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1.
Technol Health Care ; 30(6): 1287-1298, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089738

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic broke out in 2019 and rapidly spread across the globe. Most of the severe and dead cases are middle-aged and elderly patients with chronic systemic diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between fasting blood glucose (FPG) and body mass index (BMI) levels in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) under different conditions. METHODS: Experimental-related information (age, gender, BMI, and FPG on the second day of admission) from 86 COVID-19 cases (47 males and 39 females) with an average age of (39 ± 17) years was collected in April and November 2020. These cases were divided into three groups according to the most severe classification of each case determined by the clinical early warning indicators of severe-critically illness, the degree of progression, and the treatment plan shown in the diagnosis and treatment plan of COVID-19 pneumonia. Statistical models were used to analyze the differences in the levels of FPG and BMI, age, and gender among the three groups. RESULTS: 1. Experimental group: 21 patients with asymptomatic or and mild symptoms (group A), 45 patients with common non-progression (group B), and 20 patients with common progression and severe symptoms (group C). 2. The age differences among the three groups were statistically significant and elderly patients had a higher risk of severe disease (t= 4.1404, 3.3933, 9.2123, P= 0.0001, 0.0012, 0.0000). There was a higher proportion of females than males in the normal progression and severe disease cases (χ2= 5.512, P= 0.019). 3. The level of FPG was significantly higher in group C than in group A (t= 3.1655, P= 0.0030) and B (t= 2.0212, P= 0.0475). The number of diabetes or IFG in group C was significantly higher than in group A (χ2= 5.979, P= 0.014) and group B (χ2= 6.088, P= 0.014). 4. BMI was significantly higher in group C than in groups A (t= 3.8839, P= 0.0004) and B (t= 3.8188, P= 0.0003). The number of overweight or obese patients in group C was significantly higher than in groups A (χ2= 8.838, P= 0.003) and B (χ2= 10.794, P= 0.001). 5. Patients' age, gender, and FPG were independent risk factors for COVID-19 disease progression (ß= 0.380, 0.191, 0.186; P= 0.000, 0.034, 0.045). CONCLUSION: The levels of FPG and BMI were significantly increased in the population with common progressive and severe COVID-19. FPG and age are independent risk factors for the progression of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Fasting , Pandemics
2.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6900-6907, 2022 Nov 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083107

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The associations of doses of vaccine received with symptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 and negative conversion rate of viral RNA by BMI, diabetes, and age are unclear. METHODS: Included were adult cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized at a makeshift hospital in Shanghai (N = 38,592). Each case received a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test every day until discharge. Symptomatic cases had ≥1 pre-specified symptoms. Negative conversion time (NCT) was the duration between the specimen collection date associated with the first positive RT-PCR test and the first test date of the two consecutive negative tests at least 24 h apart. BMI-, diabetes- and age-stratified multivariable logistic and Poisson regressions were applied. FINDINGS: Coexistence of overweight/obesity and diabetes was associated with a higher risk of symptomatic infection and a longer NCT compared with coexistence of normal weight and without diabetes, but this association was primarily attributed to underlying comorbidities. Compared with absence of vaccination, booster vaccination, but not full vaccination, was consistently associated with a 42 %-56 % lower odds of symptomatic infection and ∼1.6-1.8 days of shorter NCT across different strata separately for weight and diabetes. Age-stratified analyses found that the effectiveness of booster vaccination did not attenuate with age, except for preventing symptomatic infection among adults with diabetes. INTERPRETATION: BMI and diabetes co-determined their associations with symptomatic infection and NCT. Booster vaccination but not full vaccination was associated a lower risk of symptomatic infection, a shorter NCT or both regardless of BMI, diabetes status and age.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral/genetics , Body Mass Index , China , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Vaccination
3.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071661

Реферат

Overweight and obesity are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and represent risk factors for various diseases, including COVID-19. However, most published studies on COVID-19 defined obesity by the body mass index (BMI), which does not encounter adipose tissue distribution, thus neglecting immunometabolic high-risk patterns. Therefore, we comprehensively analyzed baseline anthropometry (BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WtHR), visceral (VAT), epicardial (EAT), subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue masses and liver fat, inflammation markers (CRP, ferritin, interleukin-6), and immunonutritional scores (CRP-to-albumin ratio (CAR), modified Glasgow prognostic score, neutrophile-to-lymphocyte ratio, prognostic nutritional index)) in 58 consecutive COVID-19 patients of the early pandemic phase with regard to the necessity of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Here, metabolically high-risk adipose tissues represented by increased VAT, liver fat, and WtHR strongly correlated with higher levels of inflammation, pathologic immunonutritional scores, and the need for IMV. In contrast, the prognostic value of BMI was inferior and absent with regard to SAT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified an optimized IMV risk prediction model employing liver fat, WtHR, and CAR. In summary, we suggest an immunometabolically risk-adjusted model to predict COVID-19-induced respiratory failure better than BMI-based stratification, which warrants prospective validation.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Body Mass Index , Interleukin-6 , Obesity/complications , Obesity/pathology , Inflammation/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Albumins , Ferritins , Risk Assessment , Intra-Abdominal Fat/pathology , Risk Factors
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071446

Реферат

Older adults show lower physical activity. These changes altogether promote the development of overweight, obesity, and other chronic diseases. These factors substantially influence the quality of life and self-esteem of older adults. This phenomenon is especially visible after the lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of a 12-week reductive diet and a 12-week physical activity plan for older adults on the global self-esteem of lifestyle in 60-70-year-old women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our participants were 600 women with increased body mass (BMI > 25 kg/m2) aged 60-70 years. After the initial evaluation, the participants were randomly divided into three groups: CG-control group (n =200); DI-dietary group (n =200) that committed to a 12-week reductive diet; PA-physical activity group (n =200) that committed to a 12-week physical activity plan. The global self-esteem score (using the SES Rosenberg scale) and the anthropometric measurements were collected before and after the 12-week study. In the statistical analysis of data, the significance level was assumed to be 0.05. RESULTS: The global self-esteem score for all groups before the study started was 30-31 points, which corresponded to average self-esteem. After a 12-week dietary or physical activity intervention, the score in the DI group was 33, which corresponded with high self-esteem. In the CG group, the self-esteem score remained unchanged (30 points). The average body mass loss was 0.5 kg/m2 for CG, 1.92 kg/m2 for DI, and 1.10 kg/m2 for the PA group. The average waist-hip ratio (WHR) change for CG, DI, and PA was 1 cm, 1 cm, and 2 cm, respectively. A decrease in body mass and body composition indicators (BMI and WHR) corresponded to participants' global self-esteem increase (p <0.05); the greater the decrease noted for BMI and WHR, the greater the global self-esteem score that was achieved. In the CG group, a negative correlation between global self-esteem and BMI value (p <0.05) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: A 12-week reductive diet and a 12-week regular physical activity plan lowered participants' body mass. Adipose tissue content was reflected by decreased BMI and WHR indicators of participants from the DI and PA groups and was accompanied by higher global self-esteem scores.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , Body Mass Index , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Overweight/epidemiology , Exercise , Body Composition , Diet, Reducing
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071401

Реферат

Obesity is a prevalent health issue. Evidence suggests that the availability of urban nature may reduce the risks of obesity. However, several knowledge gaps remain. This study explores the relationships between the dose (distance, duration and frequency) of urban nature and demographic factors towards obesity risks among people in Thailand. A total of 111 participants in three urban and peri-urban nature locations answered a survey regarding their distance from green spaces, frequency of visits, and duration of their typical stay, as well as their socio-demographics, and waist-hip ratio (WHR). The results suggested that at least 1-2 h per typical visit to nature predicted low-risk WHR in women. Male participants are more likely to have a high-risk WHR. Increasing age predicted low-risk WHR. Spending more time in green spaces predicted lower odds of high-risk WHR, while distance did not predict the odds. This research is one of the first to study the relationship between time spent in nature and obesity, and one of the first nature and health studies conducted in Thailand. Given that Thailand is one of the countries most affected by obesity in Southeast Asia, this study is relevant and essential. Future research should explore the quality factors of the park with longer duration of stay.


Тема - темы
Obesity , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk , Risk Factors , Thailand/epidemiology , Waist-Hip Ratio
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Sep 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066349

Реферат

The rate of obesity in adolescents has increased due to social distancing measures and school closures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. These issues have caused adolescents to change their lifestyles and eating habits. Furthermore, the growth in inactive behavior and computer screen or watching TV time, as well as the reduction in physical activity, could similarly be related with obesity. To overcome this problem, we recently developed an artificial intelligence (AI)-based gesture recognition game application called Super Kids Adventure (SUKIA, Funrehab, Daejeon, Korea), which provides inexpensive and motivational game applications. This research is designed to assess the effects of SUKIA and Nintendo Switch (NINS) on calorie consumption, VO2 max, 6-minute walking test (6MWT) as well as body mass index (BMI), and the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE) in adolescents with obesity. A convenience sample of 24 adolescents with obesity were randomized into either the NINS or SUKIA groups 5 days/week for 3 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t-tests were presented with significant level at p < 0.05, and the analysis indicated that SUKIA showed superior effects on calorie consumption, VO2 max, and RPE compared to NINS. Our results provide evidence that SUKIA can more effectively improve cardiopulmonary function and calorie consumption than NINS in adolescents with obesity during COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Artificial Intelligence , Body Mass Index , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 29.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065962

Реферат

This study aimed to identify changes in the prevalence of childhood (children under five years of age) overweight and obesity in Peru as a whole and at the departmental level, before and during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We performed a secondary data analysis of two Demographic and Family Health Surveys (2019 and 2021) in Peru. The outcome was childhood overweight and obesity, defined as a weight-for-height score greater than 2 standard deviations. Poisson log generalized linear regression models adjusted for sex and/or age in months of the child were fitted to obtain the prevalence ratios of the changes in childhood overweight and obesity from 2019 to 2021. The analysis included 41,533 (2019: 20,414; 2021: 21,119) participants. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was 6.4% in 2019 and 7.8% in 2021. Female children, aged 2, 3 and 4 years, and mothers who self-identified as non-native, had secondary and higher education, belonged to the middle and richer wealth quintile and resided in an urban area, in a village, in a small city and in the coastal region showed the largest increases in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in 2021 compared to 2019. The departments of Pasco, Apurímac, Junín, Cusco, Lambayeque and La Libertad presented the largest increases in the prevalence of these nutritional disorders. During the pandemic, an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was observed, with demographic and socioeconomic factors accounting for the largest increases in the prevalence rates. A restructuring of overweight and obesity control strategies is required to curb this steady increase.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Brain Behav ; 12(11): e2772, 2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059301

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that obesity is associated with decreased executive function. Impaired executive functions lead to poor self-regulation, which in turn may result in persistence of unhealthy behaviors, including eating behaviors, throughout life. Increasing self-regulation in childhood and adolescence has positive effects on creating healthy behaviors such as reducing unnecessary eating and changing unhealthy eating habits. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate an intervention package based on cognitive self-regulation training in changing eating behaviors and reducing obesity in children and adolescents. METHODS: Fifty-six students with obesity aged 12-16 years participated in the study in three groups (cognitive self-regulation training [CSRT], diet, and control). The CSRT group received twenty 30-min online training sessions with a diet over 10 weeks. The diet group received only a diet with no other intervention, and the control group did not receive any intervention. RESULTS: The results of our 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVA showed that the CSRT group had a mean BMI decrease of 2.21 (kg/m2 ) after ten weeks, and 3.24 (kg/m2 ) at the follow-up time. The diet group had a BMI decrease of 0.49 (kg/m2 ) at the ten weeks. In addition, the results showed that the CSRT had a significant reduction in eating behaviors such as external eating and emotional eating. However, the other two groups showed no changes in eating behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that online cognitive self-regulation training has been effective in weight loss and eating behaviors. This study shows promising evidence for the efficacy of the online CSRT-training as a weight stabilization intervention in children with obesity.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Weight Loss/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Diet , Body Mass Index
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 18.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055248

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to food habit changes, including some negative ones that may increase the risk of overweight and obesity. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between adolescents' food habits, body mass change, as well as physical activity level in a population-based sample within the Diet and Activity of Youth during COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study. The DAY-19 Study was conducted in a cohort of 1333 students (aged 10-16 years) recruited in schools after stratified random quota sampling of primary schools (sampling counties within voivodeships and schools within counties) in June 2020. The food habits were assessed for the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and the period before the COVID-19 pandemic while using Adolescent Food Habits Checklist (AFHC). The body mass changes were assessed based on body weight and height for the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and the period before the COVID-19 pandemic while using Polish growth reference values. The physical activity changes were assessed based on the subjective assessment of adolescents. It was stated that for female adolescents declaring body mass gain during the COVID-19 pandemic the highest AFHC purchase scores (healthy purchase habits) (p < 0.0001) were accompanied by the lowest AFHC consumption score (unhealthy consumption habits) (p < 0.0001), as well as for female adolescents declaring physical activity decrease during the COVID-19 pandemic the highest AFHC purchase scores (healthy purchase habits) were observed (p = 0.0333). It was stated that for male adolescents declaring physical activity increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, the highest AFHC consumption scores (healthy consumption habits) were observed (p = 0.0003). In the case of a majority of participants, the general food habits were unchanged, which was observed mainly for food habits associated with food preparation. More food habits changes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in body mass changes were observed in females than in male adolescents. Body mass gain during the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents may have resulted from unhealthy consumption habits, accompanied by decreased physical activity, in spite of the fact that this sub-group presented healthy purchase habits, which was observed especially for female adolescents.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics
10.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274950, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054351

Реферат

The human milk microbiome is thought to partly contribute to the assembly of the infant gut microbiome, a microbial community with important implications for infant health and development. While obesity has well-established links with the adult gut microbiome, less is known about how it affects the human milk microbiome. In this scoping review, we synthesize the current literature on the microbial composition of human milk by maternal weight status, defined broadly as BMI (prepregnancy and postpartum) and gestational weight gain (GWG). This study followed the a priori protocol published in Prospero (registration #: CRD42020165633). We searched the following databases for studies reporting maternal weight status and a characterization of milk microbiota through culture-dependent and culture-independent methods: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scopus. After screening 6,365 studies, we found 20 longitudinal and cross-sectional studies investigating associations between maternal weight status and the composition of the milk microbiome. While some studies reported no associations, many others reported that women with a pre-pregnancy or postpartum BMI characterized as overweight or obese, or with excessive GWG, had higher abundances of the genus Staphylococcus, lower Bifidobacterium abundance, and lower alpha diversity (within-sample diversity). This review suggests that maternal weight status is minorly associated with the composition of the milk microbiome in various ways. We offer potential explanations for these findings, as well as suggestions for future research.


Тема - темы
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gestational Weight Gain , Adult , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human , Obesity/microbiology , Pregnancy
11.
J Int Med Res ; 50(9): 3000605221127520, 2022 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053628

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Evidence indicates that people with a high body mass index (BMI) tend to develop more severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to determine the association between the duration of COVID-19 symptoms and variables such as BMI, age, presence of comorbidities, and smoking in non-hospitalized patients. METHODS: In this observational cross-sectional analytical study, we analyzed the data of patients with COVID-19 but without severe manifestations. We conducted descriptive statistics, non-parametric tests, and multivariate quasi-Poisson regression in the analysis. The quasi-Poisson regression model was configured with the duration of COVID-19 symptoms as the response variable, and BMI and the presence of comorbidities as the explanatory variables. RESULTS: Among 302 non-hospitalized patients, we found a significant difference in COVID-19 symptom duration between the overweight group and the group with normal weight. Multivariate quasi-Poisson regression analysis showed that BMI and the presence of comorbidities were associated with the duration of COVID-19 symptoms. On the contrary, sex, age, and smoking status were not related to COVID-19 symptom duration. CONCLUSIONS: BMI and comorbidities were associated with the duration of COVID-19 symptoms in non-hospitalized patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 377-384, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049034

Реферат

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although obesity have been generally shown to be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in COVID-19 infection, some studies demonstrate a paradoxical protective effect ("obesity paradox"). This study examines the influence of obesity categories on clinical outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients admitted to an intensive care unit with acute hypoxic respiratory failure requiring either non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This is a single centre, retrospective study of consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit between 03/2020 to 03/2021. Patients were grouped according to the NICE Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Admission variables including age, sex, comorbidities, and ICU severity indices (APACHE-II, SOFA and PaO2/FiO2) were collected. Data were compared between BMI groups for outcomes such as need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), renal replacement therapy (RRT) and 28-day and overall hospital mortality. RESULTS: 340 patients were identified and of those 333 patients had their BMI documented. Just over half of patients (53%) had obesity. Those with extreme obesity (obesity groups II and III) were younger with fewer comorbidities, but were more hypoxaemic at presentation, than the healthy BMI group. Although non-significant, obesity groups II and III paradoxically showed a lower in-hospital mortality than the healthy weight group. However, adjusted (age, sex, APACHE-II and CCI) competing risk regression analysis showed three-times higher mortality in obese category I (sub-distribution hazard ratio = 3.32 (95% CI 1.30-8.46), p = 0.01) and a trend to higher mortality across all obesity groups compared to the healthy weight group. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, those with obesity were at higher risk of mortality after adjustment for confounders. We did not identify an "obesity paradox" in this cohort. The obesity paradox may be explained by confounding factors such as younger age, fewer comorbidities, and less severe organ failures. The impact of obesity on indicators of morbidity including likelihood of requirement for organ support measures was not conclusively demonstrated and requires further scrutiny.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Obesity/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Behav Med ; 45(5): 760-770, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048387

Реферат

Medical avoidance is common among U.S. adults, and may be emphasized among members of marginalized communities due to discrimination concerns. In the current study, we investigated whether this disparity in avoidance was maintained or exacerbated during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed the likelihood of avoiding medical care due to general-, discrimination-, and COVID-19-related concerns in an online sample (N = 471). As hypothesized, marginalized groups (i.e., non-White race, Latinx/e ethnicity, non-heterosexual sexual orientation, high BMI) endorsed more general- and discrimination-related medical avoidance than majoritized groups. However, marginalized groups were equally likely to seek COVID-19 treatment as majoritized groups. Implications for reducing medical avoidance among marginalized groups are discussed.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Social Marginalization , Vulnerable Populations , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
14.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 27.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043883

Реферат

Higher body mass index (BMI) has been associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations among BMI, underlying health conditions and hospital admission as well as the effects of COVID-19 vaccines in adults aged 50 years and older in Europe using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) which was collected from June to August 2021, shortly after the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic occurred in Europe. Survey data totalling 1936 individuals were used for statistical analyses to calculate the likelihood of hospitalization due to COVID-19 infection in relation to BMI, sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and COVID vaccination status. Approximately 16% of individuals testing positive for COVID-19 were hospitalized for COVID-19, and over 75% of these hospitalized individuals were either overweight or obese. The likelihood of hospitalization for individuals with obesity was approximately 1.5 times (CI [1.05-2.05]) higher than those with a healthy weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) after adjusting for BMI, sex and age. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, vaccination and comorbidities, the likelihood of hospitalization for individuals with obesity was 1.34 times higher than those with a healthy weight (CI [0.94-1.90]). Vaccine uptake was lowest in individuals with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) in all age groups. Individuals who had not received a vaccine were 1.8 times more likely to be hospitalized (CI [1.34-2.30]). Across European regions, obesity is associated with higher odds of hospitalization, and vaccination may be effective to reduce these odds for older adults.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Europe/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043709

Реферат

Apart from influencing the health of the worldwide population, the COVID-19 pandemic changed the day-to-day life of all, including children. A sedentary lifestyle along with the transformation of eating and sleep habits took place in the child population. These changes created a highly obesogenic environment. Our aim was to evaluate the current weight in the child population and identify the real effects of the pandemic. Height and weight data were collected by pediatricians from the pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 periods from 3517 children (1759 boys and 1758 girls) aged 4.71 to 17.33 years. We found a significant rise in the z-score BMI between pediatric visits in the years 2019 and 2021 in both sexes aged 7, 9, 11, and 13 years. Especially alarming were the percentages of (severely) obese boys at the ages of 9 and 11 years, which exceed even the percentages of overweight boys. With the use of statistical modeling, we registered the most dramatic increment at around 12 years of age in both sexes. Based on our research in the Czech Republic, we can confirm the predictions that were given at the beginning of the pandemic that COVID-19-related restrictions worsened the already present problem of obesity and excess weight in children.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 712, 2022 Sep 19.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038678

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Obesity in pregnant women is increasing worldwide, affecting the health of both mother and baby. Obesity may be associated with inadequate health literacy, a central competence when navigating antenatal health information and services. This study explores women's health literacy by examining their knowledge, motivation and skills to access, understand and evaluate health information and the related behaviour among a sample of pregnant women with a prepregnant body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2. METHODS: An inductive, qualitative study using an interpretive description methodology. Data was collected through ten semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a prepregnancy BMI > 25 kg/m2 attending antenatal care at the midwifery clinic at Aarhus University Hospital in the Central Denmark Region. RESULTS: Pregnant women with obesity understand general health information provided by health professionals, but translating this knowledge into specific healthy behaviours presents a challenge. Although difficulties navigating booking systems and available digital services contribute to this problem, apps can help facilitate navigation. However, successful navigation may depend on adequate e-health literacy. Conflicting information from health professionals, social media and families also present a challenge for pregnant women, requiring a broad skillset for critical evaluation and resolution. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate health literacy is necessary for pregnant women receiving antenatal care to (i) translate general health information into personalised healthy behaviour, (ii) access and navigate complex and digitalised systems, and (iii) critically evaluate conflicting information. Person-centred differentiation in the organisation of antenatal care may benefit vulnerable pregnant women with inadequate health literacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered cf. General Data Protection Regulation, Aarhus University Journal number 2016-051-000001, serial number 1934.


Тема - темы
Health Literacy , Pregnant Women , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Infant , Obesity/complications , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research
17.
Appetite ; 178: 106182, 2022 11 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035763

Реферат

The objective of this study was to assess changes in body weight, body fat, food intake, and clinical risk factors during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic (COVID group) vs. the pre-COVID period (pre-COVID group). Clinical measurements were collected and Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) were administered at two time points for each group (211 days ± 114 SD). For the pre-COVID group, the data were collected before February 20, 2020. For the COVID group, the data were collected either before and after February 20, 2020, or both between February 20, 2020 and April 1, 2021, excluding a 6.5-month pandemic-related pause of hospital visits. Increases in the following outcome measures were seen in the COVID group relative to the preCOVID group: body weight (t = 3.40, p = 0.004), body fat mass (t = 2.29, p = 0.024), diastolic blood pressure (BP) (t = 2.10, p = 0.039), total cholesterol (t = 1.81, p = 0.074, marginal), and fat/oil intake (t = 2.44, p = 0.017). In contrast, there were decreases in fruit intake (t = -1.88, p = 0.064, marginal) in the COVID group compared to the preCOVID group. The COVID period relative to pre-COVID was associated with unfavorable changes in body weight and composition, food intake, and health risk factors. This appears to be the first report of in-person direct measures of changes in body weight and risk factors.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Eating , Energy Intake , Fruit , Humans , Risk Factors
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 879440, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032767

Реферат

The Covid-19 pandemic drastically modified social life and lifestyle, in particular, among children and adolescents, promoting sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits. The aims of this study were to assess the rate and the factors associated with outpatient drop-out in childhood obesity management, and to evaluate how the Covid-19 pandemic influenced weight status and lifestyle of children and adolescents with obesity. One hundred and forty-five children and adolescents with obesity were identified, including 80 subjects evaluated before the Covid-19 pandemic (group A) and 65 subjects in the period straddling the Covid-19 pandemic (group B). Anamnestic (family history of obesity, dietary habits, physical activity, screen time), socio-cultural (economic status, employment and schooling of parents, household composition, place of living) and clinical (weight, height, BMI, waist circumference) data were retrospectively analyzed for each subject in both groups at baseline (V0) and 12-months (V1) at in-person assessment. Glycemic and lipid profiles were assessed at V0. Drop-out rate did not differ significantly between the two groups. BMI SDS at V0 (OR=2.52; p=0.004), female sex (OR=0.41; p=0.035), and the presence of a single parent in the household (OR=5.74; p=0.033) significantly influenced drop-out in both groups. Weight loss between V0 and V1 was significantly greater among group A patients compared to group B (p=0.031). In group B, hours spent in physical activity significantly decreased from V0 to V1, being significantly lower than group A at V1; on the contrary, screen time significantly increased in the same period. The consumption of sugary drinks and snacks was significantly greater in group B than group A at V1. Our study documented that the Covid-19 pandemic, although not affecting the drop-out rate of obese children in a follow-up program, negatively influenced lifestyle and reduced the effectiveness of outpatient counseling in childhood obesity treatment.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome , Obesity Management , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Counseling , Female , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Retrospective Studies
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023724

Реферат

This study aims to investigate the association of vitamin D (VD) knowledge, behavior, and attitude with BMI status among Saudi adults. This cross-sectional online survey included a total of 774 participants (M/F: 239/535). Knowledge about the overall sources of VD was highest in OB participants in correctly identifying sunlight (95.1%; p < 0.001) while significantly more OW participants answered food (83.1%; p = 0.04) and fortified food (66.5%; p = 0.02). However, 18.9% of OB participants also wrongly identified air as a VD source and this was significantly higher than in other groups (p = 0.03). OW participants were 50% less likely to identify salmon and fish oil (odds ratio, OR 0.5 (95% Confidence interval, CI 0.4-0.7); p < 0.01) and 40% more likely to identify chicken (OR 1.4 (1.0-1.9); p < 0.05) as dietary sources of VD than controls. On the other hand, OB participants were almost three times more likely to know that sunlight exposure is the main source of VD than controls (OR 2.65 (1.2-6.0); p < 0.05). In conclusion, while VD knowledge overall was apparently high in Saudi adults regardless of BMI status, the quality of knowledge among OB and OW individuals appear inconsistent, particularly in terms of identifying the right VD sources. Public health awareness campaigns should include the correction of VD misconceptions so that high-risk populations are able to make well-informed decisions in achieving optimal VD levels.


Тема - темы
Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Arabs , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Vitamins
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 30.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023705

Реферат

The practice of physical activity during adolescence is essential for the proper development of the population. In recent decades, the relevance of physical activity has been increasing, due to the development of the "fat but fit" paradigm. This paradigm shows that adolescents with a high level of physical fitness are healthier than adolescents with poorer physical fitness, regardless of their weight, giving importance to sports practice over other aspects. However, few previous studies have analyzed the differences in physical and body composition between active and sedentary adolescents in this paradigm. For this reason, the objectives of the present study were to establish the differences in body composition, physical performance, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet between active and sedentary adolescents; and to analyze the differences between active and sedentary adolescents according to the "fat but fit" paradigm. The sample consisted of 791 adolescent whose body composition, level of physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and physical fitness were measured. It was found significant between active and sedentary adolescents in most of the anthropometric, AMD, and physical fitness variables, with a significant effect of the covariates gender, age, BMI, and biological maturation on the model. The binary logistic regression analysis performed shows that anthropometric variables, AMD, and VO2 max can be considered as primary outcomes to distinguish between active and sedentary groups of adolescents. Furthermore, the results showed that the active adolescents, regardless of their weight status, had lower fat mass and greater muscle mass, as well as a higher performance in the physical fitness tests, and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet than the sedentary adolescents. To conclude, the practice of physical activity is a determinant for the improvement of body composition, physical performance, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet of the adolescent population, regardless of their gender, age, weight, or maturity status.


Тема - темы
Body Composition , Diet, Mediterranean , Adolescent , Body Composition/physiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Humans , Physical Fitness/physiology
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