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Chest ; 162(1): 256-264, 2022 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158581


BACKGROUND: In 2019, the United States experienced a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). More than one-half of these patients required admission to an ICU. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the recent literature and expert opinions which inform the diagnosis and management of patients with critical illness with EVALI? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To synthesize information critical to pulmonary/critical care specialists in the care of patients with EVALI, this study examined data available from patients hospitalized with EVALI between August 2019 and January 2020; reviewed the clinical course and critical care experience with those patients admitted to the ICU; and compiled opinion of national experts. RESULTS: Of the 2,708 patients with confirmed or probable EVALI requiring hospitalization as of January 21, 2020, a total of 1,604 (59.2%) had data available on ICU admission; of these, 705 (44.0%) were admitted to the ICU and are included in this analysis. The majority of ICU patients required respiratory support (88.5%) and in severe cases required intubation (36.1%) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (6.7%). The majority (93.0%) of these ICU patients survived to discharge. Review of the clinical course and expert opinion provided insight into: imaging; considerations for bronchoscopy; medical treatment, including use of empiric antibiotics, antiviral agents, and corticosteroids; respiratory support, including considerations for intubation, positioning maneuvers, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; and patient outcomes. INTERPRETATION: Review of the clinical course of patients with EVALI requiring ICU admission and compilation of expert opinion provided critical insight into pulmonary/critical care-specific considerations for this patient population. Because a large proportion of patients hospitalized with EVALI required ICU admission, it is important to remain prepared to care for patients with EVALI.

Тема - темы
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Lung Injury , Vaping , Critical Care , Humans , Lung , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Vaping/adverse effects
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1353: 81-89, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157936


INTRODUCTION: A novel coronavirus was identified in the last days of 2019, which caused a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. Since Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was identified and caused a pandemic, morbidity and mortality caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other disease-related complications are being struggled against in intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: In this chapter, clinical features, epidemiological properties, and management of critically ill COVID-19 patients aree discussed with the support of recent literature. RESULTS: Since there isn't a definitively proven treatment for the disease, the management of critical illness is adequate supportive medical care based upon the basic principles of critically ill patient management. Supportive oxygen therapy modalities and mechanical ventilation strategies are most challenging issues during the course of the disease in ICUs. Additionally, using combinations of investigational drugs is beneficial for the management of the disease. Because the disease is highly contagious, infection control measures to stop the disease's nosocomial spread are crucial. CONCLUSION: The basis of management in critically ill COVID-19 patients is providing adequate ICU care. Additionally, a combination of promising treatment strategies specific to the disease may be beneficial and should be monitored carefully.

Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 660-666, 2022 Dec 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152245


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the clinical problem and noninvasive treatments of hypoxemia in critically-ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and describe recent advances in evidence supporting bedside decision making. RECENT FINDINGS: High-flow nasal oxygen and noninvasive ventilation, along with awake prone positioning are potentially helpful therapies for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. High-flow nasal oxygen therapy has been widely implemented as a form of oxygen support supported by prepandemic randomized controlled trials showing possible benefit over noninvasive ventilation. Given the sheer volume of patients, noninvasive ventilation was often required, and based on a well conducted randomized controlled trial there was a developing role for helmet-interface noninvasive. Coupled with noninvasive supports, the use of awake prone positioning demonstrated physiological benefits, but randomized controlled trial data did not demonstrate clear outcome superiority. SUMMARY: The use of noninvasive oxygen strategies and our understanding of the proposed mechanisms are evolving. Variability in patient severity and physiology may dictate a personalized approach to care. High-flow nasal oxygen may be paired with awake and spontaneously breathing prone-positioning to optimize oxygen and lung mechanics but requires further insight before widely applying to clinical practice.

Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Critical Care , Lung , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(10): 1458-1463, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140983


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe sepsis progression in critical COVID-19 patients using the SOFA score and investigate its relationship with mortality. METHODS: Three researchers collected and analyzed retrospective clinical and laboratory data found in electronic health records from all patients admitted to a severe COVID-19 exclusive intensive care unit from March 2020 to October 2020. Mixed-effect logistic regression was used to evaluate SOFA (Sepsis-3) score variables as mortality prediction markers, while Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to compare mortality between groups of patients. Cox proportional hazard models were used to further stratify mortality association between variants. RESULTS: A total of 73 patients were included. Temporal COVID-19-related sepsis progression analysis indicates difference in degrees and timing between different organ dysfunction over time. Sepsis-3 Cardiovascular Dysfunction characterized by severe hypotension added to the use of any vasopressor drugs was the only parameter associated with in-hospital death during the first 5 days of hospital admission (OR 2.19; 95%CI 1.14-4.20; p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Increased Sepsis-3 Cardiovascular Dysfunction score, characterized as hypotension associated with the use of vasopressor drugs in the first days of intensive care unit stay, is related to higher mortality in COVID-19 patients and may be a useful prognostic prediction tool.

Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hypotension , Sepsis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Critical Care
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(11): 1900-1906, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140773


Rationale: There are limited data on the impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on intensive care unit (ICU) recovery clinic care delivery practices. Objectives: We sought to better understand the patient-level factors affecting ICU recovery clinic care and changing clinical thinking during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also sought to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic sparked innovation within ICU recovery clinics. Methods: A multicenter qualitative study was conducted with ICU recovery clinic interprofessional clinicians involved with the Critical and Acute Illness Recovery Organization (CAIRO) between February and March 2021. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Key themes were organized in a working analytical framework. Results: Twenty-nine participants from 15 international sites participated in the study. Participants identified three patient-level key themes that influenced care delivery in ICU recovery programs: 1) social isolation, 2) decreased emotional reserve in patients and families, and 3) substantial social care needs. Changes in ICU recovery clinic care delivery occurred at both the clinician level (e.g., growing awareness of healthcare disparities and inequities, recognition of financial effects of illness, refinement of communication skills, increased focus on reconstructing the illness narrative) and the practice level (e.g., expansion of care delivery modes, efforts to integrate social care) in response to each of the patient-level themes. Identified gaps in ICU recovery clinic care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic included a need for multidisciplinary team members, access to care issues (e.g., digital poverty, health insurance coverage, language barriers), and altered family engagement. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that addressing patient-level factors such as efforts to integrate social care, address financial needs, refine provider communication skills (e.g., empathic listening), and enhance focus on reconstructing the illness narrative became important priorities during the ICU recovery clinic visit during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also identified several ongoing gaps in ICU recovery clinic care delivery that highlight the need for interventions focused on the integration of social and clinic services for critical care survivors.

Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Qualitative Research , Critical Care/psychology
Crit Care ; 26(1): 334, 2022 10 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139375
Crit Care ; 26(1): 332, 2022 10 27.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139374
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e060422, 2022 11 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137703


OBJECTIVES: Critical care is essential in saving lives of critically ill patients, however, provision of critical care across lower resource settings can be costly, fragmented and heterogenous. Despite the urgent need to scale up the provision of critical care, little is known about its availability and cost. Here, we aim to systematically review and identify reported resource use, availability and costs for the provision of critical care and the nature of critical care provision in Tanzania. DESIGN: This is a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase and Global Health databases were searched covering the period 2010 to 17 November 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included studies that reported on forms of critical care offered, critical care services offered and/or costs and resources used in the provision of care in Tanzania published from 2010. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Quality assessment of the articles and data extraction was done by two independent researchers. The Reference Case for Estimating the Costs of Global Health Services and Interventions was used to assess quality of included studies. A narrative synthesis of extracted data was conducted. Costs were adjusted and reported in 2019 US$ and TZS using the World Bank GDP deflators. RESULTS: A total 31 studies were found to fulfil the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Critical care identified in Tanzania was categorised into: intensive care unit (ICU) delivered critical care and non-ICU critical care. The availability of ICU delivered critical care was limited to urban settings whereas non-ICU critical care was found in rural and urban settings. Paediatric critical care equipment was more scarce than equipment for adults. 15 studies reported on the costs of services related to critical care yet no study reported an average or unit cost of critical care. Costs of medication, equipment (eg, oxygen, personal protective equipment), services and human resources were identified as inputs to specific critical care services in Tanzania. CONCLUSION: There is limited evidence on the resource use, availability and costs of critical care in Tanzania. There is a strong need for further empirical research on critical care resources availability, utilisation and costs across specialties and hospitals of different level in low/middle-income countries like Tanzania to inform planning, priority setting and budgeting for critical care services. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020221923.

Тема - темы
Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Adult , Humans , Child , Tanzania , Critical Illness/therapy , Global Health
Intensive Care Med ; 48(12): 1775-1777, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128545

Тема - темы
Critical Care , Humans , Aged
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 21(supl.2): e20226571, 21 janeiro 2022. tab
Статья в английский, португальский | WHO COVID, LILACS - Страны Америки - | ID: covidwho-2145733


OBJETIVO: analisar os aspectos epidemiológicos e os fatores associados à sobrevida de pacientes críticos com diagnóstico de Covid-19. MÉTODO: estudo de coorte não concorrente, com informações de 205 pacientes críticos com Covid-19. RESULTADOS: a incidência e a letalidade de Covid-19 foram, respectivamente, 60,3% e 46,8%. O tempo médio de sobrevida dos pacientes foi de 21,8 dias e os fatores associados à menor sobrevida foram: pontuação elevada no Simplified Acute Physiology Score, menor tempo de ventilação mecânica, alteração do nível de consciência, utilização de cateter venoso central, presença de coagulopatias e necessidade de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar. Pacientes em oxigenoterapia por cateter nasal apresentaram maior sobrevida. CONCLUSÃO: observou-se elevada incidência e letalidade da doença entre os pacientes críticos, sendo a menor sobrevida relacionada a indicadores de maior gravidade do quadro clínico. Os resultados obtidos subsidiam enfermeiros no planejamento da assistência ao paciente, buscando minimizar o risco de óbito.

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the epidemiological aspects and factors associated with the survival of critically ill patients diagnosed with Covid-19. METHOD: this is a non-concurrent cohort study with information from 205 critically ill Covid-19 patients. RESULTS: the incidence and lethality of Covid-19 were, respectively, 60.3% and 46.8%. The mean survival time of patients was 21.8 days, and the factors associated with lower survival were high score on the Simplified Acute Physiology Score, shorter time on mechanical ventilation, altered level of consciousness, use of a central venous catheter, presence of coagulopathies and need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Patients on oxygen therapy by nasal cannula had better survival. CONCLUSION: there was a high incidence and lethality of the disease among critically ill patients. The lowest survival rate was related to indicators of greater severity of the clinical picture. The results support nurses in planning patient care to minimize the risk of death.

Тема - темы
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Survival Analysis , Critical Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Cohort Studies
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(11)2022 Nov 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119323


During the COVID-19 pandemic, it was recognised that SARS-CoV-2 can cause multisystem illness. Non-respiratory complications observed early in the pandemic were haematological in nature. A rare but serious haematological complication of COVID-19 infection is pancytopaenia. We describe a case of an older adult without pre-existing haematological disease or risk factors for cell dyscrasia with severe pancytopaenia induced by COVID-19, who developed critical illness requiring respiratory support in intensive care and died. Our case report highlights that de novo pancytopaenia may only present with mild dermatological manifestations and may indicate severe COVID-19 infection. Management is primarily supportive and early involvement of haematology should be sought.

Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pancytopenia , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Care
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116196


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed great pressure on healthcare facilities, exposing healthcare professionals to various challenges that may result in the onset of moral distress, a condition of psychological distress caused by the inability to act as it would be most morally appropriate. The purpose of this research was to investigate the experience lived by nurses who worked in an intensive care unit during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a phenomenological study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Sixteen nurses who worked in the COVID-19 Intensive Care Unit of Northern Italian Hospitals from January to April 2022 were selected through purposive sampling. Data on experiences, thoughts, and symptoms were collected through semi-structured interviews with in-person and remote modalities. RESULTS: Five themes and fourteen subthemes emerged from the study. The themes are: (1) pride, isolation, and fear; (2) teamwork and organisation; (3) moral/ethical aspect; (4) true heroes; and (5) dignity. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on intensive care unit nurses. It has emerged that the risk of moral distress is high among healthcare workers in the front line of the fight against the virus. This condition should be avoided and managed through early psychological interventions, sharing of experiences, and a good organization that supports decision-making and professional well-being.

Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Morals , Critical Care
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(5): 1689-1696, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113781


BACKGROUND: While chloride (Cl) is the most abundant anion in the serum, it is unfortunately one of the most commonly disregarded laboratory test results routinely drawn upon admission into the medical intensive care unit (MICU). We aimed to investigate the relation between in-hospital mortality, different pathologies requiring admission to the MICU, serum Cl levels, and other biochemical tests in a tertiary center. METHODS: The prospective study included data from 373 patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care center between 2017 and 2019. Data of patients under 18, pregnant patients or patients who were in the MICU for under 48 h were excluded. Comorbidity status, complete blood count, biochemistry tests, and blood gas analysis results of all patients included in the study were collected and recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with the obtained data. RESULTS: : Of the patients included in the study, 158 (42.4%) were discharged, and 215 (57.6%) died. In the receiver operator characteristics curve analysis performed to determine the discriminating power of Cl levels with a cut-off value of >98 mEq/L in relation to mortality, its sensitivity was found to be 84% and specificity 60%. According to Kaplan-Meier analysis results, mortality rate was higher (60% vs 46%) and survival time was lower (19.0 ± 1.46 vs. 23.0 ± 4.36 days; p = 0.035) in the patient group with high Cl levels compared to the patient group with normal or low Cl levels. In the Cox regression analysis, it was found that the survival time of the patients hospitalized in the MICU was associated with the variables of Cl, presence of cancer diagnosis and pCO2 (hazard ratio: 1.030 (1.008-1.049), 2.260(1.451-3.500), and 1.020 (1.003-1.029); p < 0.05, respectively). DISCUSSION: Mortality in MICU patients were found to increase in association with higher Cl levels at admission, presence of cancer disease, and higher pCO2 levels. In addition, it should not be ignored that there may be an important relationship between renal failure and hyperchloremia in MICU patients.

Тема - темы
Critical Care , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Humans , Prospective Studies , Prognosis , Intensive Care Units
N Engl J Med ; 387(19): 1759-1769, 2022 11 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112693


BACKGROUND: Invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults involves adjusting the fraction of inspired oxygen to maintain arterial oxygen saturation. The oxygen-saturation target that will optimize clinical outcomes in this patient population remains unknown. METHODS: In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, cluster-crossover trial conducted in the emergency department and medical intensive care unit at an academic center, we assigned adults who were receiving mechanical ventilation to a lower target for oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2) (90%; goal range, 88 to 92%), an intermediate target (94%; goal range, 92 to 96%), or a higher target (98%; goal range, 96 to 100%). The primary outcome was the number of days alive and free of mechanical ventilation (ventilator-free days) through day 28. The secondary outcome was death by day 28, with data censored at hospital discharge. RESULTS: A total of 2541 patients were included in the primary analysis. The median number of ventilator-free days was 20 (interquartile range, 0 to 25) in the lower-target group, 21 (interquartile range, 0 to 25) in the intermediate-target group, and 21 (interquartile range, 0 to 26) in the higher-target group (P = 0.81). In-hospital death by day 28 occurred in 281 of the 808 patients (34.8%) in the lower-target group, 292 of the 859 patients (34.0%) in the intermediate-target group, and 290 of the 874 patients (33.2%) in the higher-target group. The incidences of cardiac arrest, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and pneumothorax were similar in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among critically ill adults receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, the number of ventilator-free days did not differ among groups in which a lower, intermediate, or higher Spo2 target was used. (Supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; PILOT number, NCT03537937.).

Тема - темы
Critical Illness , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Critical Care/methods , Cross-Over Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Academic Medical Centers , Oximetry
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 108-116, 2021 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113607


OBJECTIVES: To validate and recalibrate the CURB-65 and pneumonia severity index (PSI) in predicting 30-day mortality and critical care intervention (CCI) in a multiethnic population with COVID-19, along with evaluating both models in predicting CCI. METHODS: Retrospective data was collected for 1181 patients admitted to the largest hospital in Qatar with COVID-19 pneumonia. The area under the curve (AUC), calibration curves, and other metrics were bootstrapped to examine the performance of the models. Variables constituting the CURB-65 and PSI scores underwent further analysis using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) along with logistic regression to develop a model predicting CCI. Complex machine learning models were built for comparative analysis. RESULTS: The PSI performed better than CURB-65 in predicting 30-day mortality (AUC 0.83, 0.78 respectively), while CURB-65 outperformed PSI in predicting CCI (AUC 0.78, 0.70 respectively). The modified PSI/CURB-65 model (respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, hematocrit, age, sodium, and glucose) predicting CCI had excellent accuracy (AUC 0.823) and good calibration. CONCLUSIONS: Our study recalibrated, externally validated the PSI and CURB-65 for predicting 30-day mortality and CCI, and developed a model for predicting CCI. Our tool can potentially guide clinicians in Qatar to stratify patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(37): e30655, 2022 Sep 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107668


The spread of abnormal opacity on chest computed tomography (CT) has been reported as a predictor of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity; however, the relationship between CT findings and prognosis in patients with severe COVID-19 remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of abnormal opacity on chest CT and its association with prognosis in patients with COVID-19 in a critical care medical center, using a simple semi-quantitative method. This single-center case-control study included patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to a critical care center. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on positive results of a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. All patients underwent non-contrast whole-body CT upon admission. Six representative axial chest CT images were selected for each patient to evaluate the extent of lung lesions. The percentage of the area involved in the representative CT images was visually assessed by 2 radiologists and scored on 4-point scale to obtain the bedside CT score, which was compared between patients who survived and those who died using the Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 63 patients were included in this study: 51 survived and 12 died after intensive treatment. The inter-rater reliability of bedside scores between the 2 radiologists was acceptable. The median bedside CT score of the survival group was 12.5 and that of the mortality group was 16.5; the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant. The degree of opacity can be easily scored using representative CT images in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, without sophisticated software. A greater extent of abnormal opacity is associated with poorer prognosis. Predicting the prognosis of patients with severe COVID-19 could facilitate prompt and appropriate treatment.

Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Critical Care , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 139(5): 311-312, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104347

Тема - темы
Anesthesia , COVID-19 , Medicine , Critical Care , France , Humans
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