS-CoV-2. The presence of specific S1,RBD,N-IgY in serum and egg yolk was verified by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific S1,RBD,N-IgY was purified and characterized from egg yolk using sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and was subsequently evaluated for inhibition of the RBD-ACE2 binding interaction in vitro. Specific IgY was present in serum at 1 week post-initial immunization (p.i.i), whereas its present in egg yolk was confirmed at 4 weeks p.i.i. Specific S1,RBD,N-IgY in serum was able to inhibit RBD-ACE2 binding interaction between 4 and 15 weeks p.i.i. The results of the SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of bands with molecular weights of 180 kDa, indicating the presence of whole IgY. Our results demonstrated that S1,RBD,N-IgY was able to inhibit RBD-ACE2 binding interaction in vitro, suggesting its potential use in blocking virus entry. Our study also demonstrated proof-of-concept that laying hens were able to produce this specific IgY, which could block the viral binding and large production of this specific IgY is feasible.


Тема - темы
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Chickens , Protein Binding , Immunoglobulins/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Angiotensins/metabolism , Sulfates , Sodium
17.
Immunobiology ; 227(6): 152287, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105123

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Epitope selection is the key to peptide vaccines development. Bioinformatics tools can efficiently improve the screening of antigenic epitopes and help to choose the right ones. OBJECTIVE: To predict, synthesize and testify peptide epitopes at spike protein, assess the effect of mutations on epitope humoral immunity, thus provide clues for the design and development of epitope peptide vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Bioinformatics servers and immunological tools were used to identify the helper T lymphocyte, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, and linear B lymphocyte epitopes on the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. Physicochemical properties of candidate epitopes were analyzed using IEDB, VaxiJen, and AllerTOP online software. Three candidate epitopes were synthesized and their antigenic responses were evaluated by binding antibody detection. RESULTS: A total of 20 antigenic, non-toxic and non-allergenic candidate epitopes were identified from 1502 epitopes, including 6 helper T-cell epitopes, 13 cytotoxic T-cell epitopes, and 1 linear B cell epitope. After immunization with antigen containing candidate epitopes S206-221, S403-425, and S1157-1170 in rabbits, the binding titers of serum antibody to the corresponding peptide, S protein, receptor-binding domain protein were (415044, 2582, 209.3), (852819, 45238, 457767) and (357897, 10528, 13.79), respectively. The binding titers to Omicron S protein were 642, 12,878 and 7750, respectively, showing that N211L, DEL212 and K417N mutations cause the reduction of the antibody binding activity. CONCLUSIONS: Bioinformatic methods are effective in peptide epitopes design. Certain mutations of the Omicron would lead to the loss of antibody affinity to Omicron S protein.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Humans , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Computational Biology/methods , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Immunity, Humoral , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit , Peptides
18.
Antiviral Res ; 208: 105429, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104350

Реферат

Vero cells are widely used for antiviral tests and virology research for SARS-CoV-2 as well as viruses from various other families. However, Vero cells generally express high levels of multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) or Pgp protein, the efflux transporter of foreign substances including many antiviral compounds, affecting the antiviral activity as well as interpretation of data. To address this, a Pgp gene knockout VeroE6 cell line (VeroE6-Pgp-KO) was generated using CRISPR-CAS9 technology. These cells no longer expressed the Pgp protein as indicated by flow cytometry analysis following staining with a Pgp-specific monoclonal antibody. They also showed significantly reduced efflux transporter activity in the calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein AM) assay. The VeroE6-Pgp-KO cells and the parental VeroE6 cells were each infected with SARS-CoV-2 to test antiviral activities of remdesivir and nirmatrelvir, two known Pgp substrates, in the presence or absence of a Pgp inhibitor. The compounds showed antiviral activities in VeroE6-Pgp-KO cells similar to that observed in the presence of the Pgp inhibitor. Thus, the newly established VeroE6-Pgp-KO cell line adds a new in vitro virus infection system for SARS-CoV-2 and possibly other viruses to test antiviral therapies without a need to control the Pgp activity. Removal of the Pgp inhibitor for antiviral assays will lead to less data variation and prevent failed assays.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Gene Knockout Techniques , Vero Cells , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/genetics , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line
19.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 41(12): 3095-3115, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103551

Реферат

Use of three topical antiseptic compounds-benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BZT), and chloroxylenol (PCMX)-has recently increased because of the phaseout of other antimicrobial ingredients (such as triclosan) in soaps and other disinfecting and sanitizing products. Further, use of sanitizing products in general increased during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. We assessed the environmental safety of BAC, BZT, and PCMX based on best available environmental fate and effects data from the scientific literature and privately held sources. The ecological exposure assessment focused on aquatic systems receiving effluent from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) and terrestrial systems receiving land-applied WWTP biosolids. Recent exposure levels were characterized based on environmental monitoring data supplemented by modeling, while future exposures were modeled based on a hypothetical triclosan replacement scenario. Hazard profiles were developed based on acute and chronic studies examining toxicity to aquatic life (fish, invertebrates, algae, vascular plants) and terrestrial endpoints (plants, soil invertebrates, and microbial functions related to soil fertility). Risks to higher trophic levels were not assessed because these compounds are not appreciably bioaccumulative. The risk analysis indicated that neither BZT nor PCMX in any exposure media is likely to cause adverse ecological effects under the exposure scenarios assessed in the present study. Under these scenarios, total BAC exposures are at least three times less than estimated effect thresholds, while margins of safety for freely dissolved BAC are estimated to be greater than an order of magnitude. Because the modeling did not specifically account for COVID-19 pandemic-related usage, further environmental monitoring is anticipated to understand potential changes in environmental exposures as a result of increased antiseptic use. The analysis presented provides a framework to interpret future antiseptic monitoring results, including monitoring parameters and modeling approaches to address bioavailability of the chemicals of interest. Environ Toxicol Chem 2022;41:3095-3115. © 2022 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.


Тема - темы
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Triclosan , Animals , Humans , Benzethonium , Benzalkonium Compounds/toxicity , Chlorides , Triclosan/toxicity , Pandemics , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/toxicity , Soil , Risk Assessment
20.
Science ; 376(6590): 234-239, 2022 04 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103173

Реферат

Trapping bats with Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, who hunts for viruses to understand and prevent pandemic threats.


Тема - темы
Chiroptera , Viruses , Animals
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