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1.
Can J Psychiatry ; 66(6): 577-585, 2021 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214280

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: The co-occurrence of different classes of population-level stressors, such as social unrest and public health crises, is common in contemporary societies. Yet, few studies explored their combined mental health impact. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of repeated exposure to social unrest-related traumatic events (TEs), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-related events (PEs), and stressful life events (SLEs) on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms, and the potential mediating role of event-based rumination (rumination of TEs-related anger, injustice, guilt, and insecurity) between TEs and PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Community members in Hong Kong who had utilized a screening tool for PTSD and depressive symptoms were invited to complete a survey on exposure to stressful events and event-based rumination. RESULTS: A total of 10,110 individuals completed the survey. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that rumination, TEs, and SLEs were among the significant predictors for PTSD symptoms (all P < 0.001), accounting for 32% of the variance. For depression, rumination, SLEs, and PEs were among the significant predictors (all P < 0.001), explaining 24.9% of the variance. Two-way analysis of variance of different recent and prior TEs showed significant dose-effect relationships. The effect of recent TEs on PTSD symptoms was potentiated by prior TEs (P = 0.005). COVID-19 PEs and prior TEs additively contributed to PTSD symptoms, with no significant interaction (P = 0.94). Meanwhile, recent TEs were also potentiated by SLEs (P = 0.002). The effects of TEs on PTSD symptoms were mediated by rumination (ß = 0.38, standard error = 0.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.36 to 0.41), with 40.4% of the total effect explained. All 4 rumination subtypes were significant mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Prior and ongoing TEs, PEs, and SLEs cumulatively exacerbated PTSD and depressive symptoms. The role of event-based rumination and their interventions should be prioritized for future research.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Depression , Rumination, Cognitive/classification , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Life Change Events , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mental Health , Psychological Techniques , Public Health , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociological Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(11): 1560-1571, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203117

Реферат

BACKGROUND: To what extent the COVID-19 pandemic and its containment measures influenced mental health in the general population is still unclear. PURPOSE: To assess the trajectory of mental health symptoms during the first year of the pandemic and examine dose-response relations with characteristics of the pandemic and its containment. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles were identified from the living evidence database of the COVID-19 Open Access Project, which indexes COVID-19-related publications from MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase via Ovid, and PsycInfo. Preprint publications were not considered. STUDY SELECTION: Longitudinal studies that reported data on the general population's mental health using validated scales and that were published before 31 March 2021 were eligible. DATA EXTRACTION: An international crowd of 109 trained reviewers screened references and extracted study characteristics, participant characteristics, and symptom scores at each timepoint. Data were also included for the following country-specific variables: days since the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the stringency of governmental containment measures, and the cumulative numbers of cases and deaths. DATA SYNTHESIS: In a total of 43 studies (331 628 participants), changes in symptoms of psychological distress, sleep disturbances, and mental well-being varied substantially across studies. On average, depression and anxiety symptoms worsened in the first 2 months of the pandemic (standardized mean difference at 60 days, -0.39 [95% credible interval, -0.76 to -0.03]); thereafter, the trajectories were heterogeneous. There was a linear association of worsening depression and anxiety with increasing numbers of reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and increasing stringency in governmental measures. Gender, age, country, deprivation, inequalities, risk of bias, and study design did not modify these associations. LIMITATIONS: The certainty of the evidence was low because of the high risk of bias in included studies and the large amount of heterogeneity. Stringency measures and surges in cases were strongly correlated and changed over time. The observed associations should not be interpreted as causal relationships. CONCLUSION: Although an initial increase in average symptoms of depression and anxiety and an association between higher numbers of reported cases and more stringent measures were found, changes in mental health symptoms varied substantially across studies after the first 2 months of the pandemic. This suggests that different populations responded differently to the psychological stress generated by the pandemic and its containment measures. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Swiss National Science Foundation. (PROSPERO: CRD42020180049).


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 953155, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199455

Реферат

Increases in anti-Asian COVID-19 related discriminatory behaviors have been observed, many of which targeted older adults. Studies demonstrate that racial discrimination is associated with worse health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, and sleep difficulties. No previous studies have examined the impact of day-to-day experiences of discrimination before and during COVID-19 on both Asian and non-Asian older adults within the same sample. We examined whether everyday discrimination was associated with increased anxiety and depression symptoms, decreased levels of functioning, and increased sleep difficulties among Asian and non-Asian US older adults before and during the pandemic. Data came from the Positive Minds-Strong Bodies randomized clinical trial, an evidence-based mental health and disability prevention intervention for racially and ethnically diverse older adults with elevated depression or anxiety symptoms and minor to moderate disability. We conducted secondary data analyses in a cohort of 165 older adults (56 Asian and 109 non-Asian) assessed before COVID-19 (May 2015-May 2018) and during COVID-19 (March 2021-July 2022). Regression models examined whether everyday discrimination impacted health outcomes differently before and during COVID-19, and whether this effect was stronger among Asian compared to non-Asian older adults. Non-Asian older adults reported the same levels of everyday discrimination before and during COVID-19. Consistent with literature suggesting that social distancing has inadvertently kept US Asian populations from experiencing discrimination, Asian older adults reported marginally lower levels of everyday discrimination during the pandemic compared with pre-pandemic. We found that everyday discrimination was not associated with health outcomes before COVID-19. In contrast, during the pandemic, everyday discrimination was associated with worse anxiety and depression symptoms and worse levels of functioning, although only the impact on depression was significantly stronger compared with before the pandemic. This negative impact of everyday discrimination on health outcomes during the pandemic appeared to affect both Asian and non-Asian older adults similarly. Social support and social cohesion buffered against the negative effect of everyday discrimination on depression and level of functioning during the pandemic. Results suggest that public health interventions aimed at reducing everyday discrimination and emphasizing social support and cohesion can potentially improve health outcomes for all US older adult populations. Clinical trial registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier: NCT02317432.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/psychology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 803815, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199439

Реферат

In the ongoing situation, when the world is dominated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the development of self-care programs appears to be insufficient, while their role in mental health may be crucial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between self-care activities and depression in the general Slovak population, but also in its individual gender and age categories. This was achieved by validating the self-care screening instrument, assessing differences, and evaluating the associations using quantile regression analysis. The final research sample consisted of 806 participants [males: 314 (39%), females: 492 (61%)] and data were collected through an online questionnaire from February 12, 2021 to February 23, 2021. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression (α = 0.89) and Self-Care Activities Screening Scale (SASS-14) [health consciousness (HC) (α = 0.82), nutrition and physical activity (NPA) (α = 0.75), sleep quality (SLP) (α = 0.82), and interpersonal and intrapersonal coping strategies (IICS) (α = 0.58)] were used as screening measures. Mild depressive symptoms were found in 229 participants (28.41%), moderate depressive symptoms in 154 participants (19.11%), moderately severe depressive symptoms in 60 participants (7.44%) and severe depressive symptoms in 43 participants (5.33%). The main findings revealed the fact that individual self-care activities were associated with depression. This supported the idea that well-practiced self-care activities should be an immediate part of an individual's life in order to reduce depressive symptoms. Sleep quality played an important role, while HC indicated the need for increased attention. Other dimensions of self-care also showed significant results that should not be overlooked. In terms of depression, females and younger individuals need targeted interventions. The supportive educational intervention developed based on the self-care theory can help manage and maintain mental health during a stressful period, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Health policy leaders should focus on health-promoting preventive self-care interventions, as the demand for them increases even more during the pandemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Slovakia/epidemiology
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e24312, 2021 06 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197877

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has imposed physical and psychological pressure on health care professionals, including frontline physicians. Hence, evaluating the mental health status of physicians during the current pandemic is important to define future preventive guidelines among health care stakeholders. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we intended to study alterations in the mental health status of Portuguese physicians working at the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic and potential sociodemographic factors influencing their mental health status. METHODS: A nationwide survey was conducted during May 4-25, 2020, to infer differences in mental health status (depression, anxiety, stress, and obsessive compulsive symptoms) between Portuguese physicians working at the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic and other nonfrontline physicians. A representative sample of 420 participants stratified by age, sex, and the geographic region was analyzed (200 frontline and 220 nonfrontline participants). Moreover, we explored the influence of several sociodemographic factors on mental health variables including age, sex, living conditions, and household composition. RESULTS: Our results show that being female (ß=1.1; t=2.5; P=.01) and working at the frontline (ß=1.4; t=2.9; P=.004) are potential risk factors for stress. In contrast, having a house with green space was a potentially beneficial factor for stress (ß=-1.5; t=-2.5; P=.01) and anxiety (ß=-1.1; t=-2.4; P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to apply protective mental health measures for physicians to avoid the long-term effects of stress, such as burnout.


Тема - темы
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Mental Health , Pandemics , Physicians/psychology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety , Depression , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Portugal , Professional Role , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25945, 2021 May 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191011

Реферат

ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and the associated risk factors among first-line medical staff in Wuhan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.From March 5 to 15, 2020, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression scale were used to investigate the anxiety and depression status of medical staff in Wuhan Cabin Hospital (a Hospital). Two hundred seventy-six questionnaires were received from 96 doctors and 180 nurses, including 79 males and 197 females.During the COVID-19 epidemic, the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression was 27.9% and 18.1%, respectively, among 276 front-line medical staff in Wuhan. The prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among doctors was 19.8% and 11.5%, respectively, and the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among nurses was 32.2% and 21.7%, respectively. Females recorded higher total scores for anxiety and depression than males, and nurses recorded higher scores for anxiety and depression than doctors.During the COVID-19 epidemic, some first-line medical staff experienced mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Nurses were more prone to anxiety and depression than doctors. Effective strategies toward to improving the mental health should be provided to first-line medical staff, especially female medical staff and nurses.


Тема - темы
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Medical Staff/psychology , Mobile Health Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Workload/psychology
7.
Lancet ; 398(10312): 1665-1666, 2021 11 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184582
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Статья в португальский | WHO COVID, LILACS - Страны Америки - | ID: covidwho-2205380

Реферат

A pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de controle para conter a disseminação do vírus, como o distanciamento social, trouxeram mudanças à rotina das pessoas, mundialmente. Esse contexto pode gerar impactos adversos para a saúde mental dos indivíduos, especialmente, àqueles em maior vulnerabilidade, os idosos. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar na literatura os impactos reais e/ou potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental de idosos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura com buscas realizadas na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, que utilizou a seguinte estratégia de busca: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Foram critérios de inclusão: artigos acessados na íntegra, sem distinção de ano e idioma, indexados até o dia 11 de novembro de 2020; e os critérios de exclusão: artigos com fuga do escopo da pesquisa, revisões de literatura, arquivos multimídia e duplicados. Foram encontrados 241 registros, e após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade estabelecidos restaram 27 artigos para discussão. Dentre os impactos reais/potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental dos idosos, abordados nos estudos, destaca-se a ansiedade, depressão, solidão, estresse, sensação de medo ou pânico, tristeza, suicídio/ideação suicida e insônia. Apesar disso, considera-se que há uma quantidade ainda escassa de estudos voltados especificamente para a população idosa que permitam aprofundar as discussões sobre esse tema.


The COVID-19 pandemic and control measures to contain the spread of the virus, such as social detachment, have brought changes to people's routine, worldwide. This context can generate adverse impacts on the mental health of individuals, especially those most vulnerable, the older adults. The aim of this study was to analyze in the literature the real and / or potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the older adults. It is an integrative literature review with searches performed in the Virtual Health Library, which used the following search strategy: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID- 19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Inclusion criteria were: articles accessed in full, without distinction of year and language, indexed until November 11, 2020; and exclusion criteria: articles with escape the scope of the research, literature reviews, multimedia and duplicate files, 241 records were found, and after applying the established eligibility criteria, 27 articles remained for discussion, among the actual / potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older people, addressed in the studies, anxiety, depression, loneliness, stress, feeling of fear or panic, sadness, suicide / suicidal ideation and insomnia stand out. Despite this, there is still a small amount studies specifically aimed at the older population that allow further discussions on this topic.


La pandemia de covid-19 y las medidas de control para contener la propagación del virus, como el distanciamiento social, han supuesto cambios en la rutina de las personas en todo el mundo. Este contexto puede generar impactos adversos a la salud mental de los individuos, especialmente a los más vulnerables, los ancianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar en la literatura los impactos reales y/o potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos. Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica integradora con búsquedas realizadas en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, que utilizó la siguiente estrategia de búsqueda: (Coronavirus OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (elderly OR aged) AND ("Mental Health" OR "Mental Health"). Los criterios de inclusión fueron: artículos accedidos en su totalidad, independientemente del año y el idioma, indexados hasta el 11 de noviembre de 2020; y los criterios de exclusión: artículos que estuvieran fuera del ámbito de la investigación, revisiones bibliográficas, archivos multimedia y duplicados. Se encontraron un total de 241 registros, y tras aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad establecidos, quedaron 27 artículos para su discusión. Entre los impactos reales/potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos, abordados en los estudios, destacan la ansiedad, la depresión, la soledad, el estrés, la sensación de miedo o pánico, la tristeza, la ideación suicida/suicida y el insomnio. A pesar de ello, se considera que todavía hay una escasa cantidad de estudios dirigidos específicamente a la población de edad avanzada que permitan profundizar en las discusiones sobre este tema.


Тема - темы
Aged/psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/psychology , Panic , Suicide/psychology , Aging/physiology , Depression/psychology , Fear/psychology , Sadness/psychology , Psychological Distress , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Loneliness/psychology
9.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 30(12): 1327-1329, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149967
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154983

Реферат

(1) Background: The psychological status of employees, especially vulnerable populations, has received considerable research attention. However, as a newly emerging and popular occupation in the gig industry, food delivery drivers have received little attention. The majority of these workers are immigrants who are already in a precarious position due to a lack of available jobs, inadequate medical care, poor diets, and communication and acculturation difficulties even before they take these jobs, which involve long working hours and exposure to the elements. (2) Methods: To examine the anxiety and depression symptoms of these workers and possible influencing factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of food delivery drivers working for the Meituan Company (one of the largest e-platform companies in China). Anxiety and depression scales were adapted from the GAD-7, and the PHQ-9 was used to assess participants' related symptoms. Differences were compared in terms of sociodemographic, work situation, and lifestyle variables. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the effects of various factors on the two psychological dimensions. (3) Results: Among the 657 participants, the proportions of participants reporting anxiety and depression symptoms were 46.0% and 18.4%, respectively. Lack of communication with leaders (ORAN = 2.620, 95% CI: 1.528-4.493, p < 0.001; ORDE = 1.928, 95% CI: 1.039-3.577, p = 0.037) and poor sleep quality (ORAN = 2.152, 95% CI: 1.587-2.917, p < 0.001; ORDE = 2.420, 95% CI: 1.672-3.504, p < 0.001) were significant risk factors for both anxiety and depression symptoms. Women (OR = 2.679, 95% CI: 1.621-4.427, p < 0.001), those who climbed ≥31 floors per day (OR = 2.415, 95% CI: 1.189-4.905, p = 0.015), and those with a high frequency of breakfast consumption (OR = 3.821, 95% CI: 1.284-11.369, p = 0.016) were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. Participants who earned less than 5000 RMB (OR = 0.438, 95% CI: 0.204-0.940, p = 0.034), were unwilling to seek medical help (OR = 3.549, 95% CI: 1.846-6.821, p < 0.001), or had a high frequency of smoking (OR = 5.107, 95% CI: 1.187-21.981, p = 0.029) were more likely to be depressive. (4) Conclusion: The existence of communication channels with leaders and good sleep quality are protective factors for anxiety and depression symptoms. Participants who were female, climbed ≥31floors per day, and had a high frequency of eating breakfast were more likely to have anxiety symptoms, while earning less, unwillingness to seek medical help, and a high frequency of smoking were risk factors for depression symptoms.


Тема - темы
Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , China/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 904550, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154831

Реферат

Objective: After the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the health status of the general population has suffered a huge threat, and the mental health of front-line healthcare providers has also encountered great challenges. Therefore, this study aims to: (1) investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among healthcare providers, and (2) verify the moderating role of self-efficacy in the influence of PTSD on mental health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey of 1993 participants. The presence of depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, and PTSD was evaluated using screening tests from March 1. Sociodemographic and COVID-19-related data were also collected. A data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression. Results: The prevalence of PTSD among healthcare providers was 9.3%. PTSD was negatively correlated with self-efficacy (r = -0.265, P < 0.01), anxiety (r = -0.453, P < 0.01), and depression (r = 0.708, P < 0.01). Profession, daily working hours, maximum continuous working days, and daily sleep time were influencing factors of PTSD. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that physicians (OR = 2.254, 95% CI = 1.298, 3.914) and nurses (OR = 2.176, 95% CI = 1.337, 3.541) were more likely to experience PTSD than other healthcare providers. Conclusion: Self-efficacy has a moderating effect on the influence of PTSD on anxiety and depression. This suggests that health managers need to respond to the current psychological crisis of healthcare providers, implement appropriate psychological interventions, and minimize the psychological harm caused by COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
12.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN281521, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154411

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals and families, causing adverse psychological effects, especially in young adults, women, and parents. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of current major depressive episode (CMDE) in mothers of preschoolers (up to five years old) and its associated stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic in a municipality in the Southern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with mothers. All mothers were interviewed by telephone call during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. Plus) to assess the presence of CMDE. Statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression. We evaluated 666 mothers. The prevalence of CMDE was 12.3%. Mothers with financial losses had 2.1 (95%CI: 1.3-3.4) more odds of presenting CMDE than those financially stable. We observed that financial losses were determinant for the higher prevalence of depression in mothers.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult
13.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(Suppl 1)(3): S703-S706, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146944

Реферат

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a viral infection that spreads through different mediums and has a high rate of mortality. At its initial stages, there is no particular medicine that can cure patients of COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to understand the COVID-19 knowledge, perception, and its effects in terms of anxiety and depression among frontline health care workers of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from June to July 2021 in which data was collected from 200 hospital healthcare workers who have performed duties in COVID isolation wards through standard questionnaire. SPSS version 24.0 was used for data analysis. Results: Out of 200 participants in the study 100 (50.0%) were male. Regarding safety measures taken during COVID -19, 144 (72.0%) individuals reported that they have not been given training to handle known or suspected cases of COVID-19. Moderate anxiety and depression was found in 153 (76.5%) healthcare workers, mild in 25 (12.5%) and 22 (11.0%) had severe anxiety and depression at the time of COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: This study revealed that a significant anxiety and depression was found in frontline healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, a more extensive study should be conducted which involves many other hospitals like Ayub Teaching Hospital.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Teaching , Anxiety/epidemiology , Perception
14.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(10): 421-430, 2022 10 12.
Статья в английский, французский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146154

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: This study explores the relationship between emotional support, perceived risk and mental health outcomes among health care workers, who face high rates of burnout and mental distress since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multicentred online survey of health care workers in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic evaluated coping strategies, confidence in infection control, impact of previous work during the 2003 SARS outbreak and emotional support. Mental health outcomes were assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Of 3852 participants, 8.2% sought professional mental health services while 77.3% received emotional support from family, 74.0% from friends and 70.3% from colleagues. Those who felt unsupported in their work had higher odds ratios of experiencing moderate and severe symptoms of anxiety (odds ratio [OR] = 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.69), PTSD (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.58-2.25) and depression (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.57-2.25). Nearly 40% were afraid of telling family about the risks they were exposed to at work. Those who were able to share this information demonstrated lower risk of anxiety (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.48-0.69), PTSD (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.41-0.56) and depression (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.47-0.65). CONCLUSION: Informal sources of support, including family, friends and colleagues, play an important role in mitigating distress and should be encouraged and utilized more by health care workers.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Affect Disord ; 310: 422-428, 2022 08 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131259

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether resilience modulates the levels of depression, anxiety, stress and the impact of events in physiotherapists who work with COVID-19 patients with those who do not. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2020 up to October 2020. A total of 519 physiotherapists were enrolled and divided according to resilience and whether they worked with COVID-19 patients. Volunteers answered sociodemographic questionnaires, rating their depression, anxiety, and stress on a scale (DASS-21). The impact of event scale revised (IES-R) and 14-item resilience scale (14-RS) were also used. RESULTS: Physiotherapists with low resilience present scores significantly high of depression, anxiety, stress and impact of event compared to the high resilience group (P < .001). Additionally, working with COVID-19 patients also resulted in increased levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and impact of event compared with the NO COVID-19 group (P < .001). These responses were modulated by age, sex, number of absences from work, whether or not personal protective equipment was received, host leadership, and the practice and maintenance of regular physical activity. LIMITATIONS: The responses to the questionnaires were anonymous and self-administered. We cannot assess whether these people had a previous diagnosis of depression, anxiety and stress. CONCLUSIONS: Low resilience and work with COVID-19 patients were associated with high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress and worse psychological impacts of events. Several aspects modulate these responses and can contribute to improving the resilience and mental health of physiotherapists who are responsible for the care of COVID-19 patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Physical Therapists , Resilience, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143133

Реферат

Depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) among adolescents have become a public health concern. The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and measure an IMB-based health education intervention module for reducing DAS among adolescents in boarding schools in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. A single-blinded cluster randomised control trial (RCT) was conducted among students with abnormal DASS-21 scores. They were divided into an intervention group (three schools, 62 participants) and a control group (three schools, 57 participants). Participants in the intervention group received IMB-based health education, while participants in the control group underwent the standard care session. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, the Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) analysis was conducted. A total of 119 students participated in this study, and no loss to follow-up was reported. Both intervention and control groups showed significantly reduced DAS scores (p < 0.005). However, the reduction of these scores was greater in the intervention group. The GLMM analysis revealed that the intervention was effective in reducing depression (ß = -2.400, t = -3.102, SE = 0.7735, p = 0.002, 95% CI = -3.921, -0.878), anxiety (ß = -2.129, t = -2.824, SE = 0.7541, p = 0.005, 95% CI = -3.612, -0.646), and stress (ß = -1.335, t = -2.457, SE = 0.536, p = 0.015, 95% CI = -2.045, -0.266) among adolescents. The IMB-based health education module was effective in reducing DAS among adolescents in boarding schools.


Тема - темы
Depression , Motivation , Humans , Adolescent , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Schools , Health Education , Anxiety/prevention & control
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 999795, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142336

Реферат

Objectives: This study explores the inter-relationship between emotional distress in adults and gender, quarantine experiences, pandemic duration, and employment. Methods: An online cross-sectional online survey comprised 943 Israelis. The link to the survey was distributed via different personal and academic social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter). The survey was administered using the online survey portal Google Forms. Participants addressed questions about their socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, family status, employment, and quarantine experiences) and ranked their levels of stress, anxiety, and depression using the Hebrew version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-DASS-21. Results: The majority of the respondents (72%) were women, 39% experienced quarantine, and 55% were unemployed. About 42% experienced a short-term pandemic (one lockdown), and the rest experienced a continuous pandemic (two lockdowns). The MANCOVA results, controlling for family status, indicated that women and unemployed participants reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression levels than men and employed participants. Participants who experienced individual quarantine reported higher anxiety and depression. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between gender, employment, and pandemic duration. The experience of individual quarantine intensified the stress, anxiety, and depression for both employed and unemployed women. Conversely, the quarantine intensified stress, anxiety, and depression only for unemployed men, whereas the quarantine did not affect stress, anxiety, and depression among employed men. Conclusions: Employment is a critical factor regarding men's emotional state during such stressful situations as the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, individual quarantine and long-term pandemics are associated with opposite outcomes regarding individual mental health. The individual quarantine is associated with increased anxiety and depression, while a long-term, continuous pandemic is associated with decreased stress.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Adult , Female , Male , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Employment
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e40719, 2022 Nov 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141432

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Depression has a high prevalence among young adults, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, mental health services remain scarce and underutilized worldwide. Mental health chatbots are a novel digital technology to provide fully automated interventions for depressive symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the clinical effectiveness and nonclinical performance of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based mental health chatbot (XiaoE) for young adults with depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In a single-blind, 3-arm randomized controlled trial, participants manifesting depressive symptoms recruited from a Chinese university were randomly assigned to a mental health chatbot (XiaoE; n=49), an e-book (n=49), or a general chatbot (Xiaoai; n=50) group in a ratio of 1:1:1. Participants received a 1-week intervention. The primary outcome was the reduction of depressive symptoms according to the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at 1 week later (T1) and 1 month later (T2). Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were conducted under analysis of covariance models adjusting for baseline data. Controlled multiple imputation and δ-based sensitivity analysis were performed for missing data. The secondary outcomes were the level of working alliance measured using the Working Alliance Questionnaire (WAQ), usability measured using the Usability Metric for User Experience-LITE (UMUX-LITE), and acceptability measured using the Acceptability Scale (AS). RESULTS: Participants were on average 18.78 years old, and 37.2% (55/148) were female. The mean baseline PHQ-9 score was 10.02 (SD 3.18; range 2-19). Intention-to-treat analysis revealed lower PHQ-9 scores among participants in the XiaoE group compared with participants in the e-book group and Xiaoai group at both T1 (F2,136=17.011; P<.001; d=0.51) and T2 (F2,136=5.477; P=.005; d=0.31). Better working alliance (WAQ; F2,145=3.407; P=.04) and acceptability (AS; F2,145=4.322; P=.02) were discovered with XiaoE, while no significant difference among arms was found for usability (UMUX-LITE; F2,145=0.968; P=.38). CONCLUSIONS: A CBT-based chatbot is a feasible and engaging digital therapeutic approach that allows easy accessibility and self-guided mental health assistance for young adults with depressive symptoms. A systematic evaluation of nonclinical metrics for a mental health chatbot has been established in this study. In the future, focus on both clinical outcomes and nonclinical metrics is necessary to explore the mechanism by which mental health chatbots work on patients. Further evidence is required to confirm the long-term effectiveness of the mental health chatbot via trails replicated with a longer dose, as well as exploration of its stronger efficacy in comparison with other active controls. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100052532; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=135744.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Young Adult , Female , Adolescent , Male , Depression/therapy , Single-Blind Method , Pandemics
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 700, 2022 11 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139202

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are topical concerns worldwide, especially among adolescents. Besides, biological rhythm disorder as a candidate mechanism for mood disorders is highly prevalent, but relevant research among adolescents in China is presently limited. We conducted the present study to investigate the distribution of multi-dimensional self-rating biological rhythm disorder and the association of self-rating biological rhythm disorders with depression and anxiety symptoms among Chinese adolescents in different academic stages. METHODS: In the cross-sectional study, 3693 students aged 11-23 from Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, China were included. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) were used to evaluate symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Additionally, the Self-Rating of Biological Rhythm Disorder for Adolescents (SBRDA) was used to assess status of biological rhythm disorders. Multivariate logistic regression was developed to explore factors potentially associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety stratified by academic stages. RESULTS: Among all participants, 44.14 and 36.15% suffered from depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. On average, participants scored 74.66 ± 19.37 on the measure of total biological rhythm disorder. Adjusted for demographic confounding factors, the logistic regression analysis showed higher scores of total biological rhythm disorder were associated with more severe depression (OR = 14.38, 95%CI: 11.38-18.16) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 11.63, 95%CI: 9.14-14.81). The similar results were also found in the stratified analysis by academic stages. CONCLUSIONS: Self-rating biological rhythm disorders are significantly associated with depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Discrepancy across academic stages should also be taken into account in establishing public health strategies.


Тема - темы
Anxiety , Depression , Adolescent , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Anxiety/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Periodicity
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