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2.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 114(10): 631, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204324

Реферат

We would like to correspond and share ideas on the publication "SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, a new autoimmune hepatitis trigger?." López Romero-Salazar reported a case of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) after receiving SARS-COV2 vaccine. López Romero-Salazar et al noted that "vaccination can induce the development of autoimmune pathology in patients at risk." The possibility of a link between AIH and the SARS-CoV2 vaccine is explored. We agree that the COVID-19 vaccination has the potential to create clinical problems. The aberrant immune response could lead to a variety of health issues, including hepatitis. The vaccine recipient in this case had hepatitis, but there is no information about his or her health or liver function prior to inoculation. Other probable causes of hepatitis should be considered.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936896, 2022 Aug 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203693

Реферат

BACKGROUND Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune condition that presents as weakness, numbness, paresthesia, and areflexia. GBS may occur following infection or vaccination. The pathogenesis of GBS is characterized by inflammatory infiltrates and segmental demyelination. The mechanism of GBS following COVID-19 vaccination is hypothesized to arise from an autoimmune-mediated mechanism leading to an increase in inflammatory cytokines. While there were no reported cases of GBS during the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination clinical trials, there have been a few case reports of GBS following COVID-19 vaccination. CASE REPORT We report a case of symmetric weakness and paresthesia that began 3 days after the patient received his first dose of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies demonstrated albuminocytologic dissociation. The combination of the patient's CSF findings and clinical symptoms was concerning for Guillain-Barre syndrome. Given the clinical findings 3 days following COVID-19 vaccination, there was a high concern for COVID-19 vaccine-induced GBS. The patient was treated with IVIG followed by plasmapheresis but failed to show significant improvement from either treatment. CONCLUSIONS Our case report demonstrates occurrence of GBS soon after the patient received the COVID-19 Moderna vaccine. Although rare, there is some evidence to support an association between COVID-19 vaccination and GBS, but this is generally limited to case reports and case series. Clinicians, however, should remain vigilant to mitigate potential risks, such as autonomic dysfunction, respiratory failure, permanent disability, and death in patients who develop GBS after vaccination.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Paresthesia
4.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 105-122, 2022 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201769

Реферат

The WHO emergency use-listed (EUL) COVID-19 vaccines were developed against early strains of SARS-CoV-2. With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) - Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron, it is necessary to assess the neutralizing activity of these vaccines against the VOCs. PubMed and preprint platforms were searched for literature on neutralizing activity of serum from WHO EUL vaccine recipients, against the VOCs, using appropriate search terms till November 30, 2021. Our search yielded 91 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The analysis revealed a drop of 0-8.9-fold against Alpha variant, 0.3-42.4-fold against Beta variant, 0-13.8-fold against Gamma variant and 1.35-20-fold against Delta variant in neutralization titres of serum from the WHO EUL COVID-19 vaccine recipients, as compared to early SARS-CoV-2 isolates. The wide range of variability was due to differences in the choice of virus strains selected for neutralization assays (pseudovirus or live virus), timing of serum sample collection after the final dose of vaccine (day 0 to 8 months) and sample size (ranging from 5 to 470 vaccinees). The reasons for this variation have been discussed and the possible way forward to have uniformity across neutralization assays in different laboratories have been described, which will generate reliable data. Though in vitro neutralization studies are a valuable tool to estimate the performance of vaccines against the backdrop of emerging variants, the results must be interpreted with caution and corroborated with field-effectiveness studies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins
5.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 123-128, 2022 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201754

Реферат

Background & objectives: The safety of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine is a cause of concern for many who have been vaccinated. The people have multiple concerns and fear regarding the adverse events of the vaccine. Thus, this study was undertaken to establish the safety profile of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona Virus Vaccine (Recombinant) among the healthcare professionals. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. After taking clearance from the institutional ethics committee 1500 healthcare professionals, who had their vaccination in the past two weeks were selected. They were provided with an online survey proforma regarding adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) of COVID-19 vaccine developed using google forms with an informed consent form affixed to it. Results: A total of 1036 individuals participated in the study. The mean and median (inter quartile range) age of the participants was 37.7 ±11.25 and 35 (29-46) yr, respectively. Of these, 52.1 per cent were female, 29.3 per cent were doctors, 33.4 per cent were nurses and 9.5 per cent were paramedical staff. Forty six per cent participants experienced one or more minor AEFIs such as pain, tenderness, redness, etc. at the injection site. Fatigue (31.75%), generalized feeling of unwell (28.57%), muscle pain (23.16%) and fever (21.71%) were the most commonly reported systemic AEFIs followed by headache (20.07%), dizziness (10.03%) and joint pains (15.25%). Most of them experienced these AEFIs within 24 h of the first dose of administration. About 42 per cent of the participants took oral antipyretics/analgesics for managing the AEFIs. Interpretation & conclusions: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona Virus Vaccine was found to be associated with mild local and systemic AEFIs that were more common after the first dose as compared to the second dose. There adverse events could be dealt with oral over-the-counter medications, with no requirement of hospitalization.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male
6.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 91-104, 2022 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201743

Реферат

There are currently eight vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 that have received Emergency Use Authorization by the WHO that can offer some protection to the world's population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Though research is being published all over the world, public health officials, policymakers and governments are collecting evidence-based information to establish the public health policies. Unfortunately, continued international travel, violations of lockdowns and social distancing, the lack of mask use, the emergence of mutant strains of the virus and lower adherence by a sector of the global population that remains sceptical of the protection offered by vaccines, or about any risks associated with vaccines, hamper these efforts. Here we examine the literature on the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines, with an emphasis on select categories of individuals and against new SARS-CoV-2 strains. The literature shows that these eight vaccines are highly effective in protecting the population from severe disease and death, but there are some issues concerning safety and adverse effects. Further, booster shots and variant-specific vaccines would also be required.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 165-170, 2022 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201739

Реферат

Background & objectives: COVID-19 cases have been rising rapidly in countries where the SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC), Omicron (B.1.1.529) has been reported. We conducted a study to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with 'S' gene target failure (SGTF, suspected Omicron). Furthermore, their clinical outcomes with COVID-19 patients with non-SGTF (non-Omicron) were also compared. Methods: This study was conducted in Tamil Nadu, India, between December 14, 2021 and January 7, 2022 among patients who underwent reverse transcription-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 in four laboratories with facilities for S gene screening. Consecutively selected COVID-19 patients with SGTF were telephonically contacted, seven and 14 days respectively after their date of positive result to collect information on the socio-demographic characteristics, previous history of COVID-19, vaccination status and clinical course of illness along with treatment details. To compare their outcomes with non-SGTF patients, one randomly suspected non-Omicron case for every two suspected Omicron cases from the line-list were selected, matching for the date of sample collection and the testing laboratory. Results: A total of 1175 SGTF COVID-19 patients were enrolled for this study. Almost 6 per cent (n=72) reported a history of previous infection. 141 (13.5%) suspected Omicron cases were non-vaccinated, while 148 (14.2%) and 703 (67.4%) had received valid one and two doses of COVID-19 vaccines, respectively. Predominant symptoms reported included fever (n=508, 43.2%), body pain (n=275, 23.4%), running nose (n=261, 22.2%) and cough (n=249, 21.2%). Five (0.4%) of the 1175 suspected Omicron cases required oxygen supplementation as compared to ten (1.6%) of the 634 suspected non-Omicron cases. No deaths were reported among omicron suspects, whereas there were four deaths among suspected non-Omicron cases. Interpretation & conclusions: Majority of the suspected Omicron cases had a mild course of illness. The overall severity of these cases was less compared to the suspected non-Omicron cases.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 918896, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198845

Реферат

Background: Effective and safe vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are critical to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and will remain the most important tool in limiting the spread of the virus long after the pandemic is over. Methods: We bring pioneering contributions on the maintenance of the immune response over a year on a real-life basis study in 1,587 individuals (18-90 yrs, median 39 yrs; 1,208 female/379 male) who underwent vaccination with two doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 booster after 6-months of primary protocol. Findings: Elevated levels of anti-spike IgG antibodies were detected after CoronaVac vaccination, which significantly decreased after 80 days and remained stable until the introduction of the booster dose. Heterologous booster restored antibody titers up to-1·7-fold, changing overall seropositivity to 96%. Titers of neutralising antibodies to the Omicron variant were lower in all timepoints than those against Delta variant. Individuals presenting neutralising antibodies against Omicron also presented the highest titers against Delta and anti-Spike IgG. Cellular immune response measurement pointed out a mixed immune profile with a robust release of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors on the first month after CoronaVac vaccination followed by a gradual reduction over time and no increase after the booster dose. A stronger interaction between those mediators was noted over time. Prior exposure to the virus leaded to a more robust cellular immune response and a rise in antibody levels 60 days post CoronaVac than in individuals with no previous COVID-19. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated among individuals. Interpretation: Our data approach the effectiveness of CoronaVac association with BNT162b2 from the clinical and biological perspectives, aspects that have important implications for informing decisions about vaccine boosters. Funding: Fiocruz, Brazil.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Brazil , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 911738, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198836

Реферат

Introduction: Vaccination is an effective strategy for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated mortality. Renal Transplant Recipients (RTRs) are vulnerable to acquiring infection and high mortality due to their immunocompromised state. Varying responses to the different vaccines, depending on types of vaccines and population, have been reported. Vaccines supply is also limited. The current study evaluated the seroconversion rate after SARS-CoV-2 infection and 2 doses of either COVAXIN™ or COVISHIELD™ vaccination in RTR. Methods: The serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein neutralizing antibody titer was measured in 370 RTRs who acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection (n=172), yet not vaccinated; and those vaccinated with COVAXIN™ (n=78), and COVISHIELD™ (n=120) by chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay methods from serum. Result: Overall, the seroconversion rate either after vaccination or infection was 85.13% (315/370). The vaccine-associated seroconversion was 80.30% (159/198). SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated seroconversion was 90.69% (156/172), COVISHIELD™ associated seroconversion was 79.2% (95/120), and COVAXIN™ associated seroconversion was 82.05% (64/78). The median IgG titer in the SARS-CoV-2 infection group was 646.50 AU/ml (IQR: 232.52-1717.42), in the COVAXIN™ group was 1449.75 AU/ml (IQR: 400.0-3068.55), and the COVISHIELD™ vaccination group was 1500.51 AU/ml (IQR: 379.47-4938.50). The seroconversion rate and antibody titers were similar irrespective of the place of sampling. Patient's age-associated seroconversion in <45 years was 88.01% (213/242), 45.1-60 years was 83.18% (94/113), and > 60 years was 58.3% (7/12). Conclusions: Both infection and vaccination induce robust antibody formation in RTRs. The seroconversion rate after SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher but with a lower antibody titer than vaccines. The vaccines, COVAXIN™ and COVISHIELD™, induce more elevated antibody titers than natural infection. The seroconversion rate and antibody titer in Indian RTRs appears to be better than in the western population, irrespective of their vaccination status.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Allografts , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 906551, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198831

Реферат

Background: Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element with high relevance for the immune system, and its deficiency is associated with elevated infection risk and severe disease course. The association of Zn status with the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is unknown. Methods: A cohort of adult health care workers (n=126) received two doses of BNT162B2, and provided up to four serum samples over a time course of 6 months. Total SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibody potency was determined, along with total as well as free Zn concentrations. Results: The SARS-CoV-2 antibodies showed the expected rise in response to vaccination, and decreased toward the last sampling point, with highest levels measured three weeks after the second dose. Total serum Zn concentrations were relatively stable over time, and showed no significant association with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Baseline total serum Zn concentration and supplemental intake of Zn were both unrelated to the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Time resolved analysis of free Zn indicated a similar dynamic as the humoral response. A positive correlation was observed between free Zn concentrations and both the induced antibodies and neutralizing antibody potency. Conclusion: While the biomarkers of Zn status and supplemental Zn intake appeared unrelated to the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, the observed correlation of free Zn to the induced antibodies indicates a diagnostic value of this novel biomarker for the immune system.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination , Zinc
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 978440, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198706

Реферат

Purpose: This study was conducted in order to properly understand whether prior seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) immunity could impact the potential cross-reactivity of humoral responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, thereby devising universal coronavirus vaccines for future outbreaks. Methods: We performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels to spike (S) protein and S1 subunit of HCoVs (HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-229E), and ELISA [anti-RBD and anti-nucleoprotein (N)], chemiluminescence immunoassay assays (anti-RBD), pseudovirus neutralization test, and authentic viral neutralization test to detect the binding and neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in the vaccinees. Results: We found that the antibody of seasonal HCoVs did exist before vaccination and could be boosted by SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. A further analysis demonstrated that the prior S and S1 IgG antibodies of HCoV-OC43 were positively correlated with anti-RBD and neutralization antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at 12 and 24 weeks after the second vaccination, and the correlation is more statistically significant at 24 weeks. The persistent antibody levels of SARS-CoV-2 were observed in vaccinees with higher pre-existing HCoV-OC43 antibodies. Conclusion: Our data indicate that inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may confer cross-protection against seasonal coronaviruses in most individuals, and more importantly, the pre-existing HCoV-OC43 antibody was associated with protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2, supporting the development of a pan-coronavirus vaccine.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
CMAJ ; 194(37): E1295-E1299, 2022 Sep 26.
Статья в французский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197232
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0266118, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196883

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Immunization stress-related responses presenting as stroke-like symptoms could develop following COVID-19 vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of immunization stress-related responses causing stroke-like events following COVID-19 vaccination in Thailand. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of the secondary data of reported adverse events after COVID-19 immunization that presented with neurologic manifestations. Between March 1 and July 31, 2021, we collected and analyzed the medical records of 221 patients diagnosed with stroke-like symptoms following immunization. Two majority types of vaccines were used at the beginning of the vaccination campaign, including CoronaVac (Sinovac) or ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca). Demographic and medical data included sex, age, vaccine type, sequence dose, time to event, laboratory data, and recovery status as defined by the modified Rankin score. The affected side was evaluated for associations with the injection site. RESULTS: Overall, 221 patients were diagnosed with immunization stress-related responses (stroke-like symptoms) following CoronaVac (Sinovac) or ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca) vaccinations. Most patients (83.7%) were women. The median (interquartile range) age of onset was 34 (28-42) years in patients receiving CoronaVac and 46 (33.5-60) years in those receiving ChAdOx1. The median interval between vaccination and symptom onset for each vaccine type was 60 (16-960) min and 30 (8.8-750) min, respectively. Sensory symptoms were the most common symptomology. Most patients (68.9%) developed symptoms on the left side of the body; 99.5% of the patients receiving CoronaVac and 100% of those receiving ChAdOx1 had a good outcome (modified Rankin scores ≤2, indicating slight or no disability). CONCLUSIONS: Immunization stress-related responses presenting as stroke-like symptoms can develop after COVID-19 vaccination. Symptoms more likely to occur on the injection side are transient (i.e., without permanent pathological deficits). Public education and preparedness are important for administering successful COVID-19 vaccination programs.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Stroke , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/chemically induced , Thailand , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
PLoS Med ; 19(10): e1003979, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196855

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Vaccines can be less immunogenic in people living with HIV (PLWH), but for SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations this is unknown. In this study we set out to investigate, for the vaccines currently approved in the Netherlands, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in PLWH. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines in adult PLWH without prior COVID-19, and compared to HIV-negative controls. The primary endpoint was the anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG response after mRNA vaccination. Secondary endpoints included the serological response after vector vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response, and reactogenicity. Between 14 February and 7 September 2021, 1,154 PLWH (median age 53 [IQR 44-60] years, 85.5% male) and 440 controls (median age 43 [IQR 33-53] years, 28.6% male) were included in the final analysis. Of the PLWH, 884 received BNT162b2, 100 received mRNA-1273, 150 received ChAdOx1-S, and 20 received Ad26.COV2.S. In the group of PLWH, 99% were on antiretroviral therapy, 97.7% were virally suppressed, and the median CD4+ T-cell count was 710 cells/µL (IQR 520-913). Of the controls, 247 received mRNA-1273, 94 received BNT162b2, 26 received ChAdOx1-S, and 73 received Ad26.COV2.S. After mRNA vaccination, geometric mean antibody concentration was 1,418 BAU/mL in PLWH (95% CI 1322-1523), and after adjustment for age, sex, and vaccine type, HIV status remained associated with a decreased response (0.607, 95% CI 0.508-0.725, p < 0.001). All controls receiving an mRNA vaccine had an adequate response, defined as >300 BAU/mL, whilst in PLWH this response rate was 93.6%. In PLWH vaccinated with mRNA-based vaccines, higher antibody responses were predicted by CD4+ T-cell count 250-500 cells/µL (2.845, 95% CI 1.876-4.314, p < 0.001) or >500 cells/µL (2.936, 95% CI 1.961-4.394, p < 0.001), whilst a viral load > 50 copies/mL was associated with a reduced response (0.454, 95% CI 0.286-0.720, p = 0.001). Increased IFN-γ, CD4+ T-cell, and CD8+ T-cell responses were observed after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in ELISpot and activation-induced marker assays, comparable to controls. Reactogenicity was generally mild, without vaccine-related serious adverse events. Due to the control of vaccine provision by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, there were some differences between vaccine groups in the age, sex, and CD4+ T-cell counts of recipients. CONCLUSIONS: After vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were reduced in PLWH compared to HIV-negative controls. To reach and maintain the same serological responses as HIV-negative controls, additional vaccinations are probably required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NL9214). https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9214.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 87, 2022 10 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196537

Реферат

Misinformation has been a pressing issue since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, threatening our ability to effectively act on the crisis. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual effects of fake news on behavioural intentions. Does exposure to or belief in misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines affect people's intentions to receive such a vaccine? This paper attempts to address this question via three preregistered experiments (N = 3463). In Study 1, participants (n = 1269) were exposed to fabricated pro- or anti-vaccine information or to neutral true information, and then asked about their intentions to get vaccinated. In Study 2, participants (n = 646) were exposed to true pro- and anti-vaccine information, while Study 3 (n = 1548) experimentally manipulated beliefs in novel misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines by increasing exposure to the information. The results of these three studies showed that exposure to false information about the vaccines had little effect on participants' intentions to get vaccinated, even when multiple exposures led them to believe the headlines to be more accurate. An exploratory meta-analysis of studies 1 and 3, with a combined sample size of 2683, showed that exposure to false information both supporting and opposing COVID-19 vaccines actually increased vaccination intentions, though the effect size was very small. We conclude by cautioning researchers against equating exposure to misinformation or perceived accuracy of false news with actual behaviours.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , Vaccination
17.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 21(1): 32, 2022 Jul 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196304

Реферат

BACKGROUND: New vaccines are being developed to fight the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In our study we compared the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines to prevent COVID-19-related infections and mortality. METHODS: 17 randomized clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines were included after search in databases. We compared COVID-19 vaccines based on symptomatic and severe infections, number of deaths and hospitalizations related to COVID-19. Also, we analyzed the efficacy of COVID-19 against different variants of SARS-CoV-2 as well as according to different age groups. Random effects model using Mantel-Haenzeal method was used to pool relative risk (RR). RESULTS: Our meta-analysis shows that full vaccination could decrease not only the risk of symptomatic or severe COVID-19, the risk of hospitalization and death caused by COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccines were also effective against variants of SARS-CoV-2 (RR = 0.36; 95% CI [0.25; 0.53], p < 0.0001). However, efficacy of vaccination varied in COVID-19 variant-dependent manner. Moreover, the analysis in different age groups showed that COVID-19 vaccines had the similar results: the risk was slightly lower in adults compared to elderly cohort [Formula: see text] 65 years): (RR = 0.16, 95% CI [0.11; 0.23]) and (RR = 0.19, 95% CI [0.12; 0.30]), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained from clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines looks promising, in order to fully investigate efficacy of the vaccines further clinical examination is required especially considering new SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(12): 989-993, 2022 Dec 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190916

Реферат

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 variations as well as immune protection after previous infections and/or vaccination may have altered the incidence of multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We aimed to report an international time-series analysis of the incidence of MIS-C to determine if there was a shift in the regions or countries included into the study. METHODS: This is a multicenter, international, cross-sectional study. We collected the MIS-C incidence from the participant regions and countries for the period July 2020 to November 2021. We assessed the ratio between MIS-C cases and COVID-19 pediatric cases in children <18 years diagnosed 4 weeks earlier (average time for the temporal association observed in this disease) for the study period. We performed a binomial regression analysis for 8 participating sites [Bogotá (Colombia), Chile, Costa Rica, Lazio (Italy), Mexico DF, Panama, The Netherlands and Catalonia (Spain)]. RESULTS: We included 904 cases of MIS-C, among a reference population of 17,906,432 children. We estimated a global significant decrease trend ratio in MIS-C cases/COVID-19 diagnosed cases in the previous month ( P < 0.001). When analyzing separately each of the sites, Chile and The Netherlands maintained a significant decrease trend ( P < 0.001), but this ratio was not statistically significant for the rest of sites. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first international study describing a global reduction in the trend of the MIS-C incidence during the pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination and other factors possibly linked to the virus itself and/or community transmission may have played a role in preventing new MIS-C cases.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Child , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Incidence , COVID-19 Vaccines , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
20.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): 1076-1077, 2021 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184695
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