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1.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30183, 2022 06 20.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217320

Реферат

STUDY AIM: The surge of admissions due to severe COVID-19 increased the patients-to-critical care staffing ratio within the ICUs. We investigated whether the daily level of staffing was associated with an increased risk of ICU mortality (primary endpoint), length of stay (LOS), mechanical ventilation and the evolution of disease (secondary endpoints). METHODS: We employed a retrospective multicentre analysis of the international Risk Stratification in COVID-19 patients in the ICU (RISC-19-ICU) registry, limited to the period between March 1 and May 31, 2020, and to Switzerland. Hierarchical regression models were used to investigate crude and adjusted effects of the critical care staffing ratio on study endpoints. We adjusted for disease severity and weekly caseload. RESULTS: Among the 38 participating Swiss ICUs, 17 recorded staffing information. The study population included 437 patients and 2,342 daily assessments of patient-to-critical care staffing ratio. Median of daily patient-to-nurse ratio started at 1.0 [IQR 0.5-1.5; calendar week 9] and peaked at 2.4 (IQR 0.4-2.0; calendar week 16), while the median of daily patient-to-physician ratio started at 4.0 (IQR 2.1-5.0; calendar week 9) and peaked at 6.8 (IQR 6.3-7.3; calendar week 19). Neither the patient-to-nurse (adjusted OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.85-1.93; doubling of ratio) nor the patient-to-physician ratio (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.87-1.32; doubling of ratio) were associated with ICU mortality. We found no association of daily critical care staffing on the secondary endpoints in adjusted models. CONCLUSION: We found no association of reduced availability of critical care staffing resources in Swiss ICUs with overall ICU length of stay nor mortality. Whether long-term outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19 have been affected remains to be studied.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology , Workforce
2.
Eur Respir J ; 60(2)2022 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214518

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to determine whether anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptors improve outcomes of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. We report on two cohort-embedded, investigator-initiated, multicentre, open-label, Bayesian randomised controlled clinical trials. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either usual care (UC) or UC+tocilizumab (TCZ) 8 mg·kg-1 (TOCI-2 trial) or UC or UC+sarilumab (SARI) 200 mg (SARI-2 trial), both intravenously on day 1 and, if clinically indicated, on day 3. RESULTS: Between 31 March and 20 April 2020, 97 patients were randomised in the TOCI-2 trial, to receive UC (n=46) or UC+TCZ (n=51). At day 14, numbers of patients who did not need noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or mechanical ventilation (MV) and were alive with TCZ or UC were similar (47% versus 42%; median posterior hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 90% credible interval (CrI) 0.71-2.04), with a posterior probability of HR >1 of 71.4%. Between 27 March and 4 April 2020, 91 patients were randomised in the SARI-2 trial, to receive UC (n=41) or UC+SARI (n=50). At day 14, numbers of patients who did not need NIV or MV and were alive with SARI or UC were similar (38% versus 33%; median posterior HR 1.05, 90% CrI 0.55-2.07), with a posterior probability of HR >1 of 54.9%. Overall, the risk of death up to day 90 was: UC+TCZ 24% versus UC 30% (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.30-1.49) and UC+SARI 29% versus UC 39% (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.35-1.58). Both TCZ and SARI increased serious infectious events. CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients with COVID-19, anti-IL-6 receptors did not significantly increase the number of patients alive without any NIV or MV by day 14.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adult , Bayes Theorem , Critical Illness , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptors, Interleukin-6 , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
medrxiv; 2023.
Препринт в английский | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.02.02.23285377

Реферат

Background: The reduced severity and burden of COVID-19 in 2022 can largely be attributable to vaccination and a shift to Omicron predominance. However, millions of individuals remain unvaccinated. In the present study, we aimed to study disease severity in unvaccinated individuals without risk factors during the Omicron period, compared to pre-Omicron periods. Methods: This register-based study included all unvaccinated individuals in Sweden aged 18-64 years without comorbidity or care dependency who were SARS-CoV-2 positive between week 45 of 2020 and week 5 of 2022. Variant of concern (VOC) periods were periods with certain VOCs identified in [≥]92% of sequenced cases nationwide. Outcomes were hospitalization with a main discharge code of COVID-19; severe illness, defined as high-flow nasal oxygen treatment or intensive care unit admission; and death with COVID-19 as the underlying cause of death on the death certificate. Results: Among 788,895 individuals in the overall SARS-CoV-2 positive cohort, both hospitalization and death increased stepwise from the pre-VOC period to the Alpha and Delta periods, and decreased in the Omicron period. Among 15,179 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the proportions with severe illness and death increased to the Delta period, but in the Omicron period, these outcomes returned to the level of the pre-VOC period. Conclusion: In the Omicron period, compared to pre-Omicron periods, unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 positive adults <65 years old without comorbidity had reduced proportions of hospitalization and death overall, but similar proportion of severe illness among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. These results support continuous efforts to prevent hospitalizations for COVID-19.


Тема - темы
Death , COVID-19 , Critical Illness
4.
medrxiv; 2023.
Препринт в английский | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.01.30.23285170

Реферат

Objectives: We investigated factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity and in-hospital mortality in a low-middle income setting. Methods: Records of 197 adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi between April 2021 and February 2022 were reviewed. Clinical data including, that of SARS-CoV-2 variants was collected. Results: The median age of the patients was 55 years and 51.8% were males. 48.2 % of patients had non-severe disease, while 52.8% had severe/critical disease. Hypertension (48%) and diabetes mellitus (41.3%) were most common comorbid conditions. Omicron (55.3%), Beta (14.7%), Alpha (13.7%), Delta (12.7%) and Gamma (3.6%) were identified in patients. The risk of severe disease was higher in those aged above 50 years (OR 5.73; 95%CI [2.45-13.7]) and in diabetics (OR 4.24; 95% CI[1.82-9.85]). Full vaccination (OR 0.25; 95%CI [0.11-0.58]) or infection with Omicron variants (OR 0.42; 95% CI[0.23-0.74]) reduced disease severity. Age > 50 (OR 5.07; 95%CI [1.92-13.42]) and presence of myocardial infarction (OR 5.11; 95% CI[1.45-17.93]) was associated with increased mortality, but infection with Omicron (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.10-0.53]) reduced risk. Conclusions: Vaccination was found to protect against severe COVID-19 regardless of the infecting variant and is recommended especially, in those aged over 50 years and with co-morbid conditions.


Тема - темы
Myocardial Infarction , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Hypertension
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 930673, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198851

Реферат

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, is one of the fastest-evolving viral diseases that has instigated a worldwide pandemic. Severe inflammatory syndrome and venous thrombosis are commonly noted in COVID-19 patients with severe and critical illness, contributing to the poor prognosis. Interleukin (IL)-6, a major complex inflammatory cytokine, is an independent factor in predicting the severity of COVID-19 disease in patients. IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α participate in COVID-19-induced cytokine storm, causing endothelial cell damage and upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels. In addition, IL-6 and PAI-1 form a vicious cycle of inflammation and thrombosis, which may contribute to the poor prognosis of patients with severe COVID-19. Targeted inhibition of IL-6 and PAI-1 signal transduction appears to improve treatment outcomes in severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients suffering from cytokine storms and venous thrombosis. Motivated by studies highlighting the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and thrombosis in viral immunology, we provide an overview of the immunothrombosis and immunoinflammation vicious loop between IL-6 and PAI-1. Our goal is that understanding this ferocious circle will benefit critically ill patients with COVID-19 worldwide.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
6.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 28(3): 218-224, 2022 05 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190986

Реферат

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to examine the most recent findings in the area of invasive pulmonary fungal infections to determine the appropriate/and or lack of prevention measures and treatment of upper fungal respiratory tract infections in the critically ill. RECENT FINDINGS: This will be addressed by focusing on the pathogens and prognosis over different bedridden periods in ICU patients, the occurrence of invasive fungal respiratory superinfections in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 which has been recently noted following the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Relevant reports referenced within include randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, observational studies, systematic reviews, and international guidelines, where applicable. Of note, it is clear there is a significant gap in our knowledge regarding whether bacterial and fungal infections in coronavirus disease 2019 are directly attributable to SARS-CoV-2 or a consequence of factors such as managing high numbers of critically unwell patients, and the prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation/ICU admission duration of stay. SUMMARY: An optimal diagnostic algorithm incorporating fungal biomarkers and molecular tools for early and accurate diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia, invasive aspergillosis, candidemia, and endemic mycoses continues to be limited clinically. There is a lack of standardized molecular approach to identify fungal pathogens directly in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and suboptimal diagnostic approaches for mould blood cultures, tissue culture processing for Mucorales, and fungal respiratory cultures (i.e., the routine use of bronchoscopic examination in ICU patients with influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis) for fungal point-of-care testing to detect and identify new, emerging or underrecognized, rare, or uncommon fungal pathogens.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Mycoses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Critical Illness , Humans , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Crit Care Med ; 50(12): 1799-1808, 2022 12 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190850

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: To analyze functional recovery groups of critically ill COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and to identify the associated factors. DESIGN: Prospective observational multicenter study. SETTING: Demographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables were collected, and physical and functional status were evaluated. The Barthel index was evaluated at three time points: 15 days before hospitalization, at ICU discharge, and at hospital discharge from the ward. PATIENTS: Patients with functional independence before COVID-19 diagnosis were recruited from four hospitals and followed up until hospital discharge. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Three groups of functional recovery were described for 328 patients: functional independence ( n = 144; 44%), which included patients who preserved their functional status during hospitalization; recovered functionality ( n = 109; 33.2%), which included patients who showed dependence at ICU discharge but recovered their independence by hospital discharge; and functional dependency ( n = 75; 22.8%), which included patients who were dependent at ICU discharge and had not recovered their functional status at hospital discharge. The factors associated with becoming functionally dependent at ICU discharge were time to out-of-bed patient mobilization (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.29), age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), hyperglycemia (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.56-4.07), and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (OR, 1.022; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04). Recovery to baseline independence during ward stays was associated with ICU length of stay (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99) and muscle strength (Medical Research Council test) at ICU discharge (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Age, hyperglycemia, and time for patient mobilization out of bed were independent factors associated with becoming physically dependent after their ICU stay. Recovery of physical function at hospital discharge was associated with muscle strength at ICU discharge and length of ICU stay.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Patient Discharge , Intensive Care Units , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Length of Stay , Hospitals
8.
biorxiv; 2023.
Препринт в английский | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.01.14.524034

Реферат

Objective: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been suggested to purpose threats to health of mankind. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening acute and chronic liver failure that takes place in sufferers who drink excessively. During the epidemic, AH has an increasing incidence of severe illness and mortality. However, for these two diseases, the intrinsic relationship of molecular pathogenesis, as well as common therapeutic strategies are still poorly understood. Methods: The transcriptome of the COVID-19 and AH has been compared to obtain the altered genes and hub genes were screened out through protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. Via gene ontology (GO), pathway enrichment and transcription regulator analysis, a deeper appreciation of the interplay mechanism between hub genes were established. Results: With 181 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of AH and COVID-19 were obtained, 10 hub genes were captured. Follow-up studies located that these 10 genes typically mediated the diseases occurrence by regulating the activities of the immune system. Other results suggest that the common pathways of the two ailments are enriched in regulating the function of immune cells and the release of immune molecules. Conclusion: This study reveals the common pathogenesis of COVID-19 and AH and assist to discover necessary therapeutic targets to combat the ongoing pandemic induced via SARS-CoV-2 infection and acquire promising remedy strategies for the two diseases.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections , End Stage Liver Disease , COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Alcoholic , Critical Illness
9.
biorxiv; 2023.
Препринт в английский | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.01.01.522064

Реферат

Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 vary widely, ranging from asymptomatic to severe respiratory failure with profound inflammation. Although risk factors for severe illness have been identified, definitive determinants remain elusive. Clonal hematopoiesis (CH), the expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells bearing acquired somatic mutations, is associated with advanced age and hyperinflammation. Given the similar age range and hyperinflammatory phenotype between frequent CH and severe COVID-19, CH could impact the risk of severe COVID-19. Human cohort studies have attempted to prove this relationship, but conclusions are conflicting. Rhesus macaques (RMs) are being utilized to test vaccines and therapeutics for COVID-19. However, RMs, even other species, have not yet been reported to develop late inflammatory COVID-19 disease. Here, RMs with either spontaneous DNMT3A or engineered TET2 CH along with similarly transplanted and conditioned controls were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and monitored until 12 days post-inoculation (dpi). Although no significant differences in clinical symptoms and blood counts were noted, an aged animal with natural DNMT3A CH died on 10 dpi. CH macaques showed evidence of sustained local inflammatory responses compared to controls. Interestingly, viral loads in respiratory tracts were higher at every timepoint in the CH group. Lung sections from euthanasia showed evidence of mild inflammation in all animals, while viral antigen was more frequently detected in the lung tissues of CH macaques even at the time of autopsy. Despite the lack of striking inflammation and serious illness, our findings suggest potential pathophysiological differences in RMs with or without CH upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Тема - темы
Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Inflammation
10.
medrxiv; 2022.
Препринт в английский | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.12.28.22284017

Реферат

Importance: Antenatal care provides unique opportunities to assess SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and antibody response duration after natural infection detected during pregnancy; transplacental antibody transfer may inform peripartum and neonatal protection. Objective: Estimate seroprevalence and durability of antibodies from natural infection (anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) IgG) among pregnant people, and evaluate transplacental transfer efficiency. Design: Seroprevalence study: cross-sectional SARS-CoV-2 antibody screening among pregnant people December 9, 2020-June 19, 2021. Cohort study: Pregnant people screened anti-N IgG+ by Abbott Architect chemiluminescent immunoassay in seroprevalence study or identified through medical records with RT-PCR+ or antigen positive results enrolled in a prospective cohort December 9, 2020-June 30, 2022 to longitudinally measure anti-N IgG responses. We collected cord blood and assessed transplacental transfer of maternally-derived anti-N antibodies. Setting: Three hospitals and 14 affiliated clinics providing antenatal and delivery care, Seattle, Washington metropolitan area. Participants: Seroprevalence study: pregnant people were screened for SAR-CoV-2 anti-N IgG during routine care. Cohort study: Pregnant people with evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (screened anti-N IgG+ from seroprevalence study or identified with a RT-PCR+ or antigen positive result from medical records) were enrolled in a cohort study to longitudinally measure anti-N IgG responses. Exposure(s) (for observational studies): COVID-19 diagnosis, symptoms, and disease severity. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Presence and durability of SARS-CoV-2 anti-N IgG, transplacental transfer of maternally-derived anti-N IgG. Results: Of 1289 pregnant people screened in the seroprevalence study, 5% (65) tested SARS-CoV-2 anti-N IgG+, including 39 (60%) without prior RT-PCR+ or antigen positive results and 53 (82%) without symptoms. Among 89 participants enrolled in the cohort study, 73 (82%) had anti-N IgG+ results during pregnancy. Among 49 participants with delivery samples 33 (67%) were anti-N IgG negative by delivery. Of 24 remaining anti-N IgG+ at delivery with paired cord blood samples, 12 (50%) had efficient transplacental anti-N IgG antibody transfer. Median time from first anti-N IgG to below positive antibody threshold was 17 weeks and did not differ by prior RT-PCR+ or antigen positive status. Conclusions and Relevance: Maternally-derived SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to natural infection may wane before delivery. Vaccines are recommended for pregnant persons to reduce severe illness and confer protection to infants.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Critical Illness
11.
medrxiv; 2022.
Препринт в английский | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.12.28.22283971

Реферат

Introduction: The COVID 19 pandemic was highlighted by a rise in hospital admissions secondary to respiratory decompensation. This was accompanied by an increase in ICU admissions, endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. As a consequence, tracheostomies became essential in preventing complications of prolonged intubation and to facilitate weaning from sedation and mechanical ventilation. With the lack of international consensus on tracheostomy technique and optimal timing, we present our experience with 377 percutaneous tracheostomies performed on critically ill COVID 19 patients. Objective: To report the outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID 19 who underwent percutaneous tracheostomy during a period of 24 months. Methods: A retrospective single-center electronic chart review was performed on all ICU patients who underwent percutaneous tracheostomy after respiratory failure secondary to COVID 19 between March 2020 to March 2022. Results: A total of 377 percutaneous tracheostomies were performed. The mean duration between intubation and percutaneous tracheostomy was 17.4 days (3 to 61). The study included 222 males (59%) and 155 females (41%). The mean age of patients was 56.2 years (17-94), with a mean BMI was 31.3 (14 to 68). The commonest comorbidities among patients were diabetes mellitus (50%) and hypertension (48%). Complications were encountered in 85 cases (23%), with the commonest overall complication being minor bleeding. 203 patients (54%) were weaned from sedation. The mean duration between tracheostomy and weaning from sedation was 7.5 days (1 to 47 days). 156 patients (41%) were weaned from MV. The mean duration between tracheostomy and weaning from MV was 12.9 days (1 to 58 days). There was a total of 236 (63%) deaths reported during the period of this study. No deaths were attributable to the surgical procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous tracheostomy can be safely performed in patients with COVID 19. With lack of conclusive objective data regarding the optimal timing for tracheostomy, we recommend that tracheostomy be performed as soon as possible after the 7th day endotracheal intubation. Key Words: Percutaneous tracheostomy, COVID 19, Critically ill, ICU


Тема - темы
Respiratory Insufficiency , Diabetes Mellitus , Death , Hemorrhage , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Hypertension
12.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e440-e469, 2020 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152192

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which four are best practice statements, nine are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for six questions. The topics were: 1) infection control, 2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, 3) hemodynamic support, 4) ventilatory support, and 5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new evidence in further releases of these guidelines.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Intensive Care Units/standards , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/therapy
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1353: 81-89, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157936

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: A novel coronavirus was identified in the last days of 2019, which caused a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. Since Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was identified and caused a pandemic, morbidity and mortality caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other disease-related complications are being struggled against in intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: In this chapter, clinical features, epidemiological properties, and management of critically ill COVID-19 patients aree discussed with the support of recent literature. RESULTS: Since there isn't a definitively proven treatment for the disease, the management of critical illness is adequate supportive medical care based upon the basic principles of critically ill patient management. Supportive oxygen therapy modalities and mechanical ventilation strategies are most challenging issues during the course of the disease in ICUs. Additionally, using combinations of investigational drugs is beneficial for the management of the disease. Because the disease is highly contagious, infection control measures to stop the disease's nosocomial spread are crucial. CONCLUSION: The basis of management in critically ill COVID-19 patients is providing adequate ICU care. Additionally, a combination of promising treatment strategies specific to the disease may be beneficial and should be monitored carefully.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
17.
preprints.org; 2022.
Препринт в английский | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202212.0469.v1

Реферат

Background: Repeated SARS-CoV-2 infections are plausible and related published data are scarce. We aimed to identify factors associated with the risk of recurrent (three episodes) laboratory-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted and 1,700 healthcare workers were enrolled. We used risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate factors associated with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results: We identified 14 participants with recurrent illness episodes. Therefore, the incidence rate was 8.5 per 10,000 person-months. In multiple model, vaccinated adults (vs. unvaccinated, RR = 1.05 [1.03 - 1.06]) and those with a severe first illness episode (vs mild disease, RR = 1.05 [1.01 - 1.10]) were at increased risk for repeated symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 reinfections. Increasing age showed a protective effect (per each additional year of age: RR = 0.98 [0.97 - 0.99]). Conclusions: Our results suggest that recurrent SARS-CoV-2 infections are rare events in adults and they seem to be determined, partially, by vaccination status and age.


Тема - темы
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , COVID-19 , Critical Illness
18.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(7): 686-687, 2020 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135781
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 975848, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142004

Реферат

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly worldwide, resulting in a pandemic with a high mortality rate. In clinical practice, we have noted that many critically ill or critically ill patients with COVID-19 present with typical sepsis-related clinical manifestations, including multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, coagulopathy, and septic shock. In addition, it has been demonstrated that severe COVID-19 has some pathological similarities with sepsis, such as cytokine storm, hypercoagulable state after blood balance is disrupted and neutrophil dysfunction. Considering the parallels between COVID-19 and non-SARS-CoV-2 induced sepsis (hereafter referred to as sepsis), the aim of this study was to analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms between these two diseases by bioinformatics and a systems biology approach, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the development of new treatments. Specifically, the gene expression profiles of COVID-19 and sepsis patients were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and compared to extract common differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Subsequently, common DEGs were used to investigate the genetic links between COVID-19 and sepsis. Based on enrichment analysis of common DEGs, many pathways closely related to inflammatory response were observed, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. In addition, protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulatory networks of common DEGs were constructed, and the analysis results showed that ITGAM may be a potential key biomarker base on regulatory analysis. Furthermore, a disease diagnostic model and risk prediction nomogram for COVID-19 were constructed using machine learning methods. Finally, potential therapeutic agents, including progesterone and emetine, were screened through drug-protein interaction networks and molecular docking simulations. We hope to provide new strategies for future research and treatment related to COVID-19 by elucidating the pathogenesis and genetic mechanisms between COVID-19 and sepsis.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Biomarkers , Computational Biology/methods , Critical Illness , Cytokines/genetics , Emetine , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B/genetics , Progesterone , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/metabolism
20.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(11): 1900-1906, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140773

Реферат

Rationale: There are limited data on the impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on intensive care unit (ICU) recovery clinic care delivery practices. Objectives: We sought to better understand the patient-level factors affecting ICU recovery clinic care and changing clinical thinking during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also sought to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic sparked innovation within ICU recovery clinics. Methods: A multicenter qualitative study was conducted with ICU recovery clinic interprofessional clinicians involved with the Critical and Acute Illness Recovery Organization (CAIRO) between February and March 2021. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Key themes were organized in a working analytical framework. Results: Twenty-nine participants from 15 international sites participated in the study. Participants identified three patient-level key themes that influenced care delivery in ICU recovery programs: 1) social isolation, 2) decreased emotional reserve in patients and families, and 3) substantial social care needs. Changes in ICU recovery clinic care delivery occurred at both the clinician level (e.g., growing awareness of healthcare disparities and inequities, recognition of financial effects of illness, refinement of communication skills, increased focus on reconstructing the illness narrative) and the practice level (e.g., expansion of care delivery modes, efforts to integrate social care) in response to each of the patient-level themes. Identified gaps in ICU recovery clinic care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic included a need for multidisciplinary team members, access to care issues (e.g., digital poverty, health insurance coverage, language barriers), and altered family engagement. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that addressing patient-level factors such as efforts to integrate social care, address financial needs, refine provider communication skills (e.g., empathic listening), and enhance focus on reconstructing the illness narrative became important priorities during the ICU recovery clinic visit during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also identified several ongoing gaps in ICU recovery clinic care delivery that highlight the need for interventions focused on the integration of social and clinic services for critical care survivors.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Qualitative Research , Critical Care/psychology
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