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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25917, 2021 May 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191007

Реферат

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Invasive mechanical ventilation is recommended for the management of patients with COVID-19 who have severe respiratory symptoms. However, various complications can develop after its use. The efficient and appropriate management of patients requires the identification of factors associated with an aggravation of COVID-19 respiratory symptoms to a degree where invasive mechanical ventilation becomes necessary, thereby enabling clinicians to prevent such ventilation. This retrospective study included 138 inpatients with COVID-19 at a tertiary hospital. We evaluated the differences in the demographic and clinical data between 27 patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation and 111 patients who did not. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the duration of fever, national early warning score (NEWS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels on admission were significantly associated with invasive mechanical ventilation in this cohort. The optimal cut-off values were: fever duration ≥1 day (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 54.95%), NEWS ≥7 (sensitivity 72.73%, specificity 92.52%), and LDH >810 mg/dL (sensitivity 56.0%, specificity 90.29%). These findings can assist in the early identification of patients who will require invasive mechanical ventilation. Further studies in larger patient populations are recommended to validate our findings.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/physiopathology , Early Warning Score , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

Реферат

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Тема - темы
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(8)2022 Aug 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193658

Реферат

A man in his 20s presented following a generalised tonic-clonic seizure on a background of a recent diagnosis of hepatitis B (HBV). During admission, he was severely hypertensive and imaging findings confirmed a diagnosis of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The patient subsequently developed multiorgan involvement with an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy, vascular cutaneous lesions and multiple bilateral renal and splenic infarcts. Based on the 2012 Revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Criteria, a diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) with secondary PRES was made. The patient was given intravenous methylprednisolone, followed by a prolonged course of oral prednisolone, and tenofovir antiviral therapy to target HBV seroconversion. He made a good neurological recovery with resolution of imaging changes. This case highlights the importance of a low threshold for systemic screening for young patients presenting with PRES secondary to uncontrolled hypertension and the importance of viral screening, particularly for HBV.


Тема - темы
Polyarteritis Nodosa , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Polyarteritis Nodosa/complications , Polyarteritis Nodosa/diagnosis , Polyarteritis Nodosa/drug therapy , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/drug therapy , Tenofovir/therapeutic use
4.
Lancet ; 400(10359): 1213-1222, 2022 10 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184592

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the real-world effectiveness of oral antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. We aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of two oral antiviral drugs among community-dwelling COVID-19 outpatients in Hong Kong. METHODS: In this observational study, we used data from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to identify an unselected, territory-wide cohort of non-hospitalised patients with an officially registered diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 26 and June 26, 2022, during the period in which the omicron subvariant BA.2.2 was dominant in Hong Kong. We used a retrospective cohort design as primary analysis, and a case-control design as sensitivity analysis. We identified patients with COVID-19 who received either molnupiravir (800 mg twice daily for 5 days) or nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir (nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg twice daily for 5 days, or nirmatrelvir 150 mg and ritonavir 100 mg if estimated glomerular filtration rate was 30-59 mL/min per 1·73 m2). Outpatient oral antiviral users were matched with controls using propensity score (1:10) according to age, sex, date of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and vaccination status. Study outcomes were death, COVID-19-related hospitalisation, and in-hospital disease progression (in-hospital death, invasive mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression for the primary analysis, and odds ratios in oral antiviral users compared with non-users by logistic regression for the sensitivity analysis. FINDINGS: Among 1 074 856 non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, 5383 received molnupiravir and 6464 received nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir in the community setting. Patients were followed up for a median of 103 days in the molnupiravir group and 99 days in the nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir group. Compared with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir users, those on molnupiravir were older (4758 [85·9%] vs 4418 [88.7%] aged >60 years) and less likely to have been fully vaccinated (1850 [33·4%] vs 800 [16·1%]). Molnupiravir use was associated with lower risks of death (HR 0·76 [95% CI 0·61-0·95]) and in-hospital disease progression (0·57 [0·43-0·76]) than non-use was, whereas risk of hospitalisation was similar in both groups (0·98 [0·89-1·06]). Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir use was associated with lower risks of death (0·34 [0·22-0·52]), hospitalisation (0·76 [0·67-0·86]), and in-hospital disease progression (0·57 [0·38-0·87]) than non-use was. We consistently found reduced risks of mortality and hospitalisation associated with early oral antiviral use among older patients. The findings from the case-control analysis broadly supported those from the primary analysis. INTERPRETATION: During Hong Kong's wave of SARS-CoV-2 omicron subvariant BA.2.2, among non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, early initiation of novel oral antivirals was associated with reduced risks of mortality and in-hospital disease progression. Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir use was additionally associated with a reduced risk of hospitalisation. FUNDING: Health and Medical Research Fund, Health Bureau, Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Disease Progression , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Independent Living , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(11): 11169-11176, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174666

Реферат

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current global illness triggered by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leading to acute viral pneumonia, acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and cytokine storm in severe cases. In the COVID-19 era, different unexpected old drugs are repurposed to find out effective and cheap therapies against SARS-CoV-2. One of these elected drugs is nitazoxanide (NTZ) which is an anti-parasitic drug with potent antiviral activity. It is effectively used in the treatment of protozoa and various types of helminths in addition to various viral infections. Thus, we aimed to elucidate the probable effect of NTZ on SARS-CoV-2 infections. Findings of the present study illustrated that NTZ can reduce SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammatory reactions through activation of interferon (IFN), restoration of innate immunity, inhibition of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and induction of autophagic cell death. Moreover, it can inhibit the induction of oxidative stress which causes cytokine storm and is associated with ALI, ARDS, and multi-organ damage (MOD). This study concluded that NTZ has important anti-inflammatory and immunological properties that may mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced inflammatory disorders. Despite broad-spectrum antiviral properties of NTZ, the direct anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect was not evident and documented in recent studies. Then, in silico and in vitro studies in addition to clinical trials and prospective studies are needed to confirm the beneficial impact of NTZ on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Тема - темы
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD015209, 2022 06 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172307

Реферат

BACKGROUND: With potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors represent a potential treatment for symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. They may modulate the exuberant immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, a direct antiviral effect has been described. An understanding of the current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of JAK inhibitors as a treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is required. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of systemic JAK inhibitors plus standard of care compared to standard of care alone (plus/minus placebo) on clinical outcomes in individuals (outpatient or in-hospital) with any severity of COVID-19, and to maintain the currency of the evidence using a living systematic review approach. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register (comprising MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, medRxiv, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Web of Science, WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease, and the US Department of Veterans Affairs Evidence Synthesis Program (VA ESP) Covid-19 Evidence Reviews to identify studies up to February 2022. We monitor newly published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) weekly using the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, and have incorporated all new trials from this source until the first week of April 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs that compared systemic JAK inhibitors plus standard of care to standard of care alone (plus/minus placebo) for the treatment of individuals with COVID-19. We used the WHO definitions of illness severity for COVID-19. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We assessed risk of bias of primary outcomes using Cochrane's Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. We used GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence for the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality (up to day 28), all-cause mortality (up to day 60), improvement in clinical status: alive and without need for in-hospital medical care (up to day 28), worsening of clinical status: new need for invasive mechanical ventilation or death (up to day 28), adverse events (any grade), serious adverse events, secondary infections. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs with 11,145 participants investigating systemic JAK inhibitors plus standard of care compared to standard of care alone (plus/minus placebo). Standard of care followed local protocols and included the application of glucocorticoids (five studies reported their use in a range of 70% to 95% of their participants; one study restricted glucocorticoid use to non-COVID-19 specific indications), antibiotic agents, anticoagulants, and antiviral agents, as well as non-pharmaceutical procedures. At study entry, about 65% of participants required low-flow oxygen, about 23% required high-flow oxygen or non-invasive ventilation, about 8% did not need any respiratory support, and only about 4% were intubated. We also identified 13 ongoing studies, and 9 studies that are completed or terminated and where classification is pending. Individuals with moderate to severe disease Four studies investigated the single agent baricitinib (10,815 participants), one tofacitinib (289 participants), and one ruxolitinib (41 participants). Systemic JAK inhibitors probably decrease all-cause mortality at up to day 28 (95 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 131 of 1000 participants in the control group; risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.91; 6 studies, 11,145 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and decrease all-cause mortality at up to day 60 (125 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 181 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.86; 2 studies, 1626 participants; high-certainty evidence). Systemic JAK inhibitors probably make little or no difference in improvement in clinical status (discharged alive or hospitalised, but no longer requiring ongoing medical care) (801 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 778 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06; 4 studies, 10,802 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). They probably decrease the risk of worsening of clinical status (new need for invasive mechanical ventilation or death at day 28) (154 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 172 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98; 2 studies, 9417 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Systemic JAK inhibitors probably make little or no difference in the rate of adverse events (any grade) (427 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 441 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.08; 3 studies, 1885 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and probably decrease the occurrence of serious adverse events (160 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 202 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92; 4 studies, 2901 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). JAK inhibitors may make little or no difference to the rate of secondary infection (111 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 113 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.09; 4 studies, 10,041 participants; low-certainty evidence). Subgroup analysis by severity of COVID-19 disease or type of JAK inhibitor did not identify specific subgroups which benefit more or less from systemic JAK inhibitors. Individuals with asymptomatic or mild disease We did not identify any trial for this population. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised individuals with moderate to severe COVID-19, moderate-certainty evidence shows that systemic JAK inhibitors probably decrease all-cause mortality. Baricitinib was the most often evaluated JAK inhibitor. Moderate-certainty evidence suggests that they probably make little or no difference in improvement in clinical status. Moderate-certainty evidence indicates that systemic JAK inhibitors probably decrease the risk of worsening of clinical status and make little or no difference in the rate of adverse events of any grade, whilst they probably decrease the occurrence of serious adverse events. Based on low-certainty evidence, JAK inhibitors may make little or no difference in the rate of secondary infection. Subgroup analysis by severity of COVID-19 or type of agent failed to identify specific subgroups which benefit more or less from systemic JAK inhibitors. Currently, there is no evidence on the efficacy and safety of systemic JAK inhibitors for individuals with asymptomatic or mild disease (non-hospitalised individuals).


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(3): 360-368, 2020 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152206

Реферат

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory distress (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several therapeutic options are currently emerging but none with universal consensus or proven efficacy. Solid organ transplant recipients are perceived to be at increased risk of severe COVID-19 because of their immunosuppressed conditions due to chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs). It is therefore likely that solid organ transplant recipients will be treated with these experimental antivirals. METHODS: This article is not intended to provide a systematic literature review on investigational treatments tested against COVID-19; rather, the authors aim to provide recommendations for therapeutic drug monitoring of ISDs in transplant recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2 based on a review of existing data in the literature. RESULTS: Management of drug-drug interactions between investigational anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs and immunosuppressants is a complex task for the clinician. Adequate immunosuppression is necessary to prevent graft rejection while, if critically ill, the patient may benefit from pharmacotherapeutic interventions directed at limiting SARS-CoV-2 viral replication. Maintaining ISD concentrations within the desired therapeutic range requires a highly individualized approach that is complicated by the pandemic context and lack of hindsight. CONCLUSIONS: With this article, the authors inform the clinician about the potential interactions of experimental COVID-19 treatments with ISDs used in transplantation. Recommendations regarding therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustments in the context of COVID-19 are provided.


Тема - темы
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Transplant Recipients , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Interactions , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 945448, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163165

Реферат

The unprecedented worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 has imposed severe challenges on global health care systems. The roll-out and widespread administration of COVID-19 vaccines has been deemed a major milestone in the race to restrict the severity of the infection. Vaccines have as yet not entirely suppressed the relentless progression of the pandemic, due mainly to the emergence of new virus variants, and also secondary to the waning of protective antibody titers over time. Encouragingly, an increasing number of antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir and the newly developed drug combination, Paxlovid® (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir), as well as molnupiravir, have shown significant benefits for COVID-19 patient outcomes. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been proven to be an effective preventive strategy in high-risk uninfected people exposed to HIV. Building on knowledge from what is already known about the use of PrEP for HIV disease, and from recently gleaned knowledge of antivirals used against COVID-19, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 PrEP, using specific antiviral and adjuvant drugs against SARS-CoV-2, may represent a novel preventive strategy for high-risk populations, including healthcare workers, immunodeficient individuals, and poor vaccine responders. Herein, we critically review the risk factors for severe COVID-19 and discuss PrEP strategies against SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we outline details of candidate anti-SARS-CoV-2 PrEP drugs, thus creating a framework with respect to the development of alternative and/or complementary strategies to prevent COVID-19, and contributing to the global armamentarium that has been developed to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity, and transmission.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Lancet ; 399(10339): 1941-1953, 2022 05 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159958

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The Solidarity trial among COVID-19 inpatients has previously reported interim mortality analyses for four repurposed antiviral drugs. Lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, and interferon (IFN)-ß1a were discontinued for futility but randomisation to remdesivir continued. Here, we report the final results of Solidarity and meta-analyses of mortality in all relevant trials to date. METHODS: Solidarity enrolled consenting adults (aged ≥18 years) recently hospitalised with, in the view of their doctor, definite COVID-19 and no contraindication to any of the study drugs, regardless of any other patient characteristics. Participants were randomly allocated, in equal proportions between the locally available options, to receive whichever of the four study drugs (lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, IFN-ß1a, or remdesivir) were locally available at that time or no study drug (controls). All patients also received the local standard of care. No placebos were given. The protocol-specified primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, subdivided by disease severity. Secondary endpoints were progression to ventilation if not already ventilated, and time-to-discharge from hospital. Final log-rank and Kaplan-Meier analyses are presented for remdesivir, and are appended for all four study drugs. Meta-analyses give weighted averages of the mortality findings in this and all other randomised trials of these drugs among hospital inpatients. Solidarity is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN83971151, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04315948. FINDINGS: Between March 22, 2020, and Jan 29, 2021, 14 304 potentially eligible patients were recruited from 454 hospitals in 35 countries in all six WHO regions. After the exclusion of 83 (0·6%) patients with a refuted COVID-19 diagnosis or encrypted consent not entered into the database, Solidarity enrolled 14 221 patients, including 8275 randomly allocated (1:1) either to remdesivir (ten daily infusions, unless discharged earlier) or to its control (allocated no study drug although remdesivir was locally available). Compliance was high in both groups. Overall, 602 (14·5%) of 4146 patients assigned to remdesivir died versus 643 (15·6%) of 4129 assigned to control (mortality rate ratio [RR] 0·91 [95% CI 0·82-1·02], p=0·12). Of those already ventilated, 151 (42·1%) of 359 assigned to remdesivir died versus 134 (38·6%) of 347 assigned to control (RR 1·13 [0·89-1·42], p=0·32). Of those not ventilated but on oxygen, 14·6% assigned to remdesivir died versus 16·3% assigned to control (RR 0·87 [0·76-0·99], p=0·03). Of 1730 not on oxygen initially, 2·9% assigned to remdesivir died versus 3·8% assigned to control (RR 0·76 [0·46-1·28], p=0·30). Combining all those not ventilated initially, 11·9% assigned to remdesivir died versus 13·5% assigned to control (RR 0·86 [0·76-0·98], p=0·02) and 14·1% versus 15·7% progressed to ventilation (RR 0·88 [0·77-1·00], p=0·04). The non-prespecified composite outcome of death or progression to ventilation occurred in 19·6% assigned to remdesivir versus 22·5% assigned to control (RR 0·84 [0·75-0·93], p=0·001). Allocation to daily remdesivir infusions (vs open-label control) delayed discharge by about 1 day during the 10-day treatment period. A meta-analysis of mortality in all randomised trials of remdesivir versus no remdesivir yielded similar findings. INTERPRETATION: Remdesivir has no significant effect on patients with COVID-19 who are already being ventilated. Among other hospitalised patients, it has a small effect against death or progression to ventilation (or both). FUNDING: WHO.


Тема - темы
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
10.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 21(10): 714, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074222
11.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143699

Реферат

Small molecular nucleic acid drugs produce antiviral effects by activating pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, a small molecular nucleotide containing 5'triphosphoric acid (5'PPP) and possessing a double-stranded structure was designed and named nCoV-L. nCoV-L was found to specifically activate RIG-I, induce interferon responses, and inhibit duplication of four RNA viruses (Human enterovirus 71, Human poliovirus 1, Human coxsackievirus B5 and Influenza A virus) in cells. In vivo, nCoV-L quickly induced interferon responses and protected BALB/c suckling mice from a lethal dose of the enterovirus 71. Additionally, prophylactic administration of nCoV-L was found to reduce mouse death and relieve morbidity symptoms in a K18-hACE2 mouse lethal model of SARS-CoV-2. In summary, these findings indicate that nCoV-L activates RIG-I and quickly induces effective antiviral signals. Thus, it has potential as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mice , Animals , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Cell Line , DEAD Box Protein 58 , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Interferons
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 967716, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142002

Реферат

Background: The Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant has spread quickly worldwide due to its effects on virus transmission and vaccine effectiveness. Interferon(IFN) has been shown to have a protective effect against SARS-CoV because of its broad antiviral activity. This study aimed to analyze the treatment effects of IFN α-2b spray in virus clearance of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant. Methods: We examined the effectiveness and safety of IFN α-2b spray in Shanghai, China, with participants infected with the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant in an open, prospective cohort study from April 16th to May 5th, 2022. Results: A total of 871 confirmed patients were enrolled in this study. Four hundred and thirteen patients were allocated to the IFN α-2b spray group, and 458 patients were allocated to the control group. The viral shedding time was significantly different between experimental group and control group (11.90 vs.12.58, P <0.05). In the experimental group, the median administration time since the first positive test for SARS-CoV-2 was three days, ranging from 0 to 15 days. There was no obvious adverse effect associated with the spray of IFN α-2b. The univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the administration time since the first positive test ≤3 days was a protective factor associated with viral shedding time (HR 0.81 95% CI 0.74-0.87, P <0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that the viral shedding time was 10.41 (4.00-16.00) days in the ≤3 days group, which was significantly less than that in the control group (12.58, 95% CI: 7.00-19.15, P <0.0001) and in the >3 days group (13.56, 95%CI: 7.00-22.25, P <0.0001). Conclusions: IFN α-2b spray shortened the viral shedding time of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant when administrated within three days since the first positive test for SARS-CoV-2.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , China , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/pharmacology , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Virus Shedding
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 947174, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141976

Реферат

Background: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, patients with Inborn Errors of Immunity have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 virus showing a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic to severe COVID-19. A fair number of patients did not respond adequately to SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations, thus early therapeutic or prophylactic measures were needed to prevent severe or fatal course or COVID-19 and to reduce the burden of hospitalizations. Methods: Longitudinal, multicentric study on patients with Inborn Errors of Immunity immunized with mRNA vaccines treated with monoclonal antibodies and/or antiviral agents at the first infection and at reinfection by SARS-CoV-2. Analyses of efficacy were performed according to the different circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains. Results: The analysis of the cohort of 192 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, across 26 months, showed the efficacy of antivirals on the risk of hospitalization, while mabs offered a positive effect on hospitalization, and COVID-19 severity. This protection was consistent across the alpha, delta and early omicron waves, although the emergence of BA.2 reduced the effect of available mabs. Hospitalized patients treated with mabs and antivirals had a lower risk of ICU admission. We reported 16 re-infections with a length of SARS-CoV-2 positivity at second infection shorter among patients treated with mabs. Treatment with antivirals and mabs was safe. Conclusions: The widespread use of specific therapy, vaccination and better access to care might have contributed to mitigate risk of mortality, hospital admission, and severe disease. However, the rapid spread of new viral strains underlines that mabs and antiviral beneficial effects should be re- evaluated over time.


Тема - темы
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Orv Hetil ; 163(36): 1415-1421, 2022 Sep 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140899

Реферат

Elevation of serum hepatic enzymes are common during the course of COVID-19. There are three possible mechanisms behind this phenomenon: 1) direct and indirect cytotoxic effects of SARS-CoV-2, 2) pharmacological side effects of COVID-19 drugs (e.g., remdesivir, favipiravir, tocilizumab, baricitinib, systemic corticosteroids, etc.) and 3) the progression of chronic hepatic diseases. Both the differential diagnosis and the clinical decision-making may pose difficulty for the the astute clinician, as an inappropriate treatment may result in COVID-19 progression or liver function deterioration. This review aims to provide basic guidance on the clinical decision-making for physicians managing patients with COVID-19. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(36): 1415-1421.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Health Secur ; 20(3): 270-271, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2134710
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7284, 2022 Nov 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133432

Реферат

Molnupiravir is an antiviral, currently approved by the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) for treating at-risk COVID-19 patients, that induces lethal error catastrophe in SARS-CoV-2. How this drug-induced mechanism of action might impact the emergence of resistance mutations is unclear. To investigate this, we used samples from the AGILE Candidate Specific Trial (CST)-2 (clinical trial number NCT04746183). The primary outcomes of AGILE CST-2 were to measure the drug safety and antiviral efficacy of molnupiravir in humans (180 participants randomised 1:1 with placebo). Here, we describe the pre-specified exploratory virological endpoint of CST-2, which was to determine the possible genomic changes in SARS-CoV-2 induced by molnupiravir treatment. We use high-throughput amplicon sequencing and minor variant analysis to characterise viral genomics in each participant whose longitudinal samples (days 1, 3 and 5 post-randomisation) pass the viral genomic quality criteria (n = 59 for molnupiravir and n = 65 for placebo). Over the course of treatment, no specific mutations were associated with molnupiravir treatment. We find that molnupiravir significantly increased the transition:transversion mutation ratio in SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the model of lethal error catastrophe. This study highlights the utility of examining intra-host virus populations to strengthen the prediction, and surveillance, of potential treatment-emergent adaptations.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Genomics
18.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(2): 251-265, 2022 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130981

Реферат

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in 2020 and has led to an unprecedented global pandemic. Understanding the virology behind SARS-CoV-2 infection has provided key insights into our efforts to develop antiviral agents and control the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, the authors focus on the genomic features of SARS-CoV-2, its intrahost and interhost evolution, viral dynamics in respiratory tract, and systemic dissemination.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(11): 1417-1421, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130458

Реферат

BACKGROUND: During the past 2 years, studies on patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection have revealed rare inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) in type interferon (IFN) pathways underlying critical COVID-19 pneumonia. This has provided insights into pathophysiological mechanisms and immune signaling circuits regulating antiviral responses to SARS-CoV-2 and governing the susceptibility to and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. OBJECTIVES: In this review, the current knowledge on IEIs underlying critical COVID-19 is presented, and the clinical implications of these findings for individualized prophylaxis and treatment are outlined. SOURCES: The review is based on a broad literature search, including primarily studies on whole-exome sequencing, and to a lesser extent genome-wide association studies, of patients with critical COVID-19, as well as retrospective descriptive studies of the SARS-CoV-2 disease course in individuals with known IEIs. CONTENT: The review describes the discovery of monogenic IEI in 9 genetic loci related to the production or responses to type I IFN in patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia and the surprising finding of phenocopies of these, represented by neutralizing autoantibodies to type IFN in a significant proportion of patients with critical pneumonia, particularly in elderly men, and further enriched in patients with lethal disease course. Moreover insights gained from studies on SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease course, and outcome in patients with known IEI is presented. Finally, some hypotheses for a possible genetic basis of autoimmune, inflammatory, and long-term complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are presented and discussed. IMPLICATIONS: Uncovering IEIs underlying critical COVID-19 or other severe SARS-CoV-2 disease manifestations provides valuable insights into the basic principles of antiviral immune responses and pathophysiology related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Such knowledge has important clinical implications for identification of susceptible individuals and for diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of patients to reduce disease burden and improve preparedness against viral pandemics with known or emerging viruses in the future.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Retrospective Studies , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Interferons , Autoantibodies , Human Genetics
20.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(11): 1540-1555.e15, 2022 11 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130372

Реферат

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2.75 variant emerged in May 2022. BA.2.75 is a BA.2 descendant but is phylogenetically distinct from BA.5, the currently predominant BA.2 descendant. Here, we show that BA.2.75 has a greater effective reproduction number and different immunogenicity profile than BA.5. We determined the sensitivity of BA.2.75 to vaccinee and convalescent sera as well as a panel of clinically available antiviral drugs and antibodies. Antiviral drugs largely retained potency, but antibody sensitivity varied depending on several key BA.2.75-specific substitutions. The BA.2.75 spike exhibited a profoundly higher affinity for its human receptor, ACE2. Additionally, the fusogenicity, growth efficiency in human alveolar epithelial cells, and intrinsic pathogenicity in hamsters of BA.2.75 were greater than those of BA.2. Our multilevel investigations suggest that BA.2.75 acquired virological properties independent of BA.5, and the potential risk of BA.2.75 to global health is greater than that of BA.5.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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