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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2216074

Реферат

Solid-waste management is a challenge in many cities, especially in low-income countries, including Uganda. Simple and inexpensive strategies such as solid-waste segregation and recycling have the potential to reduce risks associated with indiscriminate waste management. Unfortunately, these strategies have not been studied and adopted in slums in low-income countries. This cross-sectional qualitative study, therefore, used the behavioral-centered design model to understand the drivers of recycling in Kampala slums. Data were coded using ATLAS ti version 7.0, and content analysis was used for interpreting the findings. Our findings revealed that the study practices were not yet habitual and were driven by the presence of physical space for segregation containers, and functional social networks in the communities. Additionally, financial rewards and awareness related to the recycling benefits, and available community support were found to be critical drivers. The availability of infrastructure and objects for segregation and recycling and the influence of politics and policies were identified. There is, therefore, need for both the public and private sector to engage in developing and implementing the relevant laws and policies on solid waste recycling, increase community awareness of the critical behavior, and create sustainable markets for waste segregated and recycled products.


Тема - темы
Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Poverty Areas , Recycling , Solid Waste/analysis , Uganda
3.
Bipolar Disord ; 24(5): 499-508, 2022 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213502

Реферат

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex and dynamic condition with a typical onset in late adolescence or early adulthood followed by an episodic course with intervening periods of subthreshold symptoms or euthymia. It is complicated by the accumulation of comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders. The etiology of BD remains unknown and no reliable biological markers have yet been identified. This is likely due to lack of comprehensive ontological framework and, most importantly, the fact that most studies have been based on small nonrepresentative clinical samples with cross-sectional designs. We propose to establish large, global longitudinal cohorts of BD studied consistently in a multidimensional and multidisciplinary manner to determine etiology and help improve treatment. Herein we propose collection of a broad range of data that reflect the heterogenic phenotypic manifestations of BD that include dimensional and categorical measures of mood, neurocognitive, personality, behavior, sleep and circadian, life-story, and outcomes domains. In combination with genetic and biological information such an approach promotes the integrating and harmonizing of data within and across current ontology systems while supporting a paradigm shift that will facilitate discovery and become the basis for novel hypotheses.


Тема - темы
Bipolar Disorder , Adolescent , Adult , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Personality
4.
J Palliat Med ; 24(12): 1783-1788, 2021 12.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212685

Реферат

Background: Meeting the needs of people bereaved by COVID-19 poses a substantial challenge to palliative care. The Pandemic Grief Scale (PGS) is a 5-item mental health screener to identify probable cases of dysfunctional grief during the pandemic. Objective: The PGS has strong psychometric and diagnostic features. The objective was to examine the incremental validity of the PGS in identifying mourners at risk of harmful outcomes. Design: A cross-sectional survey design involving sociodemographic questions and self-report measures of pandemic grief, generalized anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, separation distress, functional impairment, meaning-making difficulties, and substance use coping. Setting/Subjects: A sample of people bereaved through COVID-19 (N = 1065) in the United States. Results: Fully 56.6% of participants scored above the cut score of ≥7 on the PGS for clinically dysfunctional pandemic grief and 69.7% coped with their loss using drugs or alcohol for at least several days in past two weeks. PGS scores were not associated with time since loss. Hierarchical multiple regression models demonstrated that the PGS uniquely explained variance in functional impairment, meaning-making difficulties, and substance use coping, over relevant background factors, bereavement-related psychopathology, and separation distress. In the final model, the standardized regression coefficients for the PGS were 2-15 times larger than for the other competing measures in explaining each of the three outcomes. Conclusions: The findings underscore the clinical utility of this short and easy-to-use measure in identifying risk of deleterious outcomes across a range of functional and behavioral domains.


Тема - темы
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Grief , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30204, 2022 07 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202461

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Subjective well-being is an important target in the COVID-19 pandemic. Residential greenness may help cope with stress and hence influence subjective well-being during this mentally and physically challenging time. METHODS: We analysed the association between residential greenness and life satisfaction in 9,444 adults in the COVCO-Basel cohort. We assessed if the association is modified by age, sex, household income, financial worries, canton of residence, or month of study entry. In addition, we assessed if the association is attributed to specific types of greenspace or accessibility to greenspace. RESULTS: The association between residential greenness and life satisfaction varied by age groups, household income, and financial worries. Residential greenness was positively associated with life satisfaction in those with high household income and the least financially worried, and negatively associated with life satisfaction in the youngest age group (18-29 years) and the most financially worried. Living closer to a forest, but not to a park or an agricultural area, was associated with lower life satisfaction in the youngest age group. CONCLUSIONS: Residential greenness effects on life satisfaction vary according to sociodemographic characteristics. Living in a greener area does not benefit all dwellers in Basel and its region equally, with the most apparent benefit for those with high household income and without financial concerns.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Personal Satisfaction , Young Adult
6.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 123-128, 2022 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201754

Реферат

Background & objectives: The safety of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine is a cause of concern for many who have been vaccinated. The people have multiple concerns and fear regarding the adverse events of the vaccine. Thus, this study was undertaken to establish the safety profile of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona Virus Vaccine (Recombinant) among the healthcare professionals. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. After taking clearance from the institutional ethics committee 1500 healthcare professionals, who had their vaccination in the past two weeks were selected. They were provided with an online survey proforma regarding adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) of COVID-19 vaccine developed using google forms with an informed consent form affixed to it. Results: A total of 1036 individuals participated in the study. The mean and median (inter quartile range) age of the participants was 37.7 ±11.25 and 35 (29-46) yr, respectively. Of these, 52.1 per cent were female, 29.3 per cent were doctors, 33.4 per cent were nurses and 9.5 per cent were paramedical staff. Forty six per cent participants experienced one or more minor AEFIs such as pain, tenderness, redness, etc. at the injection site. Fatigue (31.75%), generalized feeling of unwell (28.57%), muscle pain (23.16%) and fever (21.71%) were the most commonly reported systemic AEFIs followed by headache (20.07%), dizziness (10.03%) and joint pains (15.25%). Most of them experienced these AEFIs within 24 h of the first dose of administration. About 42 per cent of the participants took oral antipyretics/analgesics for managing the AEFIs. Interpretation & conclusions: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona Virus Vaccine was found to be associated with mild local and systemic AEFIs that were more common after the first dose as compared to the second dose. There adverse events could be dealt with oral over-the-counter medications, with no requirement of hospitalization.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 925558, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198849

Реферат

Background: metabolic changes through SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported but not fully comprehended. This metabolic dysregulation affects multiple organs during COVID-19 and its early detection can be used as a prognosis marker of severity. Therefore, we aimed to characterize metabolic and cytokine profile at COVID-19 onset and its relationship with disease severity to identify metabolic profiles predicting disease progression. Material and Methods: we performed a retrospective cross-sectional study in 123 COVID-19 patients which were stratified as asymptomatic/mild, moderate and severe according to the highest COVID-19 severity status, and a group of healthy controls. We performed an untargeted plasma metabolic profiling (gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (GC and CE-MS)) and cytokine evaluation. Results: After data filtering and identification we observed 105 metabolites dysregulated (66 GC-MS and 40 CE-MS) which shown different expression patterns for each COVID-19 severity status. These metabolites belonged to different metabolic pathways including amino acid, energy, and nitrogen metabolism among others. Severity-specific metabolic dysregulation was observed, as an increased transformation of L-tryptophan into L-kynurenine. Thus, metabolic profiling at hospital admission differentiate between severe and moderate patients in the later phase of worse evolution. Several plasma pro-inflammatory biomarkers showed significant correlation with deregulated metabolites, specially with L-kynurenine and L-tryptophan. Finally, we describe a strong sex-related dysregulation of metabolites, cytokines and chemokines between severe and moderate patients. In conclusion, metabolic profiling of COVID-19 patients at disease onset is a powerful tool to unravel the SARS-CoV-2 molecular pathogenesis. Conclusions: This technique makes it possible to identify metabolic phenoconversion that predicts disease progression and explains the pronounced pathogenesis differences between sexes.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Kynurenine , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tryptophan/metabolism
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 932563, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198700

Реферат

In Brazil, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic spread rapidly in a heterogeneous way, mainly due to the different socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics of different regional populations and different evaluation periods. We performed a cross-sectional study including 1,337 individuals (first wave = 736/second wave = 601) after the first two waves of COVID-19 in the city of Belém, the capital of the state of Pará. The detection of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test followed by statistical analysis using the RStudio program. Our results showed an increase in the seroprevalence (first wave= 39.1%/second wave= 50.1%) of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibodies in the population of Belém from the first to the second pandemic wave. Advanced age, primary or secondary education level, lack of social isolation, and a low frequency of protective mask use were considered risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave compared to the second wave. This study is one of the firsts to provide important information about the dynamics of virus circulation and the groups vulnerable to exposure in the two major periods. Our data emphasize the socioeconomic characteristics of the affected population and that nonpharmacological prevention measures are crucial for combating the pandemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
J Educ Eval Health Prof ; 19: 28, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198662

Реферат

PURPOSE: Distance learning describes any learning based on the use of new multimedia technologies and the internet to allow students to acquire new knowledge and skills at a distance. This study aimed to deter-mine satisfaction levels with distance learning and associated factors among nursing and health technician students during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Morocco. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2022 among nursing and health technician students using a self-administered instrument. The student satisfaction ques-tionnaire consists of 24 questions categorized into 6 subscales: instructor, technology, course setup, interac-tion, outcomes, and overall satisfaction. It was based on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with student satisfaction during distance learning. RESULTS: A total of 330 students participated in this study, and 176 students (53.3%) were satisfied with the distance learning activities. A mean score higher than 2.8 out of 5 was obtained for all subscales. Multiple regression analysis showed that students' year of study (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.34; 95% CI, 1.28-4.27) and internet quality (aOR=0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.77) were the significant factors associated with students' satisfaction during distance learning. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the satisfaction level of students and factors that influenced it during distance learning. A thorough understanding of student satisfaction with digital environments will contrib-ute to the successfully implementation of distance learning devices in nursing.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Students, Nursing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Morocco , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(2): e30063, 2022 02 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197941

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated the need for urgent improvements in access to health care for rural, remote, and underserviced communities. The Renfrew County Virtual Triage and Assessment Centre (VTAC) was designed to provide access to COVID-19 testing and assessment with a family physician. The goal was to protect emergency departments and 911 paramedics while ensuring that nobody was left at home, suffering in silence. Residents were encouraged to call their own family physician for any urgent health needs. If they did not have a family physician or could not access their usual primary care provider, then they could call VTAC. This study reports on the output of a service model offering access to assessment and COVID-19 testing through a blend of virtual and in-person care options by a multidisciplinary team. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of VTAC to provide access to COVID-19 assessment and testing across rural, remote, and underserviced communities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the data derived from the cases handled by VTAC between March 27, 2020 (launch day), and September 30, 2020. RESULTS: Residents from all 19 census subdivisions and municipalities of Renfrew County accessed VTAC. A total of 10,086 family physician assessments were completed (average 64 per day). Of these, 8535 (84.6%) assessments were to unique patient users. Thirty physicians provided care. Using digital equipment setup in the patients' home, 31 patients were monitored remotely. VTAC community paramedics completed 14,378 COVID-19 tests and 3875 home visits. CONCLUSIONS: Renfrew County's experience suggests that there is tremendous synergy between family physicians and community paramedics in providing access to COVID-19 assessment and COVID-19 testing. The blended model of virtual and in-person care is well suited to provide improved access to other aspects of health care post pandemic, particularly for patients without a family physician.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(12): 989-993, 2022 Dec 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190916

Реферат

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 variations as well as immune protection after previous infections and/or vaccination may have altered the incidence of multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We aimed to report an international time-series analysis of the incidence of MIS-C to determine if there was a shift in the regions or countries included into the study. METHODS: This is a multicenter, international, cross-sectional study. We collected the MIS-C incidence from the participant regions and countries for the period July 2020 to November 2021. We assessed the ratio between MIS-C cases and COVID-19 pediatric cases in children <18 years diagnosed 4 weeks earlier (average time for the temporal association observed in this disease) for the study period. We performed a binomial regression analysis for 8 participating sites [Bogotá (Colombia), Chile, Costa Rica, Lazio (Italy), Mexico DF, Panama, The Netherlands and Catalonia (Spain)]. RESULTS: We included 904 cases of MIS-C, among a reference population of 17,906,432 children. We estimated a global significant decrease trend ratio in MIS-C cases/COVID-19 diagnosed cases in the previous month ( P < 0.001). When analyzing separately each of the sites, Chile and The Netherlands maintained a significant decrease trend ( P < 0.001), but this ratio was not statistically significant for the rest of sites. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first international study describing a global reduction in the trend of the MIS-C incidence during the pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination and other factors possibly linked to the virus itself and/or community transmission may have played a role in preventing new MIS-C cases.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Child , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Incidence , COVID-19 Vaccines , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
12.
Oncologist ; 27(6): 512-515, 2022 06 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190095

Реферат

Our objective was to assess gynecologic cancer survivor preferences for telehealth cancer care. Gynecologic cancer survivors participating in a prospective cohort study were invited to complete a cross-sectional survey regarding their experience with and preferences for telehealth. Of 188 participants, 48.9% had undergone a telehealth visit since March 2020, and 53.7% reported a preference for exclusively in-person visits for their cancer care and surveillance. Furthermore, 80.5% of participants were satisfied with the telehealth care they received and 54.8% would recommend telehealth services to patients with similar conditions. Most participants thought a physical examination was critical to detecting recurrence, and concern that their provider may miss something during telehealth visits was greater among those who preferred in-person visits. With many gynecologic cancer survivors preferring in-person care, building a future care model that includes telehealth elements will require adaptations, careful evaluation of patient concerns, as well as patient education on telehealth.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Genital Neoplasms, Female , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/epidemiology , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , Prospective Studies , Survivors
13.
J Emerg Nurs ; 48(5): 559-570, 2022 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180443

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has created numerous challenges for the health system. Nurses and medical emergency personnel are at the forefront of fighting COVID-19 and exposed to psychological disorders such as death anxiety and death obsession. Humor is a defense and coping mechanism against the anxiety and obsession associated with death. This study aimed to compare death anxiety, death obsession, and humor among nurses and medical emergency personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 230 nurses and medical emergency personnel. To collect data, the Templer death anxiety scale, death obsession scale, and humor styles questionnaire were used. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. The significance level was considered at P < .05. RESULTS: Mean and standard deviation of death anxiety in the nurses and medical emergency personnel were 6.86 (4.04) and 5.68 (3.57), respectively; these values for death obsession were 29.82 (12.30) and 25.30 (12.66) and for humor 116.75 (30.87) and 118.48 (24.66), respectively. The nurses had significantly higher death anxiety (t = 2.33, P = .02) and death obsession (t = -2.68, P = .008) than the medical emergency personnel; moreover, there was no significant relationship among humor, death anxiety (r = .11, P = .10), and death obsession (r = .07, P = .31) in nurses and emergency personnel. DISCUSSION: The results of this study showed that the levels of death anxiety and death obsession were higher in the nurses than the medical emergency personnel. There was no significant difference between the hospital nurses and medical emergency personnel in terms of humor.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Obsessive Behavior , Pandemics
14.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(12): e33617, 2021 12 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197999

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 (the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus) pandemic has underscored the need for additional data, tools, and methods that can be used to combat emerging and existing public health concerns. Since March 2020, there has been substantial interest in using social media data to both understand and intervene in the pandemic. Researchers from many disciplines have recently found a relationship between COVID-19 and a new data set from Facebook called the Social Connectedness Index (SCI). OBJECTIVE: Building off this work, we seek to use the SCI to examine how social similarity of Missouri counties could explain similarities of COVID-19 cases over time. Additionally, we aim to add to the body of literature on the utility of the SCI by using a novel modeling technique. METHODS: In September 2020, we conducted this cross-sectional study using publicly available data to test the association between the SCI and COVID-19 spread in Missouri using exponential random graph models, which model relational data, and the outcome variable must be binary, representing the presence or absence of a relationship. In our model, this was the presence or absence of a highly correlated COVID-19 case count trajectory between two given counties in Missouri. Covariates included each county's total population, percent rurality, and distance between each county pair. RESULTS: We found that all covariates were significantly associated with two counties having highly correlated COVID-19 case count trajectories. As the log of a county's total population increased, the odds of two counties having highly correlated COVID-19 case count trajectories increased by 66% (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% CI 1.43-1.92). As the percent of a county classified as rural increased, the odds of two counties having highly correlated COVID-19 case count trajectories increased by 1% (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.01). As the distance (in miles) between two counties increased, the odds of two counties having highly correlated COVID-19 case count trajectories decreased by 43% (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.77). Lastly, as the log of the SCI between two Missouri counties increased, the odds of those two counties having highly correlated COVID-19 case count trajectories significantly increased by 17% (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.26). CONCLUSIONS: These results could suggest that two counties with a greater likelihood of sharing Facebook friendships means residents of those counties have a higher likelihood of sharing similar belief systems, in particular as they relate to COVID-19 and public health practices. Another possibility is that the SCI is picking up travel or movement data among county residents. This suggests the SCI is capturing a unique phenomenon relevant to COVID-19 and that it may be worth adding to other COVID-19 models. Additional research is needed to better understand what the SCI is capturing practically and what it means for public health policies and prevention practices.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Social Media , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(11): e33022, 2021 11 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197989

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy alcohol use (UAU) is known to disrupt pulmonary immune mechanisms and increase the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with pneumonia; however, little is known about the effects of UAU on outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. To our knowledge, this is the first observational cross-sectional study that aims to understand the effect of UAU on the severity of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine if UAU is associated with more severe clinical presentation and worse health outcomes related to COVID-19 and if socioeconomic status, smoking, age, BMI, race/ethnicity, and pattern of alcohol use modify the risk. METHODS: In this observational cross-sectional study that took place between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020, we ran a digital machine learning classifier on the electronic health record of patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 via nasopharyngeal swab or had two COVID-19 International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes to identify patients with UAU. After controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, BMI, smoking status, insurance status, and presence of ICD-10 codes for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, we then performed a multivariable regression to examine the relationship between UAU and COVID-19 severity as measured by hospital care level (ie, emergency department admission, emergency department admission with ventilator, or death). We used a predefined cutoff with optimal sensitivity and specificity on the digital classifier to compare disease severity in patients with and without UAU. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, smoking status, and insurance status. RESULTS: Each incremental increase in the predicted probability from the digital alcohol classifier was associated with a greater odds risk for more severe COVID-19 disease (odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20). We found that patients in the unhealthy alcohol group had a greater odds risk to develop more severe disease (odds ratio 1.89, 95% CI 1.17-3.06), suggesting that UAU was associated with an 89% increase in the odds of being in a higher severity category. CONCLUSIONS: In patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, UAU is an independent risk factor associated with greater disease severity and/or death.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(2): e32680, 2022 02 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197981

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The US public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic has required contact tracing and symptom monitoring at an unprecedented scale. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several partners created the Text Illness Monitoring (TIM) platform in 2015 to assist US public health jurisdictions with symptom monitoring for potential novel influenza virus outbreaks. Since May 2020, 142 federal, state, and local public health agencies have deployed TIM for COVID-19 symptom monitoring. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility, benefits, and challenges of TIM to help guide decision-making for improvements and expansion to support future public health emergency response efforts. METHODS: We conducted a brief online survey of previous and current TIM administrative users (admin users) from November 28 through December 21, 2020. Closed- and open-ended questions inquired about the onboarding process, decision to use TIM, groups monitored with TIM, comparison of TIM to other symptom monitoring systems, technical challenges and satisfaction with TIM, and user support. A total of 1479 admin users were invited to participate. RESULTS: A total of 97 admin users from 43 agencies responded to the survey. Most admin users represented the Indian Health Service (35/97, 36%), state health departments (26/97, 27%), and local or county health departments (18/97, 19%), and almost all were current users of TIM (85/94, 90%). Among the 43 agencies represented, 11 (26%) used TIM for monitoring staff exclusively, 13 (30%) monitored community members exclusively, and 19 (44%) monitored both staff and community members. Agencies most frequently used TIM to monitor symptom development in contacts of cases among community members (28/43, 65%), followed by symptom development among staff (27/43, 63%) and among staff contacts of cases (24/43, 56%). Agencies also reported using TIM to monitor patients with COVID-19 for the worsening of symptoms among staff (21/43, 49%) and community members (18/43, 42%). When asked to compare TIM to previous monitoring systems, 78% (40/51) of respondents rated TIM more favorably than their previous monitoring system, 20% (10/51) said there was no difference, and 2% (1/51) rated the previous monitoring system more favorably than TIM. Most respondents found TIM favorable in terms of time burden, staff burden, timeliness of the data, and the ability to monitor large population sizes. TIM compared negatively to other systems in terms of effort to enroll participants (ie, persons TIM monitors) and accuracy of the data. Most respondents (76/85, 89%) reported that they would highly or somewhat recommend TIM to others for symptom monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation of TIM showed that agencies used TIM for a variety of purposes and rated TIM favorably compared to previously used monitoring systems. We also identified opportunities to improve TIM; for example, enhancing the flexibility of alert deliveries would better meet admin users' varying needs. We also suggest continuous program evaluation practices to assess and respond to implementation gaps.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e23976, 2021 06 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197875

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The diverse Asian American population has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but due to limited data and other factors, disparities experienced by this population are hidden. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the Asian American community's experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, California, and to better inform a Federally Qualified Health Center's (FQHC) health care services and response to challenges faced by the community. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey between May 20 and June 23, 2020, using a multipronged recruitment approach, including word-of-mouth, FQHC patient appointments, and social media posts. The survey was self-administered online or administered over the phone by FQHC staff in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, and Vietnamese. Survey question topics included COVID-19 testing and preventative behaviors, economic impacts of COVID-19, experience with perceived mistreatment due to their race/ethnicity, and mental health challenges. RESULTS: Among 1297 Asian American respondents, only 3.1% (39/1273) had previously been tested for COVID-19, and 46.6% (392/841) stated that they could not find a place to get tested. In addition, about two-thirds of respondents (477/707) reported feeling stressed, and 22.6% (160/707) reported feeling depressed. Furthermore, 5.6% (72/1275) of respondents reported being treated unfairly because of their race/ethnicity. Among respondents who experienced economic impacts from COVID-19, 32.2% (246/763) had lost their regular jobs and 22.5% (172/763) had reduced hours or reduced income. Additionally, 70.1% (890/1269) of respondents shared that they avoid leaving their home to go to public places (eg, grocery stores, church, and school). CONCLUSIONS: We found that Asian Americans had lower levels of COVID-19 testing and limited access to testing, a high prevalence of mental health issues and economic impacts, and a high prevalence of risk-avoidant behaviors (eg, not leaving the house) in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings provide preliminary insights into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Asian American communities served by an FQHC and underscore the longstanding need for culturally and linguistically appropriate approaches to providing mental health, outreach, and education services. These findings led to the establishment of the first Asian multilingual and multicultural COVID-19 testing sites in the local area where the study was conducted, and laid the groundwork for subsequent COVID-19 programs, specifically contact tracing and vaccination programs.


Тема - темы
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Mental Disorders/ethnology , Pandemics , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , San Francisco/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e21606, 2021 03 18.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197869

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the impact of social distancing on COVID-19 mortality in the United States have predominantly examined this relationship at the national level and have not separated COVID-19 deaths in nursing homes from total COVID-19 deaths. This approach may obscure differences in social distancing behaviors by county in addition to the actual effectiveness of social distancing in preventing COVID-19 deaths. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the influence of county-level social distancing behavior on COVID-19 mortality (deaths per 100,000 people) across US counties over the period of the implementation of stay-at-home orders in most US states (March-May 2020). METHODS: Using social distancing data from tracked mobile phones in all US counties, we estimated the relationship between social distancing (average proportion of mobile phone usage outside of home between March and May 2020) and COVID-19 mortality (when the state in which the county is located reported its first confirmed case of COVID-19 and up to May 31, 2020) with a mixed-effects negative binomial model while distinguishing COVID-19 deaths in nursing homes from total COVID-19 deaths and accounting for social distancing- and COVID-19-related factors (including the period between the report of the first confirmed case of COVID-19 and May 31, 2020; population density; social vulnerability; and hospital resource availability). Results from the mixed-effects negative binomial model were then used to generate marginal effects at the mean, which helped separate the influence of social distancing on COVID-19 deaths from other covariates while calculating COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 people. RESULTS: We observed that a 1% increase in average mobile phone usage outside of home between March and May 2020 led to a significant increase in COVID-19 mortality by a factor of 1.18 (P<.001), while every 1% increase in the average proportion of mobile phone usage outside of home in February 2020 was found to significantly decrease COVID-19 mortality by a factor of 0.90 (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: As stay-at-home orders have been lifted in many US states, continued adherence to other social distancing measures, such as avoiding large gatherings and maintaining physical distance in public, are key to preventing additional COVID-19 deaths in counties across the country.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Models, Statistical , United States/epidemiology
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27533, 2021 Oct 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191084

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ABSTRACT: Understanding the relationship between pain and physical activity (PA) levels is beneficial for maintaining good health status. However, the impact of pain on changes in PA during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether PA levels pre-, during, and post-COVID-19 state of emergency differ between Japanese adults who had pain after the COVID-19 state of emergency and those who did not.Data were collected from a cross-sectional online survey conducted between October 19 and 28, 2020. The analytic sample consisted of 1967 Japanese adults aged ≥40 years who completed the online survey. Participants completed questionnaires on the presence of pain and duration of PA, defined as the total PA time per week based on activity frequency and time. Participants were asked to report their PA at 3 time points: October 2019 (before the COVID-19 pandemic), April 2020 (during the COVID-19 state of emergency), and October 2020 (after the COVID-19 state of emergency).Among participants aged ≥60 years who reported pain in October 2020, the total PA time was significantly lower than participants who did not report having pain. Furthermore, the total PA time in April 2020 was significantly lower than that in October 2019; however, no significant difference in total PA time was observed between April and October 2020. Among participants aged 40 to 59 years, no significant differences were observed in total PA times at the 3 time points between those with and without pain. In addition, the total PA time in October 2020 significantly increased compared to that in April 2020, although it significantly decreased in April 2020 compared to October 2019.This study suggests that older adults with pain have lower PA levels after the COVID-19 state of emergency.


Тема - темы
Exercise , Pain/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27423, 2021 Oct 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191078

Реферат

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted almost all sectors of academic training and research, but the impact on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research mentoring has yet to be documented. We present the perspectives of diverse, experienced mentors in a range of HIV research disciplines on the impact of COVID-19 on mentoring the next generation of HIV researchers.In November to December, 2020, we used an online data collection platform to cross-sectionally query previously-trained HIV mentors on the challenges related to mentoring during the pandemic, surprising/positive aspects of mentoring in that context, and recommendations for other mentors. Data were coded and analyzed following a thematic analysis approach.Respondents (180 of 225 mentors invited [80% response]) reported challenges related to relationship building/maintenance, disruptions in mentees' training and research progress, and mentee and mentor distress, with particular concerns regarding mentees who are parents or from underrepresented minority backgrounds. Positive/surprising aspects included logistical ease of remote mentoring, the relationship-edifying result of the shared pandemic experience, mentee resilience and gratitude, and increased enjoyment of mentoring. Recommendations included practical tips, encouragement for patience and persistence, and prioritizing supporting mentees' and one's own mental well-being.Findings revealed gaps in HIV mentors' competencies, including the effective use of remote mentoring tools, how to work with mentees in times of distress, and the prioritization of mentor well-being. Mentors are in a unique position to identify and potentially address factors that may lead to mentees leaving their fields, especially parents and those from underrepresented backgrounds. We discuss implications beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Mentoring/organization & administration , Research Personnel/education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Distance , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Professional Competence , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
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