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3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17584, 2022 Oct 20.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077094

Реферат

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients with severe complications present comorbidities like cardiovascular-disease, hypertension and type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM), sharing metabolic alterations like insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia. Our objective was to evaluate the association among different components of the lipid-lipoprotein profile, such as remnant lipoprotein (RLP)-cholesterol, in patients with COVID-19, and to analyze their associations with the severity of the disease and death. We studied 193 patients (68 (29-96) years; 49.7% male) hospitalized for COVID-19 and 200 controls (46 (18-79) years; 52.5% male). Lipoprotein profile, glucose and procalcitonin were assessed. Patients presented higher glucose, TG, TG/HDL-cholesterol and RLP-cholesterol levels, but lower total, LDL, HDL and no-HDL-cholesterol levels (p < 0.001). When a binary logistic regression was performed, age, non-HDL-cholesterol, and RLP-cholesterol were associated with death (p = 0.005). As the COVID-19 condition worsened, according to procalcitonin tertiles, a decrease in all the cholesterol fractions (p < 0.03) was observed with no differences in TG, while levels of RLP-cholesterol and TG/HDL-cholesterol increased (p < 0.001). Lower levels of all the cholesterol fractions were related with the presence and severity of COVID-19, except for RLP-cholesterol levels and TG/HDL-cholesterol index. These alterations indicate a lipid metabolic disorder, characteristic of IR states in COVID-19 patients. RLP-cholesterol levels predicted severity and death in these patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cholesterol , Female , Humans , Male , Cholesterol/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Glucose , Lipoproteins/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over
4.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(9): 651-662, 2022 Sep.
Статья в Итальянский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065242

Реферат

Recent evidence shows that a range of persistent or new symptoms can manifest after 4-12 weeks in a subset of patients who have recovered from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, and this condition has been coined long COVID by COVID-19 survivors among social support groups. Long COVID can affect the whole spectrum of people with COVID-19, from those with very mild acute disease to the most severe forms. Like the acute form, long COVID has multisystemic aspects. Patients can manifest with a very heterogeneous multitude of symptoms, including fatigue, post-exertional malaise, dyspnea, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression, muscle pain, brain fog, anosmia/dysgeusia, headache, and limitation of functional capacity, which impact their quality of life. Because of the extreme clinical heterogeneity, and also due to the lack of a shared, specific definition, it is very difficult to know the real prevalence and incidence of this condition. Risk factors for developing long COVID would be female sex, initial severity, and comorbidities. Globally, with the re-emergence of new waves, the population of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 continues to expand rapidly, necessitating a more thorough understanding of potential sequelae of COVID-19. This review summarizes up to date definitions and epidemiological aspects of long COVID.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survivors
5.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(4): 564-566, 2022 04.
Статья в испанский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055652
7.
Nature ; 611(7934): 139-147, 2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016757

Реферат

Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection1 has been associated with highly inflammatory immune activation since the earliest days of the COVID-19 pandemic2-5. More recently, these responses have been associated with the emergence of self-reactive antibodies with pathologic potential6-10, although their origins and resolution have remained unclear11. Previously, we and others have identified extrafollicular B cell activation, a pathway associated with the formation of new autoreactive antibodies in chronic autoimmunity12,13, as a dominant feature of severe and critical COVID-19 (refs. 14-18). Here, using single-cell B cell repertoire analysis of patients with mild and severe disease, we identify the expansion of a naive-derived, low-mutation IgG1 population of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) reflecting features of low selective pressure. These features correlate with progressive, broad, clinically relevant autoreactivity, particularly directed against nuclear antigens and carbamylated proteins, emerging 10-15 days after the onset of symptoms. Detailed analysis of the low-selection compartment shows a high frequency of clonotypes specific for both SARS-CoV-2 and autoantigens, including pathogenic autoantibodies against the glomerular basement membrane. We further identify the contraction of this pathway on recovery, re-establishment of tolerance standards and concomitant loss of acute-derived ASCs irrespective of antigen specificity. However, serological autoreactivity persists in a subset of patients with postacute sequelae, raising important questions as to the contribution of emerging autoreactivity to continuing symptomology on recovery. In summary, this study demonstrates the origins, breadth and resolution of autoreactivity in severe COVID-19, with implications for early intervention and the treatment of patients with post-COVID sequelae.


Тема - темы
Autoantibodies , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Humans , Autoantibodies/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Autoantigens/immunology , Basement Membrane/immunology
8.
Clin Lab ; 68(8)2022 Aug 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994478

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has been a global pandemic for nearly 2 years, presents with highly variable clinical manifestations in both the acute and post-acute periods. This study evaluated the relationship between CRP/albumin ratio and pulmonary function at 12 weeks in patients with post-acute COVID-19. METHODS: The study included 157 patients with a previous diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our outpatient clinic with symptoms of post-acute COVID-19 (12 weeks after first testing positive) between July 2021 and October 2021. Patients who had non-severe pneumonia were included in group 1, severe pneumonia that did not require intensive care in group 2, and severe pneumonia that required intensive care in group 3. RESULTS: At 12 weeks, group 3 had significantly lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%), percent predicted diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO%), and oxygen saturation (SO2) compared to patients in groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.001, 0.04, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). CRP/albumin ratio was significantly lower in group 2 compared to groups 1 and 3 (p = 0.001). Correlation analysis independent of age and comorbidity showed that CRP/albumin ratio was negatively correlated with SO2, FEV1%, FVC%, and DLCO%. CONCLUSIONS: CRP and albumin levels have prognostic significance during acute COVID-19 infection. The negative correlation between CRP/albumin ratio and respiratory function observed in our study suggest this parameter may be used in the follow-up of patients presenting at 12 weeks with post-acute COVID-19 symptoms.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Lung , Albumins/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Vital Capacity
9.
Nature ; 609(7928): 754-760, 2022 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984401

Реферат

Identifying the host genetic factors underlying severe COVID-19 is an emerging challenge1-5. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 2,393 cases of COVID-19 in a cohort of Japanese individuals collected during the initial waves of the pandemic, with 3,289 unaffected controls. We identified a variant on chromosome 5 at 5q35 (rs60200309-A), close to the dedicator of cytokinesis 2 gene (DOCK2), which was associated with severe COVID-19 in patients less than 65 years of age. This risk allele was prevalent in East Asian individuals but rare in Europeans, highlighting the value of genome-wide association studies in non-European populations. RNA-sequencing analysis of 473 bulk peripheral blood samples identified decreased expression of DOCK2 associated with the risk allele in these younger patients. DOCK2 expression was suppressed in patients with severe cases of COVID-19. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis (n = 61 individuals) identified cell-type-specific downregulation of DOCK2 and a COVID-19-specific decreasing effect of the risk allele on DOCK2 expression in non-classical monocytes. Immunohistochemistry of lung specimens from patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia showed suppressed DOCK2 expression. Moreover, inhibition of DOCK2 function with CPYPP increased the severity of pneumonia in a Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, characterized by weight loss, lung oedema, enhanced viral loads, impaired macrophage recruitment and dysregulated type I interferon responses. We conclude that DOCK2 has an important role in the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of severe COVID-19, and could be further explored as a potential biomarker and/or therapeutic target.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , GTPase-Activating Proteins , Genome-Wide Association Study , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors , Host Microbial Interactions , SARS-CoV-2 , Alleles , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , GTPase-Activating Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/genetics , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/immunology , Japan , Lung/pathology , Macrophages , Mesocricetus , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/complications , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load , Weight Loss
10.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(2, Mar-Abr): 253-261, 2021 Jan 14.
Статья в испанский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272144

Реферат

 Objetivo. Resumir la evidencia científica sobre las altera-ciones renales asociadas con la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Material y métodos. Se realizó una revisión rápida con la metodología Cochrane. Resultados. La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) preexistente en pacientes con SARS-CoV-2 varió de 1 a 38% y la lesión renal aguda (LRA), de 2.9 a 86.4%. El pronóstico de la infección fue peor en pacientes con ERC y en aquellos con reserva renal remanente (RRR) intacta que desarrollaron LRA. El riesgo de muerte fue mayor (riesgo relativo combinado = 1.49; IC95%: 1.09-2.04) en pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2 con ERC preexistente. Los mar-cadores de RRR mostraron alteraciones en pacientes con SARS-CoV-2 graves y fatales; el marcador más utilizado fue la creatinina sérica. Conclusiones. La evidencia científica muestra la relevancia de la evaluación y monitoreo perma-nente de la RRR en pacientes hospitalizados por SARS-CoV-2 para mejorar el pronóstico de aquellos con ERC preexistente, así como de aquellos sin ERC que desarrollan LRA.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Humans
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931217

Реферат

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
12.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928237

Реферат

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to compare COVID-19-related outcomes collected in an Italian cohort of patients with MS with the outcomes expected in the age- and sex-matched Italian population. METHODS: Hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death after COVID-19 diagnosis of 1,362 patients with MS were compared with the age- and sex-matched Italian population in a retrospective observational case-cohort study with population-based control. The observed vs the expected events were compared in the whole MS cohort and in different subgroups (higher risk: Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score > 3 or at least 1 comorbidity, lower risk: EDSS score ≤ 3 and no comorbidities) by the χ2 test, and the risk excess was quantified by risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: The risk of severe events was about twice the risk in the age- and sex-matched Italian population: RR = 2.12 for hospitalization (p < 0.001), RR = 2.19 for ICU admission (p < 0.001), and RR = 2.43 for death (p < 0.001). The excess of risk was confined to the higher-risk group (n = 553). In lower-risk patients (n = 809), the rate of events was close to that of the Italian age- and sex-matched population (RR = 1.12 for hospitalization, RR = 1.52 for ICU admission, and RR = 1.19 for death). In the lower-risk group, an increased hospitalization risk was detected in patients on anti-CD20 (RR = 3.03, p = 0.005), whereas a decrease was detected in patients on interferon (0 observed vs 4 expected events, p = 0.04). DISCUSSION: Overall, the MS cohort had a risk of severe events that is twice the risk than the age- and sex-matched Italian population. This excess of risk is mainly explained by the EDSS score and comorbidities, whereas a residual increase of hospitalization risk was observed in patients on anti-CD20 therapies and a decrease in people on interferon.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Chin J Integr Med ; 28(7): 627-635, 2022 Jul.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919991

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the National Health Commission of China (NHCC)-recommended Chinese medicines (CMs) modulate the major maladjustments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly the clinically observed complications and comorbidities. METHODS: By focusing on the potent targets in common with the conventional medicines, we investigated the mechanisms of 11 NHCC-recommended CMs in the modulation of the major COVID-19 pathophysiology (hyperinflammations, viral replication), complications (pain, headache) and comorbidities (hypertension, obesity, diabetes). The constituent herbs of these CMs and their chemical ingredients were from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Information Database. The experimentally-determined targets and the activity values of the chemical ingredients of these CMs were from the Natural Product Activity and Species Source Database. The approved and clinical trial drugs against these targets were searched from the Therapeutic Target Database and DrugBank Database. Pathways of the targets was obtained from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and additional literature search. RESULTS: Overall, 9 CMs modulated 6 targets discovered by the COVID-19 target discovery studies, 8 and 11 CMs modulated 8 and 6 targets of the approved or clinical trial drugs for the treatment of the major COVID-19 complications and comorbidities, respectively. CONCLUSION: The coordinated actions of each NHCC-recommended CM against a few targets of the major COVID-19 pathophysiology, complications and comorbidities, partly have common mechanisms with the conventional medicines.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(2): 162-170, 2022. tab
Статья в испанский | WHO COVID, LILACS - Страны Америки - | ID: covidwho-1912803

Реферат

La enfermedad COVID-19 se caracteriza principalmente por manifestaciones clínicas respiratorias, que pueden ser leves hasta muy severas, sin embargo, hay un grupo de pacientes que pueden cursar con eventos tromboembólicos en cualquier parte del cuerpo. Se realizó una búsqueda de información científica en tres bases de datos PubMed, Scopus y Web of Science, con el objetivo de describir y analizar las potenciales causas de la trombosis mesentérica asociada a la infección por SARS-CoV-2, así como los resultados clínicos, de los pacientes que presentaron y fueron tratados por trombosis mesentérica durante el curso de la enfermedad. Se han reportado diferentes mecanismos fisiopatológicos de eventos tromboembólicos asociados a la COVID-19, dentro de ellos se mencionan el estado de hipercoagulabilidad, una mayor producción de factor Von Willebrand, la expresión de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2 en los enterocitos del intestino delgado, que como respuesta a la infección pueden liberar mediadores inflamatorios y el estado de shock presente en las dos terceras partes de los pacientes críticos. Los pacientes con la COVID-19 y sobre todo aquellos que cursan con estadios graves pueden tener diferentes mecanismos que confluyen o exacerban un estado de hipercoagulación, que puede puede afectar cualquier parte del cuerpo como los vasos mesentéricos y llevar a una isquemia gastrointestinal que comprometa su viabilidad y termine en una resección intestinal por necrosis(AU)


COVID-19 disease is mainly characterized by respiratory clinical manifestations, which can be light to very severe; however, there is a group of patients who can present with thromboembolic events in any part of the body. A search of scientific information in three databases, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, was carried out with the aim of describing and analyzing the potential causes of mesenteric thrombosis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the clinical outcomes of patients who presented and were treated for mesenteric thrombosis during the course of the disease. Different pathophysiological mechanisms of thromboembolic events associated with COVID-19 have been reported, among them the hyper-coagulable state, an increased production of Von Willebrand factor, the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in small intestinal enterocytes, which in response to infection can release inflammatory mediators, and the state of shock present in two thirds of critically ill patients. Patients with COVID-19 and especially those with severe stages may have different mechanisms that converge or exacerbate a state of hyper-coagulation, which can affect any part of the body such as the mesenteric vessels and lead to gastrointestinal ischemia that compromises its viability and ends in intestinal resection due to necrosis(AU)


Тема - темы
Thrombosis/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Intestine, Small , Signs and Symptoms , Risk Factors , Ischemia
15.
Nature ; 606(7915): S5-S6, 2022 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908120
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 821721, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902983

Реферат

Many studies already reported on the association between patient characteristics on the severity of COVID-19 disease outcome, but the relation with SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels is less clear. To investigate this in more detail, we performed a retrospective observational study in which we used the IgG antibody response from 11,118 longitudinal antibody measurements of 2,082 unique COVID convalescent plasma donors. COVID-19 symptoms and donor characteristics were obtained by a questionnaire. Antibody responses were modelled using a linear mixed-effects model. Our study confirms that the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response is associated with patient characteristics like body mass index and age. Antibody decay was faster in male than in female donors (average half-life of 62 versus 72 days). Most interestingly, we also found that three symptoms (headache, anosmia, nasal cold) were associated with lower peak IgG, while six other symptoms (dry cough, fatigue, diarrhoea, fever, dyspnoea, muscle weakness) were associated with higher IgG concentrations.


Тема - темы
Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Blood Donors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Saudi Med J ; 43(6): 579-586, 2022 Jun.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893429

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between physical activity level and disease severity, anxiety level, sleep quality, and fatigue in patients followed up with COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 111 volunteer patients who were receiving treatment with COVID-19 diagnosis at the Chest Diseases Polyclinic, Sanko University, Sani Konukoglu Practice and Research Hospital, Gaziantep, Turkey between May 2021 and July 2021 were included in the study and classified clinically and radiologically. They were evaluated on the basis of demographic characteristics, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Fatigue Severity Scale. RESULTS: Approximately 63% of the patients did not have a habit of exercise, while 52.3% of our patients were clinically mild cases, and 33.3% had normal lung tomography. While clinical disease severity was not associated with exercise habits, sleep quality was impaired in clinically severe patients. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggested that physical inactivity is common. Anxiety is a frequent symptom in COVID-19 cases and also COVID-19 negatively affects sleep quality.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Exercise , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise/physiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Quality
18.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Jun 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884002

Реферат

Biophysical insults that either reduce barrier function (COVID-19, smoke inhalation, aspiration, and inflammation) or increase mechanical stress (surfactant dysfunction) make the lung more susceptible to atelectrauma. We investigate the susceptibility and time-dependent disruption of barrier function associated with pulmonary atelectrauma of epithelial cells that occurs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). This in vitro study was performed using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) as a noninvasive evaluating technique for repetitive stress stimulus/response on monolayers of the human lung epithelial cell line NCI-H441. Atelectrauma was mimicked through recruitment/derecruitment (RD) of a semi-infinite air bubble to the fluid-occluded micro-channel. We show that a confluent monolayer with a high level of barrier function is nearly impervious to atelectrauma for hundreds of RD events. Nevertheless, barrier function is eventually diminished, and after a critical number of RD insults, the monolayer disintegrates exponentially. Confluent layers with lower initial barrier function are less resilient. These results indicate that the first line of defense from atelectrauma resides with intercellular binding. After disruption, the epithelial layer community protection is diminished and atelectrauma ensues. ECIS may provide a platform for identifying damaging stimuli, ventilation scenarios, or pharmaceuticals that can reduce susceptibility or enhance barrier-function recovery.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electric Impedance , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Aspiration/complications , Pneumonia, Aspiration/physiopathology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/physiopathology , Smoke Inhalation Injury/etiology , Smoke Inhalation Injury/physiopathology , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/complications , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/prevention & control
19.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 219(5): 752-761, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875309

Реферат

BACKGROUND. Additional evidence of the role of COVID-19 vaccination in reducing pneumonia frequency and severity in the setting of breakthrough infection could help combat ongoing vaccine hesitancy. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article was to compare the frequency and severity of pneumonia on chest CT in patients with confirmed COVID-19 between patients who are unvaccinated and those who are fully vaccinated by messenger RNA (mRNA) or adenovirus vector vaccines. METHODS. This retrospective single-center study included 467 patients (250 men, 217 women; mean age, 65 ± 17 [SD] years) who underwent chest CT between December 15, 2021, and February 18, 2022, during hospitalization for symptomatic COVID-19, confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. A total of 216 patients were unvaccinated, and 167 and 84 patients were fully vaccinated (defined as receipt of the second dose at least 14 days before COVID-19 diagnosis) by the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine or the ChAdOx1-S adenovirus vector vaccine, respectively. Semiquantitative CT severity scores (CT-SS; 0-25 scale) were determined; CT-SS of 0 indicated absence of pneumonia. Presence of bilateral involvement was assessed in patients with pneumonia. Associations were explored between vaccination status and CT findings. RESULTS. The frequency of the absence of pneumonia was 15% (32/216) in unvaccinated patients, 29% (24/84) in patients fully vaccinated with ChAdOx1-S vaccine, and 51% (85/167) in patients fully vaccinated with BNT162b2 vaccine (unvaccinated and ChAdOx1-S vs BNT162b2: p < .001; unvaccinated vs ChAdOx1-S: p = .08). Mean CT-SS was significantly higher in unvaccinated patients (9.7 ± 6.1) than in patients fully vaccinated with BNT162b2 (5.2 ± 6.1) or ChAdOx1-S (6.2 ± 5.9) vaccine (both p < .001). Full vaccination was significantly associated with CT-SS independent of patient age and sex (estimate = -4.46; p < .001). Frequency of bilateral lung involvement was significantly higher in unvaccinated patients (158/184, 86%) and in patients fully vaccinated with ChAdOx1-S vaccine (54/60, 90%) than in patients fully vaccinated with BNT162b2 vaccine (47/82, 57%) (both p < .001). CONCLUSION. Pneumonia frequency and severity were lower in patients with full vaccination by mRNA and adenovirus vector vaccines who experienced breakthrough infections in comparison with unvaccinated patients. CLINICAL IMPACT. The visual observation by radiologic imaging of the protective effect of vaccination on lung injury in patients with breakthrough infections provides additional evidence supporting the clinical benefit of vaccination.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenoviridae/genetics , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19
20.
Odontoestomatol ; 24(39): 1-19, 2022.
Статья в испанский | WHO COVID, LILACS - Страны Америки - | ID: covidwho-1863564

Реферат

La enfermedad por coronavirus es una infección respiratoria causada por el virus SARS-CoV 2, el cual genera una cascada de eventos sistémicos, afectando diferentes órganos y tejidos. El entendimiento de la fisiopatología del COVID-19 es indispensable no solo al momento de brindar tratamiento a los pacientes, sino que también para comprender las causas de las complicaciones que presentan un número importante de pacientes recuperados. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión actualizada de los efectos de la infección en diferentes órganos y sistemas principales que sea de utilidad como material de referencia para profesionales y estudiantes de la salud. Para ello se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en los portales PubMED, Scielo, Google Scholar, Cochrane y Springer Link, así como en las bases de repositorios científicos pre-publicación bioRxiv ("bioarchives") y medRxiv ("med-archives") y sobre un total de cerca de 200 mil artículos, se seleccionaron 100 artículos para esta revisión en base a su relevancia o sugerencias de parte de profesionales especializados.


Coronavirus disease is a respiratory infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes a cascade of systemic events, affecting various organs and tissues. Understanding the pathophysiology of COVID-19 is essential to treat patients and understand the causes of the complications in a significant number of recovered patients. This article presents a review of the effects of infection on various organs and systems that will be useful as reference material for healthcare professionals and medical students. To this end, a literature search was conducted in PubMED, Scielo, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and Springer Link portals, as well as in the pre-publication scientific repositories bioRxiv ("bioarchives") and medRxiv ("med-archives") databases. From about 200,000 papers, 100 articles were selected for this review based on their relevance or suggestions from experts in the field.


A doença coronavírus é uma infecção respiratória causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2, que gera uma cascata de eventos sistêmicos, afetando diferentes órgãos e tecidos. Compreender a fisiopatologia da COVID-19 é essencial não apenas no tratamento de pacientes, mas também para compreender as causas das complicações que um número significativo de pacientes recuperados apresenta. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma revisão atualizada dos efeitos da infecção em diferentes órgãos e principais sistemas que seja útil como material de referência para profissionais de saúde e estudantes. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica nos portais PubMED, Scielo, Google Scholar, Cochrane e Springer Link, bem como nos repositórios científicos de pré-publicação bioRxiv ("bioarquivos") e medRxiv ("arquivos med"). Num total de cerca de 200 mil artigos, 100 artigos foram selecionados para esta revisão por sua relevância ou sugestões de profissionais especializados.


Тема - темы
Humans , COVID-19/physiopathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Digestive System Diseases/physiopathology , Endocrine System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mouth Diseases/physiopathology
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