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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 945583, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154720

Реферат

Severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is accompanied by acute respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary pathology, and is presented mostly with an inflammatory cytokine release, a dysregulated immune response, a skewed neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and a hypercoagulable state. Though vaccinations have proved effective in reducing the COVID-19-related mortality, the limitation of the use of vaccine against immunocompromised individuals, those with comorbidity, and emerging variants remains a concern. In the current study, we investigate for the first time the efficacy of the Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG) extract, a potent immunomodulator, against SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters. Prophylactic treatment with GG showed protection against loss in body weight and a 35%-40% decrease in lung viral load along with reduced lung pathology in the hamster model. Remarkably, GG reduced the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In vitro, GG acted as a potent immunomodulator by reducing Th2 and Th17 differentiation and IL-4 and IL-17A cytokine production. In addition, GG also showed robust potential to suppress ROS, mtROS, and NET generation in a concentration-dependent manner in both human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and murine bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDNs). Taken together, we provide evidence for the protective efficacy of GG against COVID-19 and its putative mechanistic insight through its immunomodulatory properties. Our study provides the proof of concept for GG efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 using a hamster model and opens the path for further studies aimed at identifying the active ingredients of GG and its efficacy in COVID-19 clinical cases.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Glycyrrhiza , Animals , Cricetinae , Cytokines/metabolism , Glycyrrhiza/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Mice , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , RNA, Messenger , Reactive Oxygen Species , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 922422, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154675

Реферат

The duration and severity of COVID-19 are related to age, comorbidities, and cytokine synthesis. This study evaluated the impact of these factors on patients with clinical presentations of COVID-19 in a Brazilian cohort. A total of 317 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included; cases were distributed according to clinical status as severe (n=91), moderate (n=56) and mild (n=170). Of these patients, 92 had acute COVID-19 at sample collection, 90 had already recovered from COVID-19 without sequelae, and 135 had sequelae (long COVID syndrome). In the acute COVID-19 group, patients with the severe form had higher IL-6 levels (p=0.0260). In the post-COVID-19 group, there was no significant difference in cytokine levels between groups with different clinical conditions. In the acute COVID-19 group, younger patients had higher levels of TNF-α, and patients without comorbidities had higher levels of TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-2 (p<0.05). In contrast, patients over age 60 with comorbidities had higher levels of IL-6. In the post-COVID-19 group, subjects with long COVID-19 had higher levels of IL-17 and IL-2 (p<0.05), and subjects without sequelae had higher levels of IL-10, IL-6 and IL- 4 (p<0.05). Our results suggest that advanced age, comorbidities and elevated serum IL-6 levels are associated with severe COVID-19 and are good markers to differentiate severe from mild cases. Furthermore, high serum levels of IL-17 and IL-2 and low levels of IL-4 and IL-10 appear to constitute a cytokine profile of long COVID-19, and these markers are potential targets for COVID-19 treatment and prevention strategies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(10): e1010479, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154303

Реферат

Exacerbated and persistent innate immune response marked by pro-inflammatory cytokine expression is thought to be a major driver of chronic COVID-19 pathology. Although macrophages are not the primary target cells of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, viral RNA and antigens in activated monocytes and macrophages have been detected in post-mortem samples, and dysfunctional monocytes and macrophages have been hypothesized to contribute to a protracted hyper-inflammatory state in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we demonstrate that CD169, a myeloid cell specific I-type lectin, facilitated ACE2-independent SARS-CoV-2 fusion and entry in macrophages. CD169-mediated SARS-CoV-2 entry in macrophages resulted in expression of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs with minimal viral protein expression and no infectious viral particle release, suggesting a post-entry restriction of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle. Intriguingly this post-entry replication block was alleviated by exogenous ACE2 expression in macrophages. Restricted expression of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA in CD169+ macrophages elicited a pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1ß) in a RIG-I, MDA-5 and MAVS-dependent manner, which was suppressed by remdesivir treatment. These findings suggest that de novo expression of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in macrophages contributes to the pro-inflammatory cytokine signature and that blocking CD169-mediated ACE2 independent infection and subsequent activation of macrophages by viral RNA might alleviate COVID-19-associated hyperinflammatory response.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1028613, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142034

Реферат

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a variety of physiological responses in the lung, and understanding how the expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and its proteolytic activator, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), are affected in patients with underlying disease such as interstitial pneumonia will be important in considering COVID-19 progression. We examined the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in an induced usual interstitial pneumonia (iUIP) mouse model and patients with IPF as well as the changes in whole-lung ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression under physiological conditions caused by viral infection. Histopathological and biochemical characteristics were analyzed using human specimens from patients with IPF and precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) from iUIP mouse model showing UIP with honeycombing and severe fibrosis after non-specific interstitial pneumonia. ACE2 expression decreased with acute lung inflammation and increased in the abnormal lung epithelium of the iUIP mouse model. ACE2 is also expressed in metaplastic epithelial cells. Poly(I:C), interferons, and cytokines associated with fibrosis decreased ACE2 expression in PCLS in the iUIP model. Hypoxia also decreases ACE2 via HIF1α in PCLS. Antifibrotic agent, nintedanib attenuates ACE2 expression in invasive epithelial cells. Patients with IPF are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to the high expression of ACE2. However, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression is decreased by immune intermediaries, including interferons and cytokines that are associated with viral infection and upon administration of antifibrotic agents, suggesting that most of the viral infection-induced pathophysiological responses aid the development of resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung Diseases , Humans , Mice , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Cytokines , Interferons , Fibrosis
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 975848, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142004

Реферат

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly worldwide, resulting in a pandemic with a high mortality rate. In clinical practice, we have noted that many critically ill or critically ill patients with COVID-19 present with typical sepsis-related clinical manifestations, including multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, coagulopathy, and septic shock. In addition, it has been demonstrated that severe COVID-19 has some pathological similarities with sepsis, such as cytokine storm, hypercoagulable state after blood balance is disrupted and neutrophil dysfunction. Considering the parallels between COVID-19 and non-SARS-CoV-2 induced sepsis (hereafter referred to as sepsis), the aim of this study was to analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms between these two diseases by bioinformatics and a systems biology approach, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the development of new treatments. Specifically, the gene expression profiles of COVID-19 and sepsis patients were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and compared to extract common differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Subsequently, common DEGs were used to investigate the genetic links between COVID-19 and sepsis. Based on enrichment analysis of common DEGs, many pathways closely related to inflammatory response were observed, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. In addition, protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulatory networks of common DEGs were constructed, and the analysis results showed that ITGAM may be a potential key biomarker base on regulatory analysis. Furthermore, a disease diagnostic model and risk prediction nomogram for COVID-19 were constructed using machine learning methods. Finally, potential therapeutic agents, including progesterone and emetine, were screened through drug-protein interaction networks and molecular docking simulations. We hope to provide new strategies for future research and treatment related to COVID-19 by elucidating the pathogenesis and genetic mechanisms between COVID-19 and sepsis.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Biomarkers , Computational Biology/methods , Critical Illness , Cytokines/genetics , Emetine , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B/genetics , Progesterone , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/metabolism
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 929837, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141948

Реферат

Background: Because the major event in COVID-19 is the release of pre- and inflammatory cytokines, finding a reliable therapeutic strategy to inhibit this release, help patients manage organ damage and avoid ICU admission or severe disease progression is of paramount importance. Photobiomodulation (PBM), based on numerous studies, may help in this regard, and the present study sought to evaluate the effects of said technology on cytokine reduction. Methods: This study was conducted in the 2nd half of 2021. The current study included 52 mild-to-moderately ill COVID-19, hospitalized patients. They were divided in two groups: a Placebo group and a PBM group, treated with PBM (620-635 nm light via 8 LEDs that provide an energy density of 45.40 J/cm2 and a power density of 0.12 W/cm2), twice daily for three days, along with classical approved treatment. 28 patients were in Placebo group and 24 in PBM group. In both groups, blood samples were taken four times in three days and serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α levels were determined. Results: During the study period, in PBM group, there was a significant decrease in serum levels of IL-6 (-82.5% +/- 4, P<0.001), IL-8 (-54.4% ± 8, P<0.001), and TNF-α (-82.4% ± 8, P<0.001), although we did not detect a significant change in IL-10 during the study. The IL-6/IL-10 Ratio also improved in PBM group. The Placebo group showed no decrease or even an increase in these parameters. There were no reported complications or sequelae due to PBM therapy throughout the study. Conclusion: The major cytokines in COVID-19 pathophysiology, including IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, responded positively to PBM therapy and opened a new window for inhibiting and managing a cytokine storm within only 3-10 days.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Pilot Projects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 859926, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141828

Реферат

Efficient protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been achieved by immunization with mRNA-based vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, efficient immune responses against this novel virus by vaccination are accompanied by a wide variety of side effects. Indeed, flares or new-onset of autoimmune disorders have been reported soon after the COVID-19 vaccination. Although pro-inflammatory cytokine responses play pathogenic roles in the development of autoimmunity, cytokines charactering COVID-19 vaccination-related autoimmune responses have been poorly understood. Given that mRNA derived from COVID-19 vaccine is a potent inducer for pro-inflammatory cytokine responses, these cytokines might mediate autoimmune responses after COVID-19 vaccination. Here we report a case with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) following COVID-19 vaccination. Serum concentrations not only of arthrogenic cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), but also of type I interferon (IFN) were elevated at the active phase in this case. Induction of remission by methotrexate and tocilizumab was accompanied by a marked reduction in serum concentrations of type I IFN, IL-6, and TNF-α. These results suggest that production of type I IFN, IL-6, and TNF-α induced by COVID-19 vaccination might be involved in this case with new-onset RA.


Тема - темы
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cytokines/therapeutic use , Humans , Interleukin-6 , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccination/adverse effects
8.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 134, 2022 Nov 29.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139391

Реферат

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 manifests with a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes, ranging from asymptomatic and mild to severe and critical. Severe and critical COVID-19 patients are characterized by marked changes in the myeloid compartment, especially monocytes. However, little is known about the epigenetic alterations that occur in these cells during hyperinflammatory responses in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this study, we obtained the DNA methylome and transcriptome of peripheral blood monocytes from severe COVID-19 patients. DNA samples extracted from CD14 + CD15- monocytes of 48 severe COVID-19 patients and 11 healthy controls were hybridized on MethylationEPIC BeadChip arrays. In parallel, single-cell transcriptomics of 10 severe COVID-19 patients were generated. CellPhoneDB was used to infer changes in the crosstalk between monocytes and other immune cell types. RESULTS: We observed DNA methylation changes in CpG sites associated with interferon-related genes and genes associated with antigen presentation, concordant with gene expression changes. These changes significantly overlapped with those occurring in bacterial sepsis, although specific DNA methylation alterations in genes specific to viral infection were also identified. We also found these alterations to comprise some of the DNA methylation changes occurring during myeloid differentiation and under the influence of inflammatory cytokines. A progression of DNA methylation alterations in relation to the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was found to be related to interferon-related genes and T-helper 1 cell cytokine production. CellPhoneDB analysis of the single-cell transcriptomes of other immune cell types suggested the existence of altered crosstalk between monocytes and other cell types like NK cells and regulatory T cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings show the occurrence of an epigenetic and transcriptional reprogramming of peripheral blood monocytes, which could be associated with the release of aberrant immature monocytes, increased systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and changes in immune cell crosstalk in these patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Monocytes , Humans , Transcriptome , Cytokines , COVID-19/genetics , Interferons , Antiviral Agents , Epigenesis, Genetic
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19842, 2022 Nov 18.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133613

Реферат

COVID-19 is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The infected lung epithelial cells secrete a group of chemokines and cytokines, which triggers harmful cytokine storms and hyper-thrombotic responses. Recent studies have proposed that viral-induced senescence is responsible for cytokine release and inflammation in COVID-19 patients. However, it is unknown whether cellular senescence is commonly triggered after viral infection and how inflammation and thrombosis, hyper-activated in these patients, are functionally connected. To address these questions, we conducted a bioinformatics-based meta-analysis using single-cell and bulk RNA sequencing datasets obtained from human patient studies, animal models, and cell lines infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. We found that the senescence phenotype is robustly upregulated in most SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, especially in the infected lung epithelial cells. Notably, the upregulation of Tissue factor (F3), a key initiator of the extrinsic blood coagulation pathway, occurs concurrently with the upregulation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors. Furthermore, F3 levels are positively correlated with the senescence and hyper-coagulation gene signatures in COVID-19 patients. Together, these data demonstrate the prevalence of senescence in respiratory viral infection and suggest F3 as a critical link between inflammation, thrombosis, and senescence in these disease states.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Animals , Thromboplastin/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammation , Cytokines/metabolism
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19443, 2022 Nov 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119409

Реферат

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infect the small intestine and cause swine enteric coronavirus disease. The mucosal innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infection. The modulatory effect of PDCoV and PEDV coinfection on antiviral signaling cascades of the intestinal mucosa has not been reported. Here, we investigate the gene expression levels of pattern recognition receptors, downstream inflammatory signaling pathway molecules, and associated cytokines on the intestinal mucosa of neonatal piglets either infected with a single- or co-infected with PDCoV and PEDV using real-time PCR. The results demonstrate that single-PEDV regulates the noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway through RIG-I regulation. In contrast, single-PDCoV and PDCoV/PEDV coinfection regulate proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines through TRAF6-mediated canonical NF-κB and IRF7 signaling pathways through TLRs. Although PDCoV/PEDV coinfection demonstrated an earlier modulatory effect in these signaling pathways, the regulation of proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines was observed simultaneously during single viral infection. These results suggested that PDCoV/PEDV coinfection may have synergistic effects that lead to enhanced viral evasion of the mucosal innate immune response.


Тема - темы
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , NF-kappa B , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/genetics , Signal Transduction , Cytokines , Diarrhea
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 377, 2022 Nov 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119328

Реферат

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection generally gives rise to asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 in vaccinated people. The immune cells can be reprogrammed or "imprinted" by vaccination and infections to generate protective immunity against subsequent challenges. Considering the immune imprint in Omicron infection is unclear, here we delineate the innate immune landscape of human Omicron infection via single-cell RNA sequencing, surface proteome profiling, and plasma cytokine quantification. We found that monocyte responses predominated in immune imprints of Omicron convalescents, with IL-1ß-associated and interferon (IFN)-responsive signatures with mild and moderate symptoms, respectively. Low-density neutrophils increased and exhibited IL-1ß-associated and IFN-responsive signatures similarly. Mild convalescents had increased blood IL-1ß, CCL4, IL-9 levels and PI3+ neutrophils, indicating a bias to IL-1ß responsiveness, while moderate convalescents had increased blood CXCL10 and IFN-responsive monocytes, suggesting durative IFN responses. Therefore, IL-1ß- or IFN-responsiveness of myeloid cells may indicate the disease severity of Omicron infection and mediate post-COVID conditions.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines , Immunity, Innate/genetics
12.
Immunobiology ; 227(6): 152301, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119151

Реферат

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has recently emerged as a respiratory infection with a significant impact on health and society. The pathogenesis is primarily attributed to a dysregulation of cytokines, especially those with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Interleukin-38 (IL-38) is a recently identified anti-inflammatory cytokine with a proposed involvement in mediating COVID-19 pathogenesis, while the association between IL38 gene variants and disease susceptibility has not been explored. Therefore, a pilot study was designed to evaluate the association of three gene variants in the promoter region of IL38 gene (rs7599662 T/A/C/G, rs28992497 T/C and rs28992498 C/A/T) with COVID-19 risk. DNA sequencing was performed to identify these variants. The study included 148 Iraqi patients with COVID-19 and 113 healthy controls (HC). Only rs7599662 showed a significant negative association with susceptibility to COVID-19. The mutant T allele was presented at a significantly lower frequency in patients compared to HC. Analysis of recessive, dominant and codominant models demonstrated that rs7599662 TT genotype frequency was significantly lower in patients than in HC. In terms of haplotypes (in order: rs7599662, rs28992497 and rs28992498), frequency of CTC haplotype was significantly increased in patients compared to HC, while TTC haplotype showed significantly lower frequency in patients. The three SNPs influenced serum IL-38 levels and homozygous genotypes of mutant alleles were associated with elevated levels. In conclusion, this study indicated that IL38 gene in terms of promoter variants and haplotypes may have important implications for COVID-19 risk.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype , Pilot Projects , Iraq , Case-Control Studies , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Haplotypes , Cytokines/genetics , Interleukins/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Gene Frequency
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19658, 2022 Nov 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117683

Реферат

Severe/critical COVID-19 is associated with immune dysregulation and plasmatic SARS-CoV-2 detection (i.e. RNAemia). We detailed the association of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia with immune responses in COVID-19 patients at the end of the first week of disease. We enrolled patients hospitalized in acute phase of ascertained SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, and evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, plasmatic cytokines, activated/pro-cytolytic T-cells phenotypes, SARS-CoV-2-specific cytokine-producing T-cells (IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-17A), simultaneous Th1-cytokines production (polyfunctionality) and amount (iMFI). The humoral responses were assessed with anti-S1/S2 IgG, anti-RBD total-Ig, IgM, IgA, IgG1 and IgG3, neutralization and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Out of 54 patients, 27 had detectable viremia (viremic). Albeit comparable age and co-morbidities, viremic more frequently required ventilatory support, with a trend to higher death. Viremic displayed higher pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, IL-6), lower activated T-cells (HLA-DR+CD38+), lower functional SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells (IFN-γ+CD4+, TNF-α+CD8+, IL-4+CD8+, IL-2+TNF-α+CD4+, and IL-2+TNF-α+CD4+ iMFI) and SARS-CoV-2-specific Abs (anti-S IgG, anti-RBD total-Ig, IgM, IgG1, IgG3; ID50, %ADCC). These data suggest a link between SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia at the end of the first stage of disease and immune dysregulation. Whether high ab initium viral burden and/or intrinsic host factors contribute to immune dysregulation in severe COVID-19 remains to be elucidated, to further inform strategies of targeted therapeutic interventions.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-4 , Immunologic Memory , Cytokines , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116106

Реферат

This study is a successor of our previous work concerning changes in the chemokine profile in infection that are associated with different SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants. The goal of our study was to take into account both the virus and the host immune system by assessing concentrations of cytokines in patients infected with different SARS-CoV-2 variants (ancestral Wuhan strain, Alpha, Delta and Omicron). Our study was performed on 340 biological samples taken from COVID-19 patients and healthy donors in the timespan between May 2020 and April 2022. We performed genotyping of the virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, which was followed by assessment of cytokines' concentration in blood plasma. We noted that out of nearly 30 cytokines, only four showed stable elevation independently of the variant (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and IL-27), and we believe them to be 'constant' markers for COVID-19 infection. Cytokines that were studied as potential biomarkers lose their diagnostic value as the virus evolves, and the specter of potential targets for predictive models is narrowing. So far, only four cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and IL-27) showed a consistent rise in concentrations independently of the genetic variant of the virus. Although we believe our findings to be of scientific interest, we still consider them inconclusive; further investigation and comparison of immune responses to different variants of SARS-CoV-2 is required.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Interleukin-27 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Interleukin-18/genetics , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-6 , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/genetics
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 968981, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114656

Реферат

Background: The systemic inflammatory response post-SARS-CoV-2 infection increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production, multi-organ damage, and mortality rates. Mast cells (MC) modulate thrombo-inflammatory disease progression (e.g., deep vein thrombosis) and the inflammatory response post-infection. Objective: To enhance our understanding of the contribution of MC and their proteases in SARS-CoV-2 infection and the pathogenesis of the disease, which might help to identify novel therapeutic targets. Methods: MC proteases chymase (CMA1), carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3), and tryptase beta 2 (TPSB2), as well as cytokine levels, were measured in the serum of 60 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (30 moderate and 30 severe; severity of the disease assessed by chest CT) and 17 healthy controls by ELISA. MC number and degranulation were quantified by immunofluorescent staining for tryptase in lung autopsies of patients deceased from either SARS-CoV-2 infection or unrelated reasons (control). Immortalized human FcεR1+c-Kit+ LUVA MC were infected with SARS-CoV-2, or treated with its viral proteins, to assess direct MC activation by flow cytometry. Results: The levels of all three proteases were increased in the serum of patients with COVID-19, and strongly correlated with clinical severity. The density of degranulated MC in COVID-19 lung autopsies was increased compared to control lungs. The total number of released granules and the number of granules per each MC were elevated and positively correlated with von Willebrand factor levels in the lung. SARS-CoV-2 or its viral proteins spike and nucleocapsid did not induce activation or degranulation of LUVA MC in vitro. Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 is strongly associated with activation of MC, which likely occurs indirectly, driven by the inflammatory response. The results suggest that plasma MC protease levels could predict the disease course, and that severe COVID-19 patients might benefit from including MC-stabilizing drugs in the treatment scheme.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Carboxypeptidases , Chymases/metabolism , Cytokines , Humans , Mast Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Tryptases/metabolism , Viral Proteins , von Willebrand Factor
16.
Iran J Immunol ; 19(3): 330-336, 2022 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111332

Реферат

Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality compared with the general population. Possible pathways are: I) in patients with COVID-19, cytokine storm defined as the excess release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been associated with morbidities and an even higher rate of mortality. II) Labor, despite being a term/preterm, has an inflammatory nature, although, inflammation is more prominent in preterm delivery. During labor, different pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α are involved which as mentioned, all are crucial role players in the cytokine storm. III) Tissue injury, and during labor, (especially cesarean section) is shown to cause inflammation via pro-inflammatory cytokines release including those involved in the cytokine storm through the activation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB). IV) post-partum hemorrhage with a notable amount of blood loss which can cause significant hypoxemia. In this condition, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α which has a cross-talk with NFκB, leads to the expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α as both angiogenic and pro-inflammatory factors. Considering all the mentioned issues and pathways, we suggest that clinicians be careful about the escalation of the inflammatory status in their pregnant COVID-19 patients during/following labor.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cesarean Section , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pregnancy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110123

Реферат

Since the start of COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more than 6 million people have lost their lives worldwide directly or indirectly. Despite intensified efforts to clarify the immunopathology of COVID-19, the key factors and processes that trigger an inflammatory storm and lead to severe clinical outcomes in patients remain unclear. As an inflammatory storm factor, IL-33 is an alarmin cytokine, which plays an important role in cell damage or infection. Recent studies have shown that serum IL-33 is upregulated in COVID-19 patients and is strongly associated with poor outcomes. Increased IL-33 levels in severe infections may result from an inflammatory storm caused by strong interactions between activated immune cells. However, the effects of IL-33 in COVID-19 and the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. In this review, we systematically discuss the biological properties of IL-33 under pathophysiological conditions and its regulation of immune cells, including neutrophils, innate lymphocytes (ILCs), dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4+ T cells, Th17/Treg cells, and CD8+ T cells, in COVID-19 phagocytosis. The aim of this review is to explore the potential value of the IL-33/immune cell pathway as a new target for early diagnosis, monitoring of severe cases, and clinical treatment of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Interleukin-33 , Cytokines/metabolism
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 819574, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121729

Реферат

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is a complex disease which immune response can be more or less potent. In severe cases, patients might experience a cytokine storm that compromises their vital functions and impedes clearance of the infection. Gamma delta (γδ) T lymphocytes have a critical role initiating innate immunity and shaping adaptive immune responses, and they are recognized for their contribution to tumor surveillance, fighting infectious diseases, and autoimmunity. γδ T cells exist as both circulating T lymphocytes and as resident cells in different mucosal tissues, including the lungs and their critical role in other respiratory viral infections has been demonstrated. In the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, γδ T cell responses are understudied. This review summarizes the findings on the antiviral role of γδ T cells in COVID-19, providing insight into how they may contribute to the control of infection in the mild/moderate clinical outcome.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
19.
Cell Rep ; 39(13): 110989, 2022 06 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121651

Реферат

The interleukin-12 (IL-12) family comprises the only heterodimeric cytokines mediating diverse functional effects. We previously reported a striking bimodal IL-12p70 response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in healthy donors. Herein, we demonstrate that interferon ß (IFNß) is a major upstream determinant of IL-12p70 production, which is also associated with numbers and activation of circulating monocytes. Integrative modeling of proteomic, genetic, epigenomic, and cellular data confirms IFNß as key for LPS-induced IL-12p70 and allowed us to compare the relative effects of each of these parameters on variable cytokine responses. Clinical relevance of our findings is supported by reduced IFNß-IL-12p70 responses in patients hospitalized with acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or chronically infected with hepatitis C (HCV). Importantly, these responses are resolved after viral clearance. Our systems immunology approach defines a better understanding of IL-12p70 and IFNß in healthy and infected persons, providing insights into how common genetic and epigenetic variation may impact immune responses to bacterial infection.


Тема - темы
Interferon-beta , Interleukin-12 , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interferon-beta/immunology , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Interleukin-12/immunology , Interleukin-12/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 Sep 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109954

Реферат

Although dementia is a heterogenous group of diseases, inflammation has been shown to play a central role in all of them and provides a common link in their pathology. This review aims to highlight the importance of immune response in the most common types of dementia. We describe molecular aspects of pro-inflammatory signaling and sources of inflammatory activation in the human organism, including a novel infectious agent, SARS-CoV-2. The role of glial cells in neuroinflammation, as well as potential therapeutic approaches, are then discussed. Peripheral immune response and increased cytokine production, including an early surge in TNF and IL-1ß concentrations activate glia, leading to aggravation of neuroinflammation and dysfunction of neurons during COVID-19. Lifestyle factors, such as diet, have a large impact on future cognitive outcomes and should be included as a crucial intervention in dementia prevention. While the use of NSAIDs is not recommended due to inconclusive results on their efficacy and risk of side effects, the studies focused on the use of TNF antagonists as the more specific target in neuroinflammation are still very limited. It is still unknown, to what degree neuroinflammation resulting from COVID-19 may affect neurodegenerative process and cognitive functioning in the long term with ongoing reports of chronic post-COVID complications.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Dementia , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cytokines , Humans , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
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