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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(6)2021 03 13.
Статья | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110015

Реферат

Negative psychological effects of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been identified in adults and children, such as anxiety and sleep disorders. However, research about the impact of this pandemic on children from ethnical minorities is scarce. We tested the effects of COVID-19 outbreak on psychological aspects and daily routines among Arab Israeli Children. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among Arab Israeli parents, including behavioral and emotional aspects questionnaire and questions addressing using of screens, sleep, and physical activities. The results showed that, during the COVID-19 outbreak, 55.8% of the children asked to sleep in their parents' bed and 45% expressed fears they did not have before. Most of the children showed increased irritability, constant mood swings and nervousness about limits and messages, and 41.4% showed sleep difficulties. Concerning adaptive behaviors, more than 50% of the parents reported that their child became wiser, lazier, and was able to adapt the limits and restriction of the COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, the children tended to increase their use of screens, used to sleep more time, and were less active physically. The results suggest that children are vulnerable to the COVID-19 outbreak psychological effects and highlight the need to reduce the psychological burden of this pandemic and the necessity of immediate intervention.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Adult , Arabs , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Diabetes Care ; 44(8): 1788-1796, 2021 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109595

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether risk of severe outcomes among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) differs from that of patients without diabetes or with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release records of patients discharged after COVID-19 hospitalization from U.S. hospitals from March to November 2020 (N = 269,674 after exclusion), we estimated risk differences (RD) and risk ratios (RR) of intensive care unit admission or invasive mechanical ventilation (ICU/MV) and of death among patients with T1DM compared with patients without diabetes or with T2DM. Logistic models were adjusted for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Models adjusted for additional demographic and clinical characteristics were used to examine whether other factors account for the associations between T1DM and severe COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with patients without diabetes, T1DM was associated with a 21% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.21, 95% CI 0.19-0.24; RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.43-1.56) and a 5% higher absolute risk of mortality (RD 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07; RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24-1.57), with adjustment for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Compared with T2DM, T1DM was associated with a 9% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.09, 95% CI 0.07-0.12; RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.12-1.22), but no difference in mortality (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.02; RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.13). After adjustment for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurring before or at COVID-19 diagnosis, patients with T1DM no longer had increased risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.03) and had lower mortality (RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01) in comparisons with patients with T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T1DM hospitalized for COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe outcomes than those without diabetes. Higher risk of ICU/MV in patients with T1DM than in patients with T2DM was largely accounted for by the presence of DKA. These findings might further guide recommendations related to diabetes management and the prevention of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(2): e1008618, 2021 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109274

Реферат

For practical reasons, many forecasts of case, hospitalization, and death counts in the context of the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are issued in the form of central predictive intervals at various levels. This is also the case for the forecasts collected in the COVID-19 Forecast Hub (https://covid19forecasthub.org/). Forecast evaluation metrics like the logarithmic score, which has been applied in several infectious disease forecasting challenges, are then not available as they require full predictive distributions. This article provides an overview of how established methods for the evaluation of quantile and interval forecasts can be applied to epidemic forecasts in this format. Specifically, we discuss the computation and interpretation of the weighted interval score, which is a proper score that approximates the continuous ranked probability score. It can be interpreted as a generalization of the absolute error to probabilistic forecasts and allows for a decomposition into a measure of sharpness and penalties for over- and underprediction.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/virology , Forecasting , Humans , Probability , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 143, 2021 10 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108768

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, the urgent need to discover effective therapies for COVID-19 prompted questions about the ethical problem of randomization along with its widely accepted solution: equipoise. In this scoping review, uses of equipoise in discussions of randomized controlled trials (RCT) of COVID-19 therapies are evaluated to answer three questions. First, how has equipoise been applied to COVID-19 research? Second, has equipoise been employed accurately? And third, do concerns about equipoise pose a barrier to the ethical conduct of COVID-19 RCTs? METHODS: Google Scholar and Pubmed were searched for articles containing substantial discussion about equipoise and COVID-19 RCTs. 347 article titles were screened, 91 full text articles were assessed, and 48 articles were included. Uses of equipoise were analyzed and abstracted into seven categories. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Approximately two-thirds of articles (33/48 articles) used equipoise in a way that is consistent with the concept. They invoked equipoise to support (1) RCTs of specific therapies, (2) RCTs in general, and (3) the early termination of RCTs after achieving the primary outcome. Approximately one-third of articles (15/48 articles) used equipoise in a manner that is inconsistent with the concept. These articles argued that physician preference, widespread use of unproven therapies, patient preference, or expectation of therapeutic benefit may undermine equipoise and render RCTs unethical. In each case, the purported ethical problem can be resolved by correcting the use of equipoise. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the continued relevance of equipoise as it supports the conduct of well-conceived RCTs and provides moral guidance to physicians and researchers as they search for effective therapies for COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Therapeutic Equipoise
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 936106, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109761

Реферат

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection triggers inflammatory clinical stages that affect the outcome of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Disease severity may be associated with a metabolic imbalance related to amino acids, lipids, and energy-generating pathways. The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of amino acids and acylcarnitines in COVID-19 patients. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 453 individuals were classified by disease severity. Levels of 11 amino acids, 31 acylcarnitines, and succinylacetone in serum samples were analyzed by electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Different clusters were observed in partial least squares discriminant analysis, with phenylalanine, alanine, citrulline, proline, and succinylacetone providing the major contribution to the variability in each cluster (variable importance in the projection >1.5). In logistic models adjusted by age, sex, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and nutritional status, phenylalanine was associated with critical outcomes (odds ratio=5.3 (95% CI 3.16-9.2) in the severe vs. critical model, with an area under the curve of 0.84 (95% CI 0.77-0.90). In conclusion the metabolic imbalance in COVID-19 patients might affect disease progression. This work shows an association of phenylalanine with critical outcomes in COVID-19 patients, highlighting phenylalanine as a potential metabolic biomarker of disease severity.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Amino Acids , Phenylalanine
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 902260, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109759

Реферат

Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-2), multiple vaccine candidates were developed and studied both preclinically and clinically. Nearly all are based on the SARS-2 spike glycoprotein or its receptor binding domain (RBD). Studies of these vaccine candidates have largely been in a SARS-2 naïve context. However, pre-existing immunity to SARS-2 acquired through infection or vaccination continues to increase. Evaluating future vaccine candidates in context of this pre-existing immunity is necessary to understand how immune responses are subsequently influenced. Here, we evaluated the serum and IgG+ B cell responses to the SARS-2 RBD in context of pre-existing immunity elicited by the full SARS-2 spike, and we compared this to boosting with the full SARS-2 spike. Boosting with the SARS-2 RBD resulted in increased reactivity to RBD epitopes, but both immunization regimens resulted in similarly broad neutralization across diverse sarbecoviruses. These findings may inform comparison among SARS-2 RBD-based vaccine candidates to currently approved spike-based candidates.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1031436, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109737
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1019723, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109736

Реферат

Objectives: Close contact with patients with COVID-19 is speculated to be the most common cause of viral transmission, but the pathogenesis of COVID-19 by close contact remains to be elucidated. In addition, despite olfactory impairment being a unique complication of COVID-19, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the olfactory cell lineage has not been fully validated. This study aimed to elucidate close-contact viral transmission to the nose and lungs and to investigate the temporal damage in the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) lineage caused by SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Syrian hamsters were orally administered SARS-CoV-2 nonvariant nCoV-19/JPN/TY/WK521/2020 as direct-infection models. On day 3 after inoculation, infected and uninfected hamsters were housed in the same cage for 30 minutes. These uninfected hamsters were subsequently assigned to a close-contact group. First, viral presence in the nose and lungs was verified in the infection and close-contact groups at several time points. Next, the impacts on the olfactory epithelium, including olfactory progenitors, immature ORNs, and mature ORNs were examined histologically. Then, the viral transmission status and chronological changes in tissue damage were compared between the direct-infection and close-contact groups. Results: In the close-contact group, viral presence could not be detected in both the nose and lungs on day 3, and the virus was identified in both tissues on day 7. In the direct-infection group, the viral load was highest in the nose and lungs on day 3, decreased on day 7, and was no longer detectable on day 14. Histologically, in the direct-infection group, mature ORNs were most depleted on day 3 (p <0.001) and showed a recovery trend on day 14, with similar trends for olfactory progenitors and immature ORNs. In the close-contact group, there was no obvious tissue damage on day 3, but on day 7, the number of all ORN lineage cells significantly decreased (p <0.001). Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted even after brief contact and subsequent olfactory epithelium and lung damage occurred more than 3 days after the trigger of infection. The present study also indicated that SARS-CoV-2 damages all ORN lineage cells, but this damage can begin to recover approximately 14 days post infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Mesocricetus , Cell Lineage , Disease Models, Animal
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1003608, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109735

Реферат

As new pathogens emerge, new challenges must be faced. This is no different in infectious disease research, where identifying the best tools available in laboratories to conduct an investigation can, at least initially, be particularly complicated. However, in the context of an emerging virus, such as SARS-CoV-2, which was recently detected in China and has become a global threat to healthcare systems, developing models of infection and pathogenesis is urgently required. Cell-based approaches are crucial to understanding coronavirus infection biology, growth kinetics, and tropism. Usually, laboratory cell lines are the first line in experimental models to study viral pathogenicity and perform assays aimed at screening antiviral compounds which are efficient at blocking the replication of emerging viruses, saving time and resources, reducing the use of experimental animals. However, determining the ideal cell type can be challenging, especially when several researchers have to adapt their studies to specific requirements. This review strives to guide scientists who are venturing into studying SARS-CoV-2 and help them choose the right cellular models. It revisits basic concepts of virology and presents the currently available in vitro models, their advantages and disadvantages, and the known consequences of each choice.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line , China
12.
J Educ Eval Health Prof ; 19: 30, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109729

Реферат

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions resulted in an increased emphasis on virtual communication in medical education. This study assessed the acceptability of virtual teaching in an online objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) series and its role in future education. METHODS: Six surgical OSCE stations were designed, covering common surgical topics, with specific tasks testing data interpretation, clinical knowledge, and communication skills. These were delivered via Zoom to students who participated in student/patient/examiner role-play. Feedback was collected by asking students to compare online teaching with previous experiences of in-person teaching. Descriptive statistics were used for Likert response data, and thematic analysis for free-text items. RESULTS: Sixty-two students provided feedback, with 81% of respondents finding online instructions preferable to paper equivalents. Furthermore, 65% and 68% found online teaching more efficient and accessible, respectively, than in-person teaching. Only 34% found communication with each other easier online. 40% preferred online OSCE teaching to in-person teaching. Students also expressed feedback in positive and negative free-text comments. CONCLUSION: The data suggested that generally students were unwilling for online teaching to completely replace in-person teaching. The success of online teaching was dependent on the clinical skill being addressed; some were less amenable to a virtual setting. However, online OSCE teaching could play a role alongside in-person teaching.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Education, Medical , Students, Medical , Humans , Physical Examination , Clinical Competence
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(43): e310, 2022 Nov 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109726

Реферат

Antigen rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) became the most important tool for the diagnosis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), however there have been very few evaluations of the accuracy of the RDTs in actual use. In this study, we investigated the performance accuracy of the RDT, the STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag (STANDARD Q), in the Republic of Korea. We collected a total of 5,792 results that underwent both RDT and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction simultaneously, and overall sensitivity and specificity of the STANDARD Q were 57.6% and 99.9%, respectively. With binomial logistic regression analysis, we estimated that about half of the COVID-19 patients with a cycle threshold value of 25 for E and RdRP were RDT-negative. These results suggest that the clinical sensitivity of RDTs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is considerably low in a real-world setting, and we recommend that limitations of RDTs should be considered when setting up COVID-19 test strategies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Sensitivity and Specificity , Republic of Korea , Antigens, Viral
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(43): e308, 2022 Nov 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109725

Реферат

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects of isolating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in general wards, we compared the rates of COVID-19 infection in nurses and nursing assistants working in COVID-19 designated wards and in general wards of our hospital from 1 October 2021 to 21 April 2022. METHODS: This study was conducted in a 2,700-bed tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea. Designated wards comprised single, negative pressure rooms and a 100% outdoor air system. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 2,698 nurses and nursing assistants were employed at our hospital, of whom 310 (11%) were working in the designated wards, and the remaining 2,388 (89%) in the general wards, and among whom 1,158 (43%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The healthcare workers (HCWs) in the designated wards were less frequently diagnosed with COVID-19 than those in the general wards (31% vs. 45%, P < 0.001). During the period before patients with COVID-19 were isolated in general wards, and during the period after these cases were isolated in general ward, HCWs in designated wards were less frequently infected with the virus than those in general wards (7% vs. 11%, P = 0.039; and 23% vs. 33%, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: HCWs in designated wards have a lower rate of contracting COVID-19 than those in general wards. A lack of exposure to undiagnosed cases and their caregivers, greater care with social distancing outside the hospital, higher rates of 3-dose vaccinations, and the use of isolation rooms with negative pressure may be associated with this finding.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patients' Rooms , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Hospitals
16.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 119(29-30): 502-503, 2022 Jul 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109715
18.
Work ; 73(s1): S169-S176, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109710

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought about change in the work environment, increasing remote and hybrid mode of work, presenting a compelling need to study visual ergonomics in this new work environment. OBJECTIVE: To assess computer vision symptoms and visual ergonomics in remote and hybrid work settings during the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on eye to screen relationship. METHODS: The computer-vision symptom scale (CVSS17) questionnaire and questions about human factors and ergonomics were included in the survey conducted in September 2021. Sixty-six working professionals (mean age 37 years±5), working from home (n = 44) or in hybrid mode (n = 22) were included in the study. Cramer's V was used for the correlation coefficient between two categorical variables for assessing eye health in changing work environments. RESULTS: Compared to our previous study, the correlation between computer vision syndrome (CVS) symptoms is markedly higher. The population working in hybrid mode experienced eye heaviness with strain to see well (V = 0.6872, p = 0.002) and dryness in the eyes (V = 0.5912, p = 0.0179). The population working from home who are bothered by surrounding lights also report dryness in the eyes (V = 0.3846, p = 0.0005). Screen use hours are higher in work from home situations (43% work more than 9 hrs) than those in hybrid mode of work (4% work more than 9 hrs). CONCLUSION: A definite increase in CVS in most of the population working remotely or in hybrid environments is established through this study. User-friendly strategies for raising awareness of applied visual ergonomics can prevent rampant onset of CVS in the working population.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ergonomics , Workplace , Computers , Syndrome
19.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 90(2): 811-822, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109698

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Recent innovative non-pharmacological interventions and neurostimulation devices have shown potential for application in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These include photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study assesses the safety, compliance with, and efficacy of a brain-gut PBM therapy for mild-to-moderate AD patients. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, monocentric sham-controlled study started in 2018 and ended prematurely in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Fifty-three mild-to-moderate AD patients were randomized, 27 in the PBM group and 26 in the sham group. All patients had 40 treatment sessions lasting 25 min each over 8 weeks and were followed for 4 weeks afterwards. Compliance with the treatment was recorded. Safety was assessed by recording adverse events (AEs), and efficacy was evaluated using neuropsychological tests. RESULTS: The PBM therapy proved to be safe in regard to the number of recorded AEs (44% of the patients), which were balanced between the PBM and sham groups. AEs were mainly mild, and no serious AEs were reported. The majority of the patients (92.5%) were highly compliant, which confirms the feasibility of the PBM treatment. Compared to the sham patients, the PBM patients showed lower ADAS-Cog comprehension subscores, higher forward verbal spans, and lower TMT-B execution times, which suggests an improvement in cognitive functions. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the tolerability of and patient compliance with a PBM-based treatment for mild-to-moderate AD patients. It highlights encouraging efficacy trends and provides insights for the design of the next phase trial in a larger AD patient sample.


Тема - темы
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Low-Level Light Therapy , Humans , Pilot Projects , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome , Alzheimer Disease/radiotherapy , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Brain , Double-Blind Method , Patient Compliance
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2575-2577, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109692

Реферат

Worldwide, millions of persons have received multiple COVID-19 vaccinations and subsequently recovered from SARS-CoV-2 Omicron breakthrough infections. In 2 small, matched cohorts (n = 12, n = 24) in Denmark, we found Omicron BA.1/BA.2 breakthrough infection after 3-dose BNT162b2 vaccination provided improved Omicron BA.5 neutralization over 3-dose vaccination alone.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
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