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1.
Elife ; 112022 10 27.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164143

Реферат

Background: HIV infection dysregulates the B cell compartment, affecting memory B cell formation and the antibody response to infection and vaccination. Understanding the B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 in people living with HIV (PLWH) may explain the increased morbidity, reduced vaccine efficacy, reduced clearance, and intra-host evolution of SARS-CoV-2 observed in some HIV-1 coinfections. Methods: We compared B cell responses to COVID-19 in PLWH and HIV negative (HIV-ve) patients in a cohort recruited in Durban, South Africa, during the first pandemic wave in July 2020 using detailed flow cytometry phenotyping of longitudinal samples with markers of B cell maturation, homing, and regulatory features. Results: This revealed a coordinated B cell response to COVID-19 that differed significantly between HIV-ve and PLWH. Memory B cells in PLWH displayed evidence of reduced germinal centre (GC) activity, homing capacity, and class-switching responses, with increased PD-L1 expression, and decreased Tfh frequency. This was mirrored by increased extrafollicular (EF) activity, with dynamic changes in activated double negative (DN2) and activated naïve B cells, which correlated with anti-RBD-titres in these individuals. An elevated SARS-CoV-2-specific EF response in PLWH was confirmed using viral spike and RBD bait proteins. Conclusions: Despite similar disease severity, these trends were highest in participants with uncontrolled HIV, implicating HIV in driving these changes. EF B cell responses are rapid but give rise to lower affinity antibodies, less durable long-term memory, and reduced capacity to adapt to new variants. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of HIV on SARS-CoV-2 immunity, particularly as new variants emerge. Funding: This work was supported by a grant from the Wellcome Trust to the Africa Health Research Institute (Wellcome Trust Strategic Core Award [grant number 201433/Z/16/Z]). Additional funding was received from the South African Department of Science and Innovation through the National Research Foundation (South African Research Chairs Initiative [grant number 64809]), and the Victor Daitz Foundation.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , South Africa , Antibodies, Viral
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 909910, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163010

Реферат

Background: IgG anti-spike (S) antibodies arise after SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as vaccination. Levels of IgG anti-S are linked to neutralizing antibody titers and protection against (re)infection. Methods: We measured IgG anti-S and surrogate neutralizing antibody kinetics against Wild Type (WT) and 4 Variants of Concern (VOC) in health care workers (HCW) 3 and 10 months after natural infection ("infection", n=83) or vaccination (2 doses of BNT162b2) with ("hybrid immunity", n=17) or without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection ("vaccination", n=97). Results: The humoral immune response in the "vaccination" cohort was higher at 3 months, but lower at 10 months, compared to the "infection" cohort due to a faster decline. The "hybrid immunity" cohort had the highest antibody levels at 3 and 10 months with a slower decline compared to the "vaccination" cohort. Surrogate neutralizing antibody levels (expressed as %inhibition of ACE-2 binding) showed a linear relation with log10 of IgG anti-S against WT and four VOC. IgG anti-S corresponding to 90% inhibition ranged from 489 BAU/mL for WT to 1756 BAU/mL for Beta variant. Broad pseudoneutralization predicted live virus neutralization of Omicron BA.1 in 20 randomly selected high titer samples. Conclusions: Hybrid immunity resulted in the strongest humoral immune response. Antibodies induced by natural infection decreased more slowly than after vaccination, resulting in higher antibody levels at 10 months compared to vaccinated HCW without prior infection. There was a linear relationship between surrogate neutralizing activity and log10 IgG anti-S for WT and 4 VOC, although some VOC showed reduced sensitivity to pseudoneutralization.


Тема - темы
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10721, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154859

Реферат

Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) are at increased risk for COVID-19-associated complications. We aimed to describe the evolving epidemiology and outcome of PCR-documented SARS-CoV-2 infection in KTR followed at our institution from March 2020 to May 2022. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for COVID-19-related symptoms or death within 28 days from diagnosis. Overall, 243 cases were included of which 68 (28%) developed the primary outcome. A significant decrease in the incidence of the primary outcome was observed (p < 0.001, r -0.342) during the study period. Anti-Spike monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were administered as early treatment (within 5-7 days of onset of symptoms) in 101 patients (14 with casirivimab/imdevimab and 87 with sotrovimab). Among 145 patients who had received at least one vaccination dose before infection, 109 patients were considered as adequately vaccinated. Multivariate analysis revealed that the Charlson Comorbidity Index (P 0.001; OR 1.28, CI 1.11-1.48) was associated with the primary outcome, while early administration of mAbs (P 0.032; OR 0.39, CI 0.16-0.92) was associated with a better outcome, but not infection during the period of the omicron variant predominance or adequate vaccination.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transplant Recipients
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1008285, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154728

Реферат

Since immune system and internal environment in vivo are large and complex, the interpretation of the observed immune effect from the perspective of a single immune cell or antibody seems a little feeble. Many studies have shown that specific antibodies against " former" viruses have a reduced ability to neutralize "new" mutant strains. However, there is no comprehensive and clear view of whether there will be Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). We review the latest relevant studies, hoping to explain the ADE of SARS-CoV-2 infection sometimes observed in some patients.


Тема - темы
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral
7.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(11): 100811, 2022 Nov 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150820

Реферат

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP), a passive polyclonal antibody therapeutic agent, has had mixed clinical results. Although antibody neutralization is the predominant approach to benchmarking CCP efficacy, CCP may also influence the evolution of the endogenous antibody response. Using systems serology to comprehensively profile severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) functional antibodies of hospitalized people with COVID-19 enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of CCP (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04397757), we find that the clinical benefits of CCP are associated with a shift toward reduced inflammatory Spike (S) responses and enhanced nucleocapsid (N) humoral responses. We find that CCP has the greatest clinical benefit in participants with low pre-existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody function and that CCP-induced immunomodulatory Fc glycan profiles and N immunodominant profiles persist for at least 2 months. We highlight a potential mechanism of action of CCP associated with durable immunomodulation, outline optimal patient characteristics for CCP treatment, and provide guidance for development of a different class of COVID-19 hyperinflammation-targeting antibody therapeutic agents.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Passive/methods , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Nucleocapsid
8.
Virol Sin ; 37(5): 731-739, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150803

Реферат

Latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may be reactivated to cause herpes zoster, which affects one in three people during their lifetime. The currently available subunit vaccine Shingrix™ is superior to the attenuated vaccine Zostavax® in terms of both safety and efficacy, but the supply of its key adjuvant component QS21 is limited. With ionizable lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) that were recently approved by the FDA for COVID-19 mRNA vaccines as carriers, and oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODNs) approved by the FDA for a subunit hepatitis B vaccine as immunostimulators, we developed a LNP vaccine encapsulating VZV-glycoprotein E (gE) and CpG ODN, and compared its immunogenicity with Shingrix™ in C57BL/6J mice. The results showed that the LNP vaccine induced comparable levels of gE-specific IgG antibodies to Shingrix™ as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most importantly, the LNP vaccine induced comparable levels of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) that plays decisive roles in the efficacy of zoster vaccines to Shingrix™ in a VZV-primed mouse model that was adopted for preclinical studies of Shingrix™. Number of IL-2 and IFN-γ secreting splenocytes and proportion of T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine-expressing CD4+ T cells in LNP-CpG-adjuvanted VZV-gE vaccinated mice were similar to that of Shingrix™ boosted mice. All of the components in this LNP vaccine can be artificially and economically synthesized in large quantities, indicating the potential of LNP-CpG-adjuvanted VZV-gE as a more cost-effective zoster vaccine.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Herpes Zoster , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Immunoglobulin G , Interleukin-2 , Liposomes , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nanoparticles , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Subunit
9.
Sci Immunol ; 5(54)2020 12 23.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161788

Реферат

Understanding the nature of immunity following mild/asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to controlling the pandemic. We analyzed T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in 136 healthcare workers (HCW) 16-18 weeks after United Kingdom lockdown, 76 of whom had mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection captured by serial sampling. Neutralizing antibodies (nAb) were present in 89% of previously infected HCW. T cell responses tended to be lower following asymptomatic infection than in those reporting case-definition symptoms of COVID-19, while nAb titers were maintained irrespective of symptoms. T cell and antibody responses were sometimes discordant. Eleven percent lacked nAb and had undetectable T cell responses to spike protein but had T cells reactive with other SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Our findings suggest that the majority of individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection carry nAb complemented by multispecific T cell responses at 16-18 weeks after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Тема - темы
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
10.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(Supplement): S66-S70, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144163

Реферат

Background: The age group of 5-17 years belongs to the vulnerable segment of the population for COVID-19 infection in India. Seroprevalence in this population can therefore allow inferences to be made about the extent of infection. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence and to determine the factors associated with COVID-19 antibody among children aged 5-17 years in an urban and rural area of Kochi, Kerala. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in the urban and rural field practice areas of the community medicine department in a medical college, Kochi. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information about sociodemographic data, history related to COVID-19, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibody test result. Blood samples were collected and tested for the presence of COVID-19 antibodies using the Wantai test kit after attaining informed assent from the parent/guardian. Results: The seroprevalence of the COVID-19 antibody was 48.3% among participants. The seroprevalence of COVID-19 antibody was higher among children of mothers with skilled/unskilled occupation, residents of rural area, above poverty line category, those with a history of COVID-19, and those who had a history of contact with COVID-19-positive patients. Conclusion: Half of the study population were COVID antibody positive, and the rest were at risk of infection. Therefore, adherence to COVID-19 guidelines is essential to control further spread of infection among children.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , India/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral
11.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143679

Реферат

For more than two years after the emergence of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019), significant regional differences in morbidity persist. These differences clearly show lower incidence rates in several regions of the African and Asian continents. The work reported here aimed to test the hypothesis of a pre-pandemic natural immunity acquired by some human populations in central and western Africa, which would, therefore, pose the hypothesis of an original antigenic sin with a virus antigenically close to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To identify such pre-existing immunity, sera samples collected before the emergence of COVID-19 were tested to detect the presence of IgG reacting antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 proteins of major significance. Sera samples from French blood donors collected before the pandemic served as a control. The results showed a statistically significant difference of antibodies prevalence between the collected samples in Africa and the control samples collected in France. Given the novelty of our results, our next step consists in highlighting neutralizing antibodies to evaluate their potential for pre-pandemic protective acquired immunity against SARS-CoV-2. In conclusion, our results suggest that, in the investigated African sub-regions, the tested populations could have been potentially and partially pre-exposed, before the COVID-19 pandemic, to the antigens of a yet non-identified Coronaviruses.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1030238, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142035

Реферат

Objective: To analyze the positivity and levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in vaccinated children to evaluate the humoral immune response of vaccination on pediatric population. Analysis on the causes of antibody positivity in unvaccinated children. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on children who were admitted to the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics. The clinical data of serological testing of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were collected from SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated or unvaccinated children with no evidence of prior novel coronavirus infection. Chemiluminescence immunoassay was utilized for the in vitro determination of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Results: A total of 3,321 healthy children aged 6-11 years received two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. At 1 month after the second dose, the positive rate (96.5%) and levels [8.039 (interquartile range (IQR), 6.067-9.098)] of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies reached the peak and remained at a high level for 2-3 months, after which the positive rate and level of vaccine-induced IgG antibody gradually decreased. Compared with 1 month after the second dose of vaccine, the positive rate of IgG antibody decreased to 70.4% at 7 months, and the antibody level decreased by 69.0%. A total of 945 children aged 3-5 years received one or two doses of inactivated vaccine. The positive rate and levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody in participants remained high for 3 months after vaccination. There was no gender-based difference in positive rate of IgG antibody in children aged 3-11 years old (P>0.05). Among the 5,309 unvaccinated children aged 0 day to 11 years, 105 (2.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody, which was associated with passive infusion. The maternal humoral response to COVID-19 vaccination in noninfected pregnant women was transferred through the placenta to the fetus, and some children obtained SARS-CoV-2-positive antibodies through blood transfusion. Conclusions: Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines could induce robust humoral immune response that gradually declined within several months after the second dose. Therefore, it helps to determine whether children receive a booster dose and elicit a long-term memory immune response. Positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in unvaccinated children were associated with passive IgG antibody infusion.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Humans , Child , Female , Child, Preschool , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccination
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 947724, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141980

Реферат

Background: Asthma patients potentially have impaired adaptive immunity to virus infection. The levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive immunity between COVID-19 survivors with and without asthma are presently unclear. Methods: COVID-19 survivors (patients with asthma n=11, with allergies n=8, and COVID-19 only n=17) and non-COVID-19 individuals (asthmatic patients n=10 and healthy controls n=9) were included. The COVID-19 patients were followed up at about 8 months and 16 months after discharge. The clinical characteristics, lymphocyte subsets, memory T cells, and humoral immunity including SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus neutralization assay, and memory B cells were analyzed in these subjects. Results: The strength of virus-specific T cell response in COVID-19 survivors was positively correlated with the percentage of blood eosinophils and Treg cells (r=0.4007, p=0.0188; and r=0.4435, p=0.0086 respectively) at 8-month follow-up. There were no statistical differences in the levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response between the COVID-19 survivors with, and without, asthma. Compared to those without asthma, the COVID-19 with asthma survivors had higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) at the 8-month follow-up (p<0.05). Moreover, the level of NAbs in COVID-19 survivors was positively correlated with the percentage of Treg and cTfh2 cells (r=0.5037, p=0.002; and r=0.4846, p=0.0141), and negatively correlated with the percentage of Th1 and Th17 cells (r=-0.5701, p=0.0003; and r=-0.3656, p=0.0308), the ratio of Th1/Th2, Th17/Treg, and cTfh1/cTfh2 cell (r=-0.5356, r=-0.5947, r=-0.4485; all p<0.05). The decay rate of NAbs in the COVID-19 survivors with asthma was not significantly different from that of those without asthma at 16-month follow-up. Conclusion: The level of SARS-CoV-2-specific NAbs in COVID-19 survivors with asthma was higher than that of those without asthma at 8-month follow-up. The SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity was associated with blood eosinophils and Treg percentages. The SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immunity was closely associated with cTfh2/cTfh1 imbalance and Treg/Th17 ratio. According to the findings, asthmatic patients in COVID-19 convalescent period may benefit from an enhanced specific humoral immunity, which associates with skewed Th2/Th1 and Treg/Th17 immune.


Тема - темы
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 946318, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141971

Реферат

Background and Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is the antigenically most distinct variant to date. As the heavily mutated spike protein enables neutralization escape, we studied serum-neutralizing activities of naïve and vaccinated individuals after Omicron BA.1 or BA.2 sub-lineage infections in live virus neutralization tests with Omicron BA.1, Omicron BA.2, wildtype (WT, B1.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2) strains. Serum samples obtained after WT infections and three-dose mRNA vaccinations with and without prior infection were included as controls. Results: Primary BA.1 infections yielded reduced neutralizing antibody levels against WT, Delta, and Omicron BA.2, while samples from BA.2-infected individuals showed almost no cross-neutralization against the other variants. Serum neutralization of Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants was detectable after three-dose mRNA vaccinations, but with reduced titers. Vaccination-breakthrough infections with either Omicron BA.1 or BA.2, however, generated equal cross-neutralizing antibody levels against all SARS-CoV-2 variants tested. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that although Omicron variants are able to enhance cross-neutralizing antibody levels in pre-immune individuals, primary infections with BA.1 or BA.2 induced mostly variant-specific neutralizing antibodies, emphasizing the differently shaped humoral immunity induced by the two Omicron variants. These data thus contribute substantially to the understanding of antibody responses induced by primary Omicron infections or multiple exposures to different SARS-CoV-2 variants and are of particular importance for developing vaccination strategies in the light of future emerging variants.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , RNA, Messenger , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 919762, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141938

Реферат

Objectives: We aimed to study the outcomes, severity, and seroconversion post SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised children and adolescents treated at our center. Method: For this observational study, all pediatric patients who had COVID-19 infection from Sep-22-2020 to Nov-10-2021were identified by reviewing our laboratory records. Their charts were reviewed to determine clinical severity and outcome. Blood samples were drawn for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay. Serious COVID-19 infection (SVI) was defined if the patient had moderate, severe, or critical illness. A cutoff of 100 U/mL anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was used to categorize low and high titer seroconversion. Results: We identified 263 pediatric patients with COVID-19; most (68%) were symptomatic: 5% had severe or critical infection, 25% were hospitalized, 12 required respiratory support, 12 were admitted to the ICU, and five patients (2%) died. Multivariable analysis revealed several factors that predict SVI: Age above 12 years (p=0.035), body mass index above 95th percentile (p=0.034), comorbid conditions (p=0.025), absolute neutrophil count ≤500(p=0.014) and absolute lymphocyte count ≤300 (p=0.022). Levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies were obtained for 173 patients at a median of 94 days (range, 14-300) after PCR diagnosis; of them 142 (82%) patients seroconverted; the lowest seroconversion rate was observed in patients with hematological malignancies (79%). Our univariable model showed that the following factors were predictive of low titer: lower ANC, p=0.01; hematologic malignancy, p=0.023; receiving steroids in the last 14 days, p=0.032; time since last chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy less than 30 days, p=0.002; and being on active chemotherapy in the last 3 months prior to infection, p<0.001. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies developed in most immunocompromised patients with COVID-19 infection in our study. Mortality was relatively low in our patients. Our univariable and multivariable models showed multiple variables that predict severity of infections and antibody response post COVID-19 infection. These observations may guide choice of active therapy during infection and the best timing of vaccination in this high-risk population.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894277, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141904

Реферат

Background: Scarce information exists in relation to the comparison of seroconversion and adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Our aim was to correlate the magnitude of the antibody response to vaccination with previous clinical conditions and AEFI. Methods: A multicentric comparative study where SARS-CoV-2 spike 1-2 IgG antibodies IgG titers were measured at baseline, 21-28 days after the first and second dose (when applicable) of the following vaccines: BNT162b2 mRNA, mRNA-1273, Gam-COVID-Vac, Coronavac, ChAdOx1-S, Ad5-nCoV and Ad26.COV2. Mixed model and Poisson generalized linear models were performed. Results: We recruited 1867 individuals [52 (SD 16.8) years old, 52% men]. All vaccines enhanced anti-S1 and anti-S2 IgG antibodies over time (p<0.01). The highest increase after the first and second dose was observed in mRNA-1273 (p<0.001). There was an effect of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection; and an interaction of age with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, Gam-COVID-Vac and ChAdOx1-S (p<0.01). There was a negative correlation of Severe or Systemic AEFI (AEs) of naïve SARS-CoV-2 subjects with age and sex (p<0.001); a positive interaction between the delta of antibodies with Gam-COVID-Vac (p=0.002). Coronavac, Gam-COVID-Vac and ChAdOx1-S had less AEs compared to BNT162b (p<0.01). mRNA-1273 had the highest number of AEFIs. The delta of the antibodies showed an association with AEFIs in previously infected individuals (p<0.001). Conclusions: The magnitude of seroconversion is predicted by age, vaccine type and SARS-CoV-2 exposure. AEs are correlated with age, sex, and vaccine type. The delta of the antibody response only correlates with AEs in patients previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT05228912.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 892331, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141899

Реферат

Introduction: In immunocompromised patients, SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine has been used in Italy from the beginning of the vaccination campaign, but several studies have shown that the serological response of onco-hematological patients was reduced compared to healthy subjects, due to the state of immunosuppression because of both underlying disease and administered therapy. Methods: We evaluated the association of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers in 215 hematological patients with clinical and demographic variables to verify if it was possible to identify predictive parameters of serological response, as well as using a control group, consisting of healthy health workers of San Carlo Hospital in Potenza. Anti-SARS-CoV2 IgG titers were evaluated after 30-45 days post second dose vaccine using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay technology. Results: Patients with hematological malignancies, compared with the control arm, had both a mean concentration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG significantly lower and a seroconversion rate numerically lower. All chronic lymphatic leukemia patients showed levels of antibody titer below the mean concentration, also in only clinical surveillance patients. Comparing serological response in hematological malignancies, only acute leukemia patients who were off therapy had the highest seroconversion rate among the patients' cohorts and a mean antibody concentration greater than the control arm. Patients treated with steroids and rituximab showed a lower level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG. Differences in anti-spike IgG levels among chronic myeloid leukemia patients stratified according to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and molecular response were observed, and they could have interesting implications on the evaluation of the effects of these drugs on the immune system, but having not reached statistical significance at the moment. The cohort of patients who received a stem cell transplant was very heterogeneous because it included different hematological malignancies and different types of transplant; however, a mean concentration of anti-SARS-CoV2 IgG greater than the control arm was reported. Indeed, among patients who performed a transplant for over 6 months only one had a spike IgG concentration below the cutoff. Conclusions: Our data confirm reduced serological response in hematological patients after anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. However, we found a great diversity of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response according to types of pathologies and therapies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 878943, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141866

Реферат

Flu, a viral infection caused by the influenza virus, is still a global public health concern with potential to cause seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Vaccination is considered the most effective protective strategy against the infection. However, given the high plasticity of the virus and the suboptimal immunogenicity of existing influenza vaccines, scientists are moving toward the development of universal vaccines. An important property of universal vaccines is their ability to induce heterosubtypic immunity, i.e., a wide immune response coverage toward different influenza subtypes. With the increasing number of studies and mounting evidence on the safety and efficacy of recombinant influenza vaccines (RIVs), they have been proposed as promising platforms for the development of universal vaccines. This review highlights the current progress and advances in the development of RIVs in the context of heterosubtypic immunity induction toward universal vaccine production. In particular, this review discussed existing knowledge on influenza and vaccine development, current hemagglutinin-based RIVs in the market and in the pipeline, other potential vaccine targets for RIVs (neuraminidase, matrix 1 and 2, nucleoprotein, polymerase acidic, and basic 1 and 2 antigens), and deantigenization process. This review also provided discussion points and future perspectives in looking at RIVs as potential universal vaccine candidates for influenza.


Тема - темы
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity , Vaccine Development , Vaccines, Synthetic
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838780, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141804

Реферат

Antibodies specific for the spike glycoprotein (S) and nucleocapsid (N) SARS-CoV-2 proteins are typically present during severe COVID-19, and induced to S after vaccination. The binding of viral antigens by antibody can initiate the classical complement pathway. Since complement could play pathological or protective roles at distinct times during SARS-CoV-2 infection we determined levels of antibody-dependent complement activation along the complement cascade. Here, we used an ELISA assay to assess complement protein binding (C1q) and the deposition of C4b, C3b, and C5b to S and N antigens in the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 from different test groups: non-infected, single and double vaccinees, non-hospitalised convalescent (NHC) COVID-19 patients and convalescent hospitalised (ITU-CONV) COVID-19 patients. C1q binding correlates strongly with antibody responses, especially IgG1 levels. However, detection of downstream complement components, C4b, C3b and C5b shows some variability associated with the subject group from whom the sera were obtained. In the ITU-CONV, detection of C3b-C5b to S was observed consistently, but this was not the case in the NHC group. This is in contrast to responses to N, where median levels of complement deposition did not differ between the NHC and ITU-CONV groups. Moreover, for S but not N, downstream complement components were only detected in sera with higher IgG1 levels. Therefore, the classical pathway is activated by antibodies to multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens, but the downstream effects of this activation may differ depending the disease status of the subject and on the specific antigen targeted.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Complement Activation , Complement C1q , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Nucleoproteins , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 979641, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141709

Реферат

We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective ability of a chimpanzee replication-deficient adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccine (BV-AdCoV-1) expressing a stabilized pre-fusion SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in golden Syrian hamsters. Intranasal administration of BV-AdCoV-1 elicited strong humoral and cellular immunity in the animals. Furthermore, vaccination prevented weight loss, reduced SARS-CoV-2 infectious virus titers in the lungs as well as lung pathology and provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 live challenge. In addition, there was no vaccine-induced enhanced disease nor immunopathological exacerbation in BV-AdCoV-1-vaccinated animals. Furthermore, the vaccine induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against the ancestral strain and the B.1.617.2, Omicron(BA.1), Omicron(BA.2.75) and Omicron(BA.4/5) variants of concern. These results demonstrate that BV-AdCoV-1 is potentially a promising candidate vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to curtail pandemic spread in humans.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Mesocricetus , Administration, Intranasal , Pan troglodytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenoviridae/genetics
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