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1.
Crit Care Med ; 50(12): 1799-1808, 2022 12 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190850

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: To analyze functional recovery groups of critically ill COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and to identify the associated factors. DESIGN: Prospective observational multicenter study. SETTING: Demographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables were collected, and physical and functional status were evaluated. The Barthel index was evaluated at three time points: 15 days before hospitalization, at ICU discharge, and at hospital discharge from the ward. PATIENTS: Patients with functional independence before COVID-19 diagnosis were recruited from four hospitals and followed up until hospital discharge. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Three groups of functional recovery were described for 328 patients: functional independence ( n = 144; 44%), which included patients who preserved their functional status during hospitalization; recovered functionality ( n = 109; 33.2%), which included patients who showed dependence at ICU discharge but recovered their independence by hospital discharge; and functional dependency ( n = 75; 22.8%), which included patients who were dependent at ICU discharge and had not recovered their functional status at hospital discharge. The factors associated with becoming functionally dependent at ICU discharge were time to out-of-bed patient mobilization (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.29), age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), hyperglycemia (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.56-4.07), and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (OR, 1.022; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04). Recovery to baseline independence during ward stays was associated with ICU length of stay (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99) and muscle strength (Medical Research Council test) at ICU discharge (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Age, hyperglycemia, and time for patient mobilization out of bed were independent factors associated with becoming physically dependent after their ICU stay. Recovery of physical function at hospital discharge was associated with muscle strength at ICU discharge and length of ICU stay.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Patient Discharge , Intensive Care Units , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Length of Stay , Hospitals
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e060422, 2022 11 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137703

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: Critical care is essential in saving lives of critically ill patients, however, provision of critical care across lower resource settings can be costly, fragmented and heterogenous. Despite the urgent need to scale up the provision of critical care, little is known about its availability and cost. Here, we aim to systematically review and identify reported resource use, availability and costs for the provision of critical care and the nature of critical care provision in Tanzania. DESIGN: This is a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase and Global Health databases were searched covering the period 2010 to 17 November 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included studies that reported on forms of critical care offered, critical care services offered and/or costs and resources used in the provision of care in Tanzania published from 2010. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Quality assessment of the articles and data extraction was done by two independent researchers. The Reference Case for Estimating the Costs of Global Health Services and Interventions was used to assess quality of included studies. A narrative synthesis of extracted data was conducted. Costs were adjusted and reported in 2019 US$ and TZS using the World Bank GDP deflators. RESULTS: A total 31 studies were found to fulfil the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Critical care identified in Tanzania was categorised into: intensive care unit (ICU) delivered critical care and non-ICU critical care. The availability of ICU delivered critical care was limited to urban settings whereas non-ICU critical care was found in rural and urban settings. Paediatric critical care equipment was more scarce than equipment for adults. 15 studies reported on the costs of services related to critical care yet no study reported an average or unit cost of critical care. Costs of medication, equipment (eg, oxygen, personal protective equipment), services and human resources were identified as inputs to specific critical care services in Tanzania. CONCLUSION: There is limited evidence on the resource use, availability and costs of critical care in Tanzania. There is a strong need for further empirical research on critical care resources availability, utilisation and costs across specialties and hospitals of different level in low/middle-income countries like Tanzania to inform planning, priority setting and budgeting for critical care services. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020221923.


Тема - темы
Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Adult , Humans , Child , Tanzania , Critical Illness/therapy , Global Health
6.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 35(12): 1-6, 2022 Dec 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135598

Реферат

ABSTRACT: Patients who are critically ill with COVID-19 need ventilation support in the ICU. However, ICU patients are at higher risk of developing a pressure injury (PI). Unfortunately, PI prevention is not optimally implemented in Indonesia, especially in the makeshift hospitals created during the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, the authors report two cases of critically ill patients with COVID-19 who developed large sacral PIs during hospitalization in a makeshift hospital in Indonesia. The first patient developed a stage 3, 7 × 7-cm sacral PI on the 14th day of hospitalization. The second patient developed a stage 4, 12 × 8-cm sacral PI on the 16th day of hospitalization. Both patients had elevated d-dimer levels and used a noninvasive ventilator for 1 week. The wounds were treated with surgical debridement, silver hydrogel dressing, and hydrocolloid dressing and complemented with static air mattress overlay. The authors recommend that in situations where there is a shortage of healthcare workers, the government should provide pressure-redistribution devices and silicone foam dressings for all critically ill patients to prevent PI development and lighten the workload of healthcare workers.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , Indonesia , Pandemics , Hospitals
7.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(2): 365-377, 2022 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130990

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant mortality in the United States with more than 800,000 deaths in 2020 and 2021. The proportion of patients with COVID-19 who develop severe disease varies but is decreasing over time with growing population immunity and improved therapeutic options. Patients who are 65 years and older represent the largest proportion of deaths from COVID-19. Additional risk factors include immunosuppression and chronic medical conditions. Vaccination dramatically reduces the risk of severe COVID-19. Although critical illness from COVID-19 is mostly driven by respiratory disease, critical illness can manifest in several ways and affect several organ systems.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , United States , Vaccination
8.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 15(6): 1124-1129, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129371

Реферат

Secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SC-CIP) is a rare disease characterized by chronic cholestasis. The underlying pathophysiology of SC-CIP is not fully understood, and prognosis in severe cases remains poor with liver transplantation remaining the only curative treatment option. There is a growing amount of literature describing patients with chronic cholangiopathy after COVID-19 infection. The vast majority of the patients described in these reports were male and had a poor outcome. While the exact percentage of patients with COVID-19-related SC-CIP cannot be estimated accurately due to a lack of larger studies, an increase in patients with long-term complications of chronic cholestatic liver disease after severe COVID19-pneumonia can be expected in the upcoming years. Treatment options remain limited and further research is needed to improve the dismal prognosis of SC-CIP. Here, we present the cases of two patients who developed SC-CIP after prolonged intensive care unit stay due to severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Both patients required invasive ventilation for 31 and 141 days, respectively, as well as extra-corporal membrane oxygenation for 23 and 87 days. The patients suffered from jaundice and severe pruritus, and typical features of SC-CIP were present by MRCP and ERC. Repeated removal of biliary casts resulted in some alleviation of their clinical symptoms, but cholestasis parameters remain elevated. Furthermore, an increased liver stiffness was indicative of advanced fibrosis in both patients. In addition to these two case reports, we provide a concise review of the literature of SC-CIP after COVID-19 infection and discuss risk factors, treatment options and prognosis.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Cholestasis , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Male , Female , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/complications , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects
9.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 54(1): 79-82, 2022 Mar.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115684

Реферат

The optimal timing for initiating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after starting mechanical ventilation has yet to be clarified. We report herein the cases of two patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who were successfully managed with an early ECMO induction strategy. Case 1 involved a 64-year-old man admitted in respiratory distress with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19. On day 5 at hospital, he was intubated, but oxygenation remained unimproved despite mechanical ventilation treatment with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PaO2/FiO2 [P/F] ratio, 127; Respiratory ECMO Survival Prediction [RESP] score, 4). ECMO was initiated 4 hours after intubation, and stopped on day 16 at hospital. The patient was discharged from hospital on day 36. Case 2 involved a 49-year-old man who had been admitted 8 days prior. He was intubated on hospital on day 2. High PEEP mechanical ventilation did not improve oxygenation (P/F ratio, 93; RESP score, 7). ECMO was stopped on hospital on day 7 and he was discharged from hospital on day 21. The strategy of early initiation of ECMO in these two cases may have minimized the risk of ventilation-related lung injury and contributed to the achievement of favorable outcomes.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiration, Artificial
10.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 350, 2022 11 12.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115659

Реферат

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SP) has been described early during the COVID-19 pandemic in large series of patients with severe pneumonia, but most patients were receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) at the time of SP diagnosis. In this retrospective multicenter observational study, we aimed at describing the prevalence and outcomes of SP during severe COVID-19 with pneumonia before any IMV, to rule out mechanisms induced by IMV in the development of pneumomediastinum.Among 549 patients, 21 patients (4%) developed a SP while receiving non-invasive respiratory support, after a median of 6 days [4-12] from ICU admission. The proportion of patients requiring IMV was similar. However, the time to tracheal intubation was longer in patients with SP (6 days [5-13] vs. 2 days [1-4]; P = 0.00002), with a higher first-line use of non-invasive ventilation (n = 11; 52% vs. n = 150; 28%; P = 0.02). The 21 patients who developed a SP had persisting signs of severe lung disease and respiratory failure with lower ROX index between ICU admission and occurrence of SP (3.94 [3.15-5.55] at admission vs. 3.25 [2.73-4.02] the day preceding SP; P = 0.1), which may underline potential indirect signals of Patient-self inflicted lung injury (P-SILI).In this series of critically ill COVID-19 patients, the prevalence of SP without IMV was not uncommon, affecting 4% of patients. They received more often vasopressors and had a longer ICU length of stay, as compared with their counterparts. One pathophysiological mechanism may potentially be carried out by P-SILI related to a prolonged respiratory failure, as underlined by a delayed use of IMV and the evolution of the ROX index between ICU admission and the day preceding SP.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
11.
N Engl J Med ; 387(19): 1759-1769, 2022 11 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112693

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults involves adjusting the fraction of inspired oxygen to maintain arterial oxygen saturation. The oxygen-saturation target that will optimize clinical outcomes in this patient population remains unknown. METHODS: In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, cluster-crossover trial conducted in the emergency department and medical intensive care unit at an academic center, we assigned adults who were receiving mechanical ventilation to a lower target for oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2) (90%; goal range, 88 to 92%), an intermediate target (94%; goal range, 92 to 96%), or a higher target (98%; goal range, 96 to 100%). The primary outcome was the number of days alive and free of mechanical ventilation (ventilator-free days) through day 28. The secondary outcome was death by day 28, with data censored at hospital discharge. RESULTS: A total of 2541 patients were included in the primary analysis. The median number of ventilator-free days was 20 (interquartile range, 0 to 25) in the lower-target group, 21 (interquartile range, 0 to 25) in the intermediate-target group, and 21 (interquartile range, 0 to 26) in the higher-target group (P = 0.81). In-hospital death by day 28 occurred in 281 of the 808 patients (34.8%) in the lower-target group, 292 of the 859 patients (34.0%) in the intermediate-target group, and 290 of the 874 patients (33.2%) in the higher-target group. The incidences of cardiac arrest, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and pneumothorax were similar in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among critically ill adults receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, the number of ventilator-free days did not differ among groups in which a lower, intermediate, or higher Spo2 target was used. (Supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; PILOT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03537937.).


Тема - темы
Critical Illness , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Critical Care/methods , Cross-Over Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Academic Medical Centers , Oximetry
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063856, 2022 11 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108284

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Hypercoagulation is one the main features of COVID-19. It is induced by the hyperinflammatory response that shifts the balance of haemostasis towards pro-coagulation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) antagonist therapy has been recommended in certain subgroups of critically ill patients with COVID-19 to modulate inflammatory response. The interaction between immune response and haemostasis is well recognised. Therefore, our objective is to evaluate whether the modulation of the inflammatory response by IL-6 antagonist inflicts any changes in whole blood coagulation as assessed by viscoelastic methods in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this prospective observational study, we are going to collect data on inflammatory parameters and blood coagulation using the ClotPro® device. The primary outcome is the change of the fibrinolytic system measured by the Lysis Time and Lysis onset time before and after immunomodulation therapy. Data will be collected before the IL-6 antagonist administration at baseline (T0) then after 24, 48 hours, then on day 5 and 7 (T1-4, respectively). Secondary outcomes include changes in other parameters related to inflammation, blood coagulation and biomarkers of endothelial injury. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was given by the Medical Research Council of Hungary (1405-3/2022/EÜG). All participants provided written consent. The results of the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05218369; Clinicaltrials.gov.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Interleukin-6 , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies
13.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 23(11): e530-e535, 2022 Nov 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097528

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the prevalence of pediatric critical illness from multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and to assess the influence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain on outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Database evaluation using the Virtual Pediatric Systems Database. PATIENTS: All children with MIS-C admitted to the PICU in 115 contributing hospitals between January 1, 2020, and June 30, 2021. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 145,580 children admitted to the PICU during the study period, 1,338 children (0.9%) were admitted with MIS-C with the largest numbers of children admitted in quarter 1 (Q1) of 2021 ( n = 626). The original SARS-CoV-2 viral strain and the D614G Strain were the predominant strains through 2020, with Alpha B.1.1.7 predominating in Q1 and quarter 2 (Q2) of 2021. Overall, the median PICU length of stay (LOS) was 2.7 days (25-75% interquartile range [IQR], 1.6-4.7 d) with a median hospital LOS of 6.6 days (25-75% IQR, 4.7-9.3 d); 15.2% received mechanical ventilation with a median duration of mechanical ventilation of 3.1 days (25-75% IQR, 1.9-5.8 d), and there were 11 hospital deaths. During the study period, there was a significant decrease in the median PICU and hospital LOS and a decrease in the frequency of mechanical ventilation, with the most significant decrease occurring between quarter 3 and quarter 4 (Q4) of 2020. Children admitted to a PICU from the general care floor or from another ICU/step-down unit had longer PICU LOS than those admitted directly from an emergency department. CONCLUSIONS: Overall mortality from MIS-C was low, but the disease burden was high. There was a peak in MIS-C cases during Q1 of 2021, following a shift in viral strains in Q1 of 2021. However, an improvement in MIS-C outcomes starting in Q4 of 2020 suggests that viral strain was not the driving factor for outcomes in this population.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
14.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 111, 2021 Aug 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098394

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic limited hospital resources and necessitated interhospital transport of ICU-patients in order to provide critical care to all patients in the Netherlands. However, not all hospitals have an approved landing site. The ICU-transport operation was executed under HEMS-license and landing on non-aerodrome terrain was permitted. This allowed the search for an ad-hoc landing site in the direct vicinity of the ICU. The following characteristics were judged: slope, obstacles, size, soil conditions and the presence of foreign objects.Before the start of this transport operation, in two days, all hospitals in the Netherlands were visited and presumed landing sites explored, described, photographed and recorded in the electronic flight bag. At 71 (87,6 %) of the hospitals it was possible to install a temporary approved landing site in the direct vicinity of the ICU. 110 landings were made on these landing sites and 114 landings on approved heliports. Only 11 patients required secondary transport to or from the helicopter landings site. This occurred only in two patients from a heliport to a receiving hospital.The construction of pre-explored approved landing sites in the vicinity of hospitals allows safe transportation of patients by helicopter to hospitals without a heliport.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Aircraft , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(10): e223820, 2022 Oct 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094112

Реферат

This Viewpoint describes how the systems for delivering emergency care for Indigenous and rural communities were strained during the COVID-19 pandemic and proposes policy solutions to advance health care equity.


Тема - темы
Health Equity , Health Services, Indigenous , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Health Inequities
16.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(4): 777-789, 2022 12.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095437

Реферат

Specific therapies for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have limited efficacy in the event a patient worsens clinically and requires admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Thus, providing quality supportive care is essential to the overall management of patients with critical COVID-19. Patients with respiratory failure not requiring intubation should be supported with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure, or high flow oxygenation. Use of these respiratory modalities may prevent patients from subsequently requiring intubation. Basic components of supportive care for the critically ill should be applied equally to patients with COVID-19 in the ICU.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Intensive Care Units
18.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276509, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089433

Реферат

OBJECTIVE(S): To use machine learning (ML) to predict short-term requirements for invasive ventilation in patients with COVID-19 admitted to Australian intensive care units (ICUs). DESIGN: A machine learning study within a national ICU COVID-19 registry in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients who were spontaneously breathing and admitted to participating ICUs with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 20 February 2020 to 7 March 2021. Patients intubated on day one of their ICU admission were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six machine learning models predicted the requirement for invasive ventilation by day three of ICU admission from variables recorded on the first calendar day of ICU admission; (1) random forest classifier (RF), (2) decision tree classifier (DT), (3) logistic regression (LR), (4) K neighbours classifier (KNN), (5) support vector machine (SVM), and (6) gradient boosted machine (GBM). Cross-validation was used to assess the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of machine learning models. RESULTS: 300 ICU admissions collected from 53 ICUs across Australia were included. The median [IQR] age of patients was 59 [50-69] years, 109 (36%) were female and 60 (20%) required invasive ventilation on day two or three. Random forest and Gradient boosted machine were the best performing algorithms, achieving mean (SD) AUCs of 0.69 (0.06) and 0.68 (0.07), and mean sensitivities of 77 (19%) and 81 (17%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Machine learning can be used to predict subsequent ventilation in patients with COVID-19 who were spontaneously breathing and admitted to Australian ICUs.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Australia/epidemiology , Machine Learning
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2238871, 2022 Oct 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084948

Реферат

Importance: Data on the association of COVID-19 vaccination with intensive care unit (ICU) admission and outcomes of patients with SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia are scarce. Objective: To evaluate whether COVID-19 vaccination is associated with preventing ICU admission for COVID-19 pneumonia and to compare baseline characteristics and outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients admitted to an ICU. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study on regional data sets reports: (1) daily number of administered vaccines and (2) data of all consecutive patients admitted to an ICU in Lombardy, Italy, from August 1 to December 15, 2021 (Delta variant predominant). Vaccinated patients received either mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) or adenoviral vector vaccines (ChAdOx1-S or Ad26.COV2). Incident rate ratios (IRRs) were computed from August 1, 2021, to January 31, 2022; ICU and baseline characteristics and outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients admitted to an ICU were analyzed from August 1 to December 15, 2021. Exposures: COVID-19 vaccination status (no vaccination, mRNA vaccine, adenoviral vector vaccine). Main Outcomes and Measures: The incidence IRR of ICU admission was evaluated, comparing vaccinated people with unvaccinated, adjusted for age and sex. The baseline characteristics at ICU admission of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were investigated. The association between vaccination status at ICU admission and mortality at ICU and hospital discharge were also studied, adjusting for possible confounders. Results: Among the 10 107 674 inhabitants of Lombardy, Italy, at the time of this study, the median [IQR] age was 48 [28-64] years and 5 154 914 (51.0%) were female. Of the 7 863 417 individuals who were vaccinated (median [IQR] age: 53 [33-68] years; 4 010 343 [51.4%] female), 6 251 417 (79.5%) received an mRNA vaccine, 550 439 (7.0%) received an adenoviral vector vaccine, and 1 061 561 (13.5%) received a mix of vaccines and 4 497 875 (57.2%) were boosted. Compared with unvaccinated people, IRR of individuals who received an mRNA vaccine within 120 days from the last dose was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.03-0.04; P < .001), whereas IRR of individuals who received an adenoviral vector vaccine after 120 days was 0.21 (95% CI, 0.19-0.24; P < .001). There were 553 patients admitted to an ICU for COVID-19 pneumonia during the study period: 139 patients (25.1%) were vaccinated and 414 (74.9%) were unvaccinated. Compared with unvaccinated patients, vaccinated patients were older (median [IQR]: 72 [66-76] vs 60 [51-69] years; P < .001), primarily male individuals (110 patients [79.1%] vs 252 patients [60.9%]; P < .001), with more comorbidities (median [IQR]: 2 [1-3] vs 0 [0-1] comorbidities; P < .001) and had higher ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) and fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) at ICU admission (median [IQR]: 138 [100-180] vs 120 [90-158] mm Hg; P = .007). Factors associated with ICU and hospital mortality were higher age, premorbid heart disease, lower Pao2/FiO2 at ICU admission, and female sex (this factor only for ICU mortality). ICU and hospital mortality were similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, mRNA and adenoviral vector vaccines were associated with significantly lower risk of ICU admission for COVID-19 pneumonia. ICU and hospital mortality were not associated with vaccinated status. These findings suggest a substantial reduction of the risk of developing COVID-19-related severe acute respiratory failure requiring ICU admission among vaccinated people.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , BNT162 Vaccine , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Oxygen
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17423, 2022 Oct 19.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077097

Реферат

Acute brain injuries such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and ischemic stroke have been reported in critically ill COVID-19 patients as well as in patients treated with veno-venous (VV)-ECMO independently of their COVID-19 status. The purpose of this study was to compare critically ill COVID-19 patients with and without VV-ECMO treatment with regard to acute neurological symptoms, pathological neuroimaging findings (PNIF) and long-term deficits. The single center study was conducted in critically ill COVID-19 patients between February 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were extracted from the hospital's databases. Retrospective imaging modalities included head computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Follow-up MRI and neurological examinations were performed on survivors > 6 months after the primary occurrence. Of the 440 patients, 67 patients received VV-ECMO treatment (15%). Sixty-four patients (24 with VV-ECMO) developed acute neurological symptoms (pathological levels of arousal/brain stem function/motor responses) during their ICU stay and underwent neuroimaging with brain CT as the primary modality. Critically ill COVID-19 patients who received VV-ECMO treatment had a significantly lower survival during their hospital stay compared to those without (p < 0.001). Among patients treated with VV-ECMO, 10% showed acute PNIF in one of the imaging modalities during their ICU stay (vs. 4% of patients in the overall COVID-19 ICU cohort). Furthermore, 9% showed primary or secondary ICH of any severity (vs. 3% overall), 6% exhibited severe ICH (vs. 1% overall) and 1.5% were found to have non-hemorrhagic cerebral infarctions (vs. < 1% overall). There was a weak, positive correlation between patients treated with VV-ECMO and the development of acute neurological symptoms. However, the association between the VV-ECMO treatment and acute PNIF was negligible. Two survivors (one with VV-ECMO-treatment/one without) showed innumerable microhemorrhages, predominantly involving the juxtacortical white matter. None of the survivors exhibited diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Every seventh COVID-19 patient developed acute neurological symptoms during their ICU stay, but only every twenty-fifth patient had PNIF which were mostly ICH. VV-ECMO was found to be a weak risk factor for neurological complications (resulting in a higher imaging rate), but not for PNIF. Although logistically complex, repeated neuroimaging should, thus, be considered in all critically ill COVID-19 patients since ICH may have an impact on the treatment decisions and outcomes.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Neuroimaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology
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