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1.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0173921, 2022 02 23.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193455

Реферат

Two strains of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), England 1 and Erasmus Medical Centre/2012 (EMC/2012), were used to challenge common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) by three routes of infection: aerosol, oral, and intranasal. Animals challenged by the intranasal and aerosol routes presented with mild, transient disease, while those challenged by the oral route presented with a subclinical immunological response. Animals challenged with MERS-CoV strain EMC/2012 by the aerosol route responded with primary and/or secondary pyrexia. Marmosets had minimal to mild multifocal interstitial pneumonia, with the greatest relative severity being observed in animals challenged by the aerosol route. Viable virus was isolated from the host in throat swabs and lung tissue. The transient disease described is consistent with a successful host response and was characterized by the upregulation of macrophage and neutrophil function observed in all animals at the time of euthanasia. IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome is caused by a human coronavirus, MERS-CoV, similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Humans typically exhibit fever, cough, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal issues, and breathing difficulties, which can lead to pneumonia and/or renal complications. This emerging disease resulted in the first human lethal cases in 2012 and has a case fatality rate of approximately 36%. Consequently, there is a need for medical countermeasures and appropriate animal models for their assessment. This work has demonstrated the requirement for higher concentrations of virus to cause overt disease. Challenge by the aerosol, intranasal, and oral routes resulted in no or mild disease, but all animals had an immunological response. This shows that an appropriate early immunological response is able to control the disease.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Callithrix , Humans
2.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 30(3): 427-438, 2020 Mar 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163802

Реферат

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects the lower respiratory airway of humans, leading to severe acute respiratory failure. Unlike human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4), a receptor for MERS-CoV, mouse DPP4 (mDPP4) failed to support MERS-CoV infection. Consequently, diverse transgenic mouse models expressing hDPP4 have been developed using diverse methods, although some models show no mortality and/or only transient and mild-to-moderate clinical signs following MERS-CoV infection. Additionally, overexpressed hDPP4 is associated with neurological complications and breeding difficulties in some transgenic mice, resulting in impeding further studies. Here, we generated stable hDPP4-transgenic mice that were sufficiently susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. The transgenic mice showed weight loss, decreased pulmonary function, and increased mortality with minimal perturbation of overexpressed hDPP4 after MERS-CoV infection. In addition, we observed histopathological signs indicative of progressive pulmonary fibrosis, including thickened alveolar septa, infiltration of inflammatory monocytes, and macrophage polarization as well as elevated expression of profibrotic molecules and acute inflammatory response in the lung of MERS-CoV-infected hDPP4-transgenic mice. Collectively, we suggest that this hDPP4-transgenic mouse is useful in understanding the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV infection and for antiviral research and vaccine development against the virus.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/immunology , Lung/pathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology
3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(2): 326-341, 2022 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141035

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Hereditary renal hypouricemia type 1 (RHUC1) is caused by URAT1/SLC22A12 dysfunction, resulting in urolithiasis and exercise-induced AKI (EIAKI). However, because there is no useful experimental RHUC1 animal model, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying EIAKI have yet to be elucidated. We established a high HPRT activity Urat1-Uox double knockout (DKO) mouse as a novel RHUC1 animal model for investigating the cause of EIAKI and the potential therapeutic effect of xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitors (XOIs). METHODS: The novel Urat1-Uox DKO mice were used in a forced swimming test as loading exercise to explore the onset mechanism of EIAKI and evaluate related purine metabolism and renal injury parameters. RESULTS: Urat1-Uox DKO mice had uricosuric effects and elevated levels of plasma creatinine and BUN as renal injury markers, and decreased creatinine clearance observed in a forced swimming test. In addition, Urat1-Uox DKO mice had increased NLRP3 inflammasome activity and downregulated levels of Na+-K+-ATPase protein in the kidney, as Western blot analysis showed. Finally, we demonstrated that topiroxostat and allopurinol, XOIs, improved renal injury and functional parameters of EIAKI. CONCLUSIONS: Urat1-Uox DKO mice are a useful experimental animal model for human RHUC1. The pathogenic mechanism of EIAKI was found to be due to increased levels of IL-1ß via NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and Na+-K+-ATPase dysfunction associated with excessive urinary urate excretion. In addition, XOIs appear to be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of EIAKI.


Тема - темы
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism , Organic Anion Transporters/deficiency , Urate Oxidase/deficiency , Xanthine Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Allopurinol/pharmacology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase/genetics , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Organic Anion Transporters/genetics , Physical Exertion , Pyridines/pharmacology , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/drug therapy , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/etiology , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/metabolism , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Urate Oxidase/genetics , Urinary Calculi/drug therapy , Urinary Calculi/etiology , Urinary Calculi/metabolism
4.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123864

Реферат

Animal models are used in preclinical trials to test vaccines, antivirals, monoclonal antibodies, and immunomodulatory drug therapies against SARS-CoV-2. However, these drugs often do not produce equivalent results in human clinical trials. Here, we show how different animal models infected with some of the most clinically relevant SARS-CoV-2 variants, WA1/2020, B.1.617.2/Delta, B.1.1.529/Omicron, and BA5.2/Omicron, have independent outcomes. We show that in K18-hACE2 mice, B.1.617.2 is more pathogenic, followed by WA1, while B.1.1.529 showed an absence of clinical signs. Only B.1.1.529 was able to infect C57BL/6J mice, which lack the human ACE2 receptor. B.1.1.529-infected C57BL/6J mice had different T cell profiles compared to infected K18-hACE2 mice, while viral shedding profiles and viral titers in lungs were similar between the K18-hACE2 and the C57BL/6J mice. These data suggest B.1.1.529 virus adaptation to a new host and shows that asymptomatic carriers can accumulate and shed virus. Next, we show how B.1.617.2, WA1 and BA5.2/Omicron have similar viral replication kinetics, pathogenicity, and viral shedding profiles in hamsters, demonstrating that the increased pathogenicity of B.1.617.2 observed in mice is host-dependent. Overall, these findings suggest that small animal models are useful to parallel human clinical data, but the experimental design places an important role in interpreting the data. Importance: There is a need to investigate SARS-CoV-2 variant phenotypes in different animal models due to the lack of reproducible outcomes when translating experiments to the human population. Our findings highlight the correlation of clinically relevant SARS-CoV-2 variants in animal models with human infections. Experimental design and understanding of correct animal models are essential to interpreting data to develop antivirals, vaccines, and other therapeutic compounds against COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Mice , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Virulence , Disease Models, Animal , Antiviral Agents
5.
Dis Model Mech ; 15(11)2022 11 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117037

Реферат

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, causes life-threatening disease. This novel coronavirus enters host cells via the respiratory tract, promoting the formation of severe pulmonary lesions and systemic disease. Few animal models can simulate the clinical signs and pathology of COVID-19 patients. Diverse preclinical studies using K18-hACE2 mice and Syrian golden hamsters, which are highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract, are emerging; however, the systemic pathogenesis and cellular tropism of these models remain obscure. We intranasally infected K18-hACE2 mice and Syrian golden hamsters with SARS-CoV-2, and compared the clinical features, pathogenesis, cellular tropism and infiltrated immune-cell subsets. In K18-hACE2 mice, SARS-CoV-2 persistently replicated in alveolar cells and caused pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease, resulting in fatal outcomes. Conversely, in Syrian golden hamsters, transient SARS-CoV-2 infection in bronchial cells caused reversible pulmonary disease, without mortality. Our findings provide comprehensive insights into the pathogenic spectrum of COVID-19 using preclinical models.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cricetinae , Mice , Animals , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Mice, Transgenic
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1019723, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109736

Реферат

Objectives: Close contact with patients with COVID-19 is speculated to be the most common cause of viral transmission, but the pathogenesis of COVID-19 by close contact remains to be elucidated. In addition, despite olfactory impairment being a unique complication of COVID-19, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the olfactory cell lineage has not been fully validated. This study aimed to elucidate close-contact viral transmission to the nose and lungs and to investigate the temporal damage in the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) lineage caused by SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Syrian hamsters were orally administered SARS-CoV-2 nonvariant nCoV-19/JPN/TY/WK521/2020 as direct-infection models. On day 3 after inoculation, infected and uninfected hamsters were housed in the same cage for 30 minutes. These uninfected hamsters were subsequently assigned to a close-contact group. First, viral presence in the nose and lungs was verified in the infection and close-contact groups at several time points. Next, the impacts on the olfactory epithelium, including olfactory progenitors, immature ORNs, and mature ORNs were examined histologically. Then, the viral transmission status and chronological changes in tissue damage were compared between the direct-infection and close-contact groups. Results: In the close-contact group, viral presence could not be detected in both the nose and lungs on day 3, and the virus was identified in both tissues on day 7. In the direct-infection group, the viral load was highest in the nose and lungs on day 3, decreased on day 7, and was no longer detectable on day 14. Histologically, in the direct-infection group, mature ORNs were most depleted on day 3 (p <0.001) and showed a recovery trend on day 14, with similar trends for olfactory progenitors and immature ORNs. In the close-contact group, there was no obvious tissue damage on day 3, but on day 7, the number of all ORN lineage cells significantly decreased (p <0.001). Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted even after brief contact and subsequent olfactory epithelium and lung damage occurred more than 3 days after the trigger of infection. The present study also indicated that SARS-CoV-2 damages all ORN lineage cells, but this damage can begin to recover approximately 14 days post infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Mesocricetus , Cell Lineage , Disease Models, Animal
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18694, 2022 Nov 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106469

Реферат

SARS-CoV-2 exhibits a diverse host species range with variable outcomes, enabling differential host susceptibility studies to assess suitability for pre-clinical countermeasure and pathogenesis studies. Baseline virological, molecular and pathological outcomes were determined among multiple species-one Old World non-human primate (NHP) species (cynomolgus macaques), two New World NHP species (red-bellied tamarins; common marmosets) and Syrian hamsters-following single-dose, atraumatic intranasal administration of SARS-CoV-2/Victoria-01. After serial sacrifice 2, 10 and 28-days post-infection (dpi), hamsters and cynomolgus macaques displayed differential virus biodistribution across respiratory, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Uniquely, New World tamarins, unlike marmosets, exhibited high levels of acute upper airway infection, infectious virus recovery associated with mild lung pathology representing a host previously unrecognized as susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Across all species, lung pathology was identified post-clearance of virus shedding (antigen/RNA), with an association of virus particles within replication organelles in lung sections analysed by electron microscopy. Disrupted cell ultrastructure and lung architecture, including abnormal morphology of mitochondria 10-28 dpi, represented on-going pathophysiological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 in predominantly asymptomatic hosts. Infection kinetics and host pathology comparators using standardized methodologies enables model selection to bridge differential outcomes within upper and lower respiratory tracts and elucidate longer-term consequences of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Tissue Distribution , Administration, Intranasal , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Macaca fascicularis
8.
ACS Nano ; 16(7): 10566-10580, 2022 Jul 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106345

Реферат

Intravenously infusible nanoparticles to control bleeding have shown promise in rodents, but translation into preclinical models has been challenging as many of these nanoparticle approaches have resulted in infusion responses and adverse outcomes in large animal trauma models. We developed a hemostatic nanoparticle technology that was screened to avoid one component of the infusion response: complement activation. We administered these hemostatic nanoparticles, control nanoparticles, or saline volume controls in a porcine polytrauma model. While the hemostatic nanoparticles promoted clotting as marked by a decrease in prothrombin time and both the hemostatic nanoparticles and controls did not active complement, in a subset of the animals, hard thrombi were found in uninjured tissues in both the hemostatic and control nanoparticle groups. Using data science methods that allow one to work across heterogeneous data sets, we found that the presence of these thrombi correlated with changes in IL-6, INF-alpha, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. While these findings might suggest that this formulation would not be a safe one for translation for trauma, they provide guidance for developing screening tools to make nanoparticle formulations in the complex milieux of trauma as well as for therapeutic interventions more broadly. This is important as we look to translate intravenously administered nanoparticle formulations for therapies, particularly considering the vascular changes seen in a subset of patients following COVID-19. We need to understand adverse events like thrombi more completely and screen for these events early to make nanomaterials as safe and effective as possible.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Nanoparticles , Thrombosis , Swine , Animals , Cytokines , Polyesters , Disease Models, Animal , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Polyethylene Glycols
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099581

Реферат

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Since a large portion of the world's population is currently unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated and has limited access to approved treatments against COVID-19, there is an urgent need to continue research on treatment options, especially those at low cost and which are immediately available to patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Prior in vitro and observational studies have shown that fluoxetine, possibly through its inhibitory effect on the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system, could be a promising antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatment against COVID-19. In this report, we evaluated the potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of fluoxetine in a K18-hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and against variants of concern in vitro, i.e., SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain, Alpha B.1.1.7, Gamma P1, Delta B1.617 and Omicron BA.5. Fluoxetine, administrated after SARS-CoV-2 infection, significantly reduced lung tissue viral titres and expression of several inflammatory markers (i.e., IL-6, TNFα, CCL2 and CXCL10). It also inhibited the replication of all variants of concern in vitro. A modulation of the ceramide system in the lung tissues, as reflected by the increase in the ratio HexCer 16:0/Cer 16:0 in fluoxetine-treated mice, may contribute to explain these effects. Our findings demonstrate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties of fluoxetine in a K18-hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and its in vitro antiviral activity against variants of concern, establishing fluoxetine as a very promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease pathogenesis.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ceramides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 919815, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080131

Реферат

Since first reported in 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly acquiring mutations, particularly in the spike protein, that can modulate pathogenicity, transmission and antibody evasion leading to successive waves of COVID19 infections despite an unprecedented mass vaccination necessitating continuous adaptation of therapeutics. Small animal models can facilitate understanding host-pathogen interactions, target selection for therapeutic drugs, and vaccine development, but availability and cost of studies in BSL3 facilities hinder progress. To generate a BSL2-compatible in vivo system that specifically recapitulates spike protein mediated disease we used replication competent, GFP tagged, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus where the VSV glycoprotein was replaced by the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (rVSV-SARS2-S). We show that infection requires hACE2 and challenge of neonatal but not adult, K18-hACE2 transgenic mice (hACE2tg) leads to productive infection of the lungs and brains. Although disease progression was faster in SARS-CoV-2 infected mice, infection with both viruses resulted in neuronal infection and encephalitis with increased expression of Interferon-stimulated Irf7, Bst2, Ifi294, as well as CxCL10, CCL5, CLC2, and LILRB4, and both models were uniformly lethal. Further, prophylactic treatment targeting the Spike protein (Receptor Binding Domain) with antibodies resulted in similar levels of protection from lethal infection against rVSV-SARS2-S and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Strikingly, challenge of neonatal hACE2tg mice with SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (SARS-CoV-2-α, -ß, ϒ, or Δ) or the corresponding rVSV-SARS2-S viruses (rVSV-SARS2-Spike-α, rVSV-SARS2-Spike-ß, rVSV-SARS2-Spike-ϒ or rVSV-SARS2-Spike-Δ) resulted in increased lethality, suggesting that the Spike protein plays a key role in determining the virulence of each variant. Thus, we propose that rVSV-SARS2-S virus can be used to understand the effect of changes to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on infection and to evaluate existing or experimental therapeutics targeting spike protein of current or future VOC of SARS-CoV-2 under BSL-2 conditions.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Mice , Receptors, Immunologic , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071843

Реферат

Small animal models that accurately model pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 variants are required for ongoing research efforts. We modified our human immune system mouse model to support replication of SARS-CoV-2 by implantation of human lung tissue into the mice to create TKO-BLT-Lung (L) mice and compared infection with two different variants in a humanized lung model. Infection of TKO-BLT-L mice with SARS-CoV-2 recapitulated the higher infectivity of the B.1.1.7 variant with more animals becoming infected and higher sustained viral loads compared to mice challenged with an early B lineage (614D) virus. Viral lesions were observed in lung organoids but no differences were detected between the viral variants as expected. Partially overlapping but distinct immune profiles were also observed between the variants with a greater Th1 profile in VIDO-01 and greater Th2 profile in B.1.1.7 infection. Overall, the TKO-BLT-L mouse supported SARS-CoV-2 infection, recapitulated key known similarities and differences in infectivity and pathogenesis as well as revealing previously unreported differences in immune responses between the two viral variants. Thus, the TKO-BLT-L model may serve as a useful animal model to study the immunopathobiology of newly emerging variants in the context of genuine human lung tissue and immune cells.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Mice , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load , Disease Models, Animal , Lung
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16956, 2022 Oct 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062264

Реферат

In late 2019 the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus emerged in China and quickly spread into a worldwide pandemic. It has caused millions of hospitalizations and deaths, despite the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies emerged as major therapeutic options for treatment of COVID-19. We have developed an anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin intravenous (Human) (COVID-HIGIV), a potential improvement from using convalescent plasma. In this report the efficacy of COVID-HIGIV was evaluated in hamster and mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-HIGIV treatment in both mice and hamsters significantly reduced the viral load in the lungs. Among COVID-HIGIV treated animals, infection-related body weight loss was reduced and the animals regained their baseline body weight faster than the PBS controls. In hamsters, COVID-HIGIV treatment reduced infection-associated lung pathology including lung inflammation, and pneumocyte hypertrophy in the lungs. These results support ongoing trials for outpatient treatment with COVID-HIGIV for safety and efficacy evaluation (NCT04910269, NCT04546581).


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/pathology , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010867, 2022 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054394

Реферат

How well mouse models recapitulate the transcriptional profiles seen in humans remains debatable, with both conservation and diversity identified in various settings. Herein we use RNA-Seq data and bioinformatics approaches to analyze the transcriptional responses in SARS-CoV-2 infected lungs, comparing 4 human studies with the widely used K18-hACE2 mouse model, a model where hACE2 is expressed from the mouse ACE2 promoter, and a model that uses a mouse adapted virus and wild-type mice. Overlap of single copy orthologue differentially expressed genes (scoDEGs) between human and mouse studies was generally poor (≈15-35%). Rather than being associated with batch, sample treatment, viral load, lung damage or mouse model, the poor overlaps were primarily due to scoDEG expression differences between species. Importantly, analyses of immune signatures and inflammatory pathways illustrated highly significant concordances between species. As immunity and immunopathology are the focus of most studies, these mouse models can thus be viewed as representative and relevant models of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Humans , Lung , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0096122, 2022 09 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053119

Реферат

Omicron (B.1.1.529) is the most recent SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, which emerged in late 2021 and rapidly achieved global predominance by early 2022. In this study, we compared the infection dynamics, tissue tropism, and pathogenesis and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 D614G (B.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron BA.1.1 (B.1.1.529) variants in a highly susceptible feline model of infection. Although D614G- and Delta-inoculated cats became lethargic and showed increased body temperatures between days 1 and 3 postinfection (pi), Omicron-inoculated cats remained subclinical and, similar to control animals, gained weight throughout the 14-day experimental period. Intranasal inoculation of cats with D614G- and the Delta variants resulted in high infectious virus shedding in nasal secretions (up to 6.3 log10 TCID50.Ml-1), whereas strikingly lower level of viruses shedding (<3.1 log10 TCID50.Ml-1) was observed in Omicron-inoculated animals. In addition, tissue distribution of the Omicron variant was markedly reduced in comparison to the D614G and Delta variants, as evidenced by lower in situ viral RNA detection, in situ viral immunofluorescence staining, and viral loads in tissues on days 3, 5, and 14 pi. Nasal turbinate, trachea, and lung were the main-but not the only-sites of replication for all three viral variants. However, only scarce virus staining and lower viral titers suggest lower levels of viral replication in tissues from Omicron-infected animals. Notably, while D614G- and Delta-inoculated cats presented pneumonia, histologic examination of the lungs from Omicron-infected cats revealed mild to modest inflammation. Together, these results demonstrate that the Omicron variant BA.1.1 is less pathogenic than D614G and Delta variants in a highly susceptible feline model. IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of concern emerged in South Africa late in 2021 and rapidly spread across the world causing a significant increase in the number of infections. Importantly, this variant was also associated with an increased risk of reinfections. However, the number of hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19 did not follow the same trends. These early observations suggested effective protection conferred by immunizations and/or overall lower virulence of the highly mutated variant virus. In this study we present novel evidence demonstrating that the Omicron BA.1.1 variant of concern presents a lower pathogenicity when compared to D614G- or Delta variants in cats. Clinical, virological, and pathological evaluations revealed lower disease severity, viral replication, and lung pathology in Omicron-infected cats when compared with D614G and Delta variant inoculated animals, confirming that Omicron BA.1.1 is less pathogenic in a highly susceptible feline model of infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cats , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence , Virus Replication
17.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043978

Реферат

Obese patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are prone to severe forms of COVID-19. There is an urgent need for new treatments that lower the severity of COVID-19 in this vulnerable population. To better replicate the human context, we set up a diet-induced model of obesity associated with dyslipidemia and NASH in the golden hamster (known to be a relevant preclinical model of COVID-19). A 20-week, free-choice diet induces obesity, dyslipidemia, and NASH (liver inflammation and fibrosis) in golden hamsters. Obese NASH hamsters have higher blood and pulmonary levels of inflammatory cytokines. In the early stages of a SARS-CoV-2 infection, the lung viral load and inflammation levels were similar in lean hamsters and obese NASH hamsters. However, obese NASH hamsters showed worse recovery (i.e., less resolution of lung inflammation 10 days post-infection (dpi) and lower body weight recovery on dpi 25). Obese NASH hamsters also exhibited higher levels of pulmonary fibrosis on dpi 25. Unlike lean animals, obese NASH hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 presented long-lasting dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Relative to lean controls, obese NASH hamsters had lower serum levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity and higher serum levels of angiotensin II-a component known to favor inflammation and fibrosis. Even though the SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in early weight loss and incomplete body weight recovery, obese NASH hamsters showed sustained liver steatosis, inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning, and marked liver fibrosis on dpi 25. We conclude that diet-induced obesity and NASH impair disease recovery in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters. This model might be of value for characterizing the pathophysiologic mechanisms of COVID-19 and evaluating the efficacy of treatments for the severe forms of COVID-19 observed in obese patients with NASH.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Dyslipidemias , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Cricetinae , Cytokines , Diet , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation , Mesocricetus , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Obesity/complications , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 274, 2022 09 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038848

Реферат

Acute neuropsychiatric impairments occur in over 70% of patients with acute lung injury. Mechanical ventilation is a well-known precipitant of acute lung injury and is strongly associated with the development of acute delirium and anxiety phenotypes. In prior studies, we demonstrated that IL-6 mediates neuropathological changes in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of animals with mechanical ventilation-induced brain injury; however, the effect of systemic IL-6 inhibition on structural and functional acute neuropsychiatric phenotypes is not known. We hypothesized that a murine model of mechanical ventilation-induced acute lung injury (VILI) would induce neural injury to the amygdala and hippocampus, brain regions that are implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric conditions, and corresponding delirium- and anxiety-like functional impairments. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these structural and functional changes would reverse with systemic IL-6 inhibition. VILI was induced using high tidal volume (35 cc/kg) mechanical ventilation. Cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) expression was quantified as a neural injury marker and found to be significantly increased in the VILI group compared to spontaneously breathing or anesthetized and mechanically ventilated mice with 10 cc/kg tidal volume. VILI mice treated with systemic IL-6 inhibition had significantly reduced amygdalar and hippocampal CC3 expression compared to saline-treated animals and demonstrated amelioration in acute neuropsychiatric behaviors in open field, elevated plus maze, and Y-maze tests. Overall, these data provide evidence of a pathogenic role of systemic IL-6 in mediating structural and functional acute neuropsychiatric symptoms in VILI and provide preclinical justification to assess IL-6 inhibition as a potential intervention to ameliorate acute neuropsychiatric phenotypes following VILI.


Тема - темы
Acute Lung Injury , Delirium , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury , Acute Lung Injury/complications , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , Delirium/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-6 , Mice , Phenotype , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/pathology
20.
Nature ; 611(7935): 346-351, 2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036837

Реферат

Clinical outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are highly heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic infection to lethal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The factors underlying this heterogeneity remain insufficiently understood. Genetic association studies have suggested that genetic variants contribute to the heterogeneity of COVID-19 outcomes, but the underlying potential causal mechanisms are insufficiently understood. Here we show that common variants of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, homozygous in approximately 3% of the world's population1 and associated with Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis and anti-tumour immunity2-5, affect COVID-19 outcome in a mouse model that recapitulates increased susceptibility conferred by male sex and advanced age. Mice bearing the APOE2 or APOE4 variant exhibited rapid disease progression and poor survival outcomes relative to mice bearing the most prevalent APOE3 allele. APOE2 and APOE4 mice exhibited increased viral loads as well as suppressed adaptive immune responses early after infection. In vitro assays demonstrated increased infection in the presence of APOE2 and APOE4 relative to APOE3, indicating that differential outcomes are mediated by differential effects of APOE variants on both viral infection and antiviral immunity. Consistent with these in vivo findings in mice, our results also show that APOE genotype is associated with survival in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the UK Biobank (candidate variant analysis, P = 2.6 × 10-7). Our findings suggest APOE genotype to partially explain the heterogeneity of COVID-19 outcomes and warrant prospective studies to assess APOE genotyping as a means of identifying patients at high risk for adverse outcomes.


Тема - темы
Apolipoproteins E , COVID-19 , Human Genetics , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Apolipoprotein E2/genetics , Apolipoprotein E3/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Mice, Transgenic/genetics , Mice, Transgenic/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Disease Models, Animal
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