Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Шоу: 20 | 50 | 100
Результаты 1 - 20 de 68
Фильтр
Добавить фильтры

Годовой диапазон
1.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 27.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066276

Реферат

The recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China, has led to millions of infections and the death of approximately one million people. No targeted therapeutics are currently available, and only a few efficient treatment options are accessible. Many researchers are investigating active compounds from natural plant sources that may inhibit COVID-19 proliferation. Flavonoids are generally present in our diet, as well as traditional medicines and are effective against various diseases. Thus, here, we reviewed the potential of flavonoids against crucial proteins involved in the coronavirus infectious cycle. The fundamentals of coronaviruses, the structures of SARS-CoV-2, and the mechanism of its entry into the host's body have also been discussed. In silico studies have been successfully employed to study the interaction of flavonoids against COVID-19 Mpro, spike protein PLpro, and other interactive sites for its possible inhibition. Recent studies showed that many flavonoids such as hesperidin, amentoflavone, rutin, diosmin, apiin, and many other flavonoids have a higher affinity with Mpro and lower binding energy than currently used drugs such as hydroxylchloroquine, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and lopinavir. Thus, these compounds can be developed as specific therapeutic agents against COVID-19, but need further in vitro and in vivo studies to validate these compounds and pave the way for drug discovery.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diosmin , Hesperidin , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Lopinavir/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nelfinavir , Ritonavir/chemistry , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Rutin , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 222(Pt B): 2098-2104, 2022 Dec 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061252

Реферат

In our ongoing efforts to identify effective natural antiviral agents, four methoxy flavonoids (1-4) were isolated from the Inula britannica flower extract. Their structures were elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance. Flavonoids 1-4 exhibited inhibitory activity against SARS- CoV-2 3CLpro with IC50 values of 41.6 ± 2.5, 35.9 ± 0.9, 32.8 ± 1.2, and 96.6 ± 3.4 µM, respectively. Flavonoids 1-3 inhibited 3CLpro in a competitive manner. Based on molecular simulations, key amino acids that form hydrogen bond with inhibitor 3 were identified. Finally, we found that inhibitors (1-3) suppressed HCoV-OC43 coronavirus proliferation at micromole concentrations.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Inula , SARS-CoV-2 , Inula/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flowers , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
3.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023940

Реферат

Tuberculosis (TB) caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a threat to mankind, with over a billion of deaths in the last two centuries. Recent advancements in science have contributed to an understanding of Mtb pathogenesis and developed effective control tools, including effective drugs to control the global pandemic. However, the emergence of drug resistant Mtb strains has seriously affected the TB eradication program around the world. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop new drugs for TB treatment, which has grown researchers' interest in small molecule-based drug designing and development. The small molecules-based treatments hold significant potential to overcome drug resistance and even provide opportunities for multimodal therapy. In this context, various natural and synthetic flavonoids were reported for the effective treatment of TB. In this review, we have summarized the recent advancement in the understanding of Mtb pathogenesis and the importance of both natural and synthetic flavonoids against Mtb infection studied using in vitro and in silico methods. We have also included flavonoids that are able to inhibit the growth of non-tubercular mycobacterial organisms. Hence, understanding the therapeutic properties of flavonoids can be useful for the future treatment of TB.


Тема - темы
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Delivery Systems , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/microbiology
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010122

Реферат

Inhibition of inflammatory responses from the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 (Spike) by targeting NLRP3 inflammasome has recently been developed as an alternative form of supportive therapy besides the traditional anti-viral approaches. Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore (C. petasites) is a Thai traditional medicinal plant possessing antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, C. petasites ethanolic root extract (CpEE) underwent solvent-partitioned extraction to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction of C. petasites (CpEA). Subsequently, C. petasites extracts were determined for the flavonoid contents and anti-inflammatory properties against spike induction in the A549 lung cells. According to the HPLC results, CpEA significantly contained higher amounts of hesperidin and hesperetin flavonoids than CpEE (p < 0.05). A549 cells were then pre-treated with either C. petasites extracts or its active flavonoids and were primed with 100 ng/mL of spike S1 subunit (Spike S1) and determined for the anti-inflammatory properties. The results indicate that CpEA (compared with CpEE) and hesperetin (compared with hesperidin) exhibited greater anti-inflammatory properties upon Spike S1 induction through a significant reduction in IL-6, IL-1ß, and IL-18 cytokine releases in A549 cells culture supernatant (p < 0.05). Additionally, CpEA and hesperetin significantly inhibited the Spike S1-induced inflammatory gene expressions (NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-18, p < 0.05). Mechanistically, CpEA and hesperetin attenuated inflammasome machinery protein expressions (NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1), as well as inactivated the Akt/MAPK/AP-1 pathway. Overall, our findings could provide scientific-based evidence to support the use of C. petasites and hesperetin in the development of supportive therapies for the prevention of COVID-19-related chronic inflammation.


Тема - темы
Antipyretics , COVID-19 , Clerodendrum , Hesperidin , Petasites , A549 Cells , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Clerodendrum/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Hesperidin/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-6 , Lung/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transcription Factor AP-1
5.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994118

Реферат

The aim of this study was to determine the variability of several chemical compounds and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of eight types of berries harvested from two different geographical regions in the same year. The analyses were performed on bilberry, black currant, gooseberry, red currant, raspberry, sea buckthorn, strawberry and sour cherry, which were handpicked during the summer of 2019, in the same periods when they are typically harvested for consumer purposes. Total anthocyanins content (TAC), total flavonoids content (TFC), total polyphenolic compounds (TPC), determination of the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), determination of the DPPH free radical scavenging assay (RSA), determination of nine phenolic compounds by HPLC-UV assay and antimicrobial activity were determined for undiluted hydroalcoholic extracts of all the studied berries. The results showed that the berries from Romania were richer in antioxidant compounds than the berries from Russia. The TPC content varied between 4.13-22.2 mg GAE/g d.w., TFC between 3.33-8.87 mg QE/g d.w. and TAC between 0.13-3.94 mg/g d.w. The highest variability was determined for TPC. Regarding the antioxidant activity assessed by FRAP assay, values were between 6.02-57.23 µmols TE/g d.w. and values for the RSA method between 18.44-83.81%. From the eight types of berries analyzed, bilberries and raspberries had the highest antioxidant activity considering both regions and both determination methods. Not only the type, but also the environmental and cultivation conditions in which the berries grow, can lead to variations in their chemical composition. The extracted polyphenolic compounds from the studied berries showed antibacterial properties on pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus. The inhibitory action on Salmonella typhi and fungi Candida albicans and Aspegillus niger was absent to very low. The antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extracts was dependent on the provenance of the berries, too.


Тема - темы
Anti-Infective Agents , Ribes , Vaccinium myrtillus , Anthocyanins/analysis , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ribes/chemistry
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(18): 5987-6002, 2022 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990606

Реферат

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused a pandemic with > 550 millions of cases and > 6 millions of deaths worldwide. Medical management of COVID-19 relies on supportive care as no specific targeted therapies are available yet. Given its devastating effects on the economy and mental health, it is imperative to develop novel antivirals. An ideal candidate will be an agent that blocks the early events of viral attachment and cell entry, thereby preventing viral infection and spread. This work reports functionalized titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based nanoparticles adsorbed with flavonoids that block SARS-CoV-2 entry and fusion. Using molecular docking analysis, two flavonoids were chosen for their specific binding to critical regions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein that interacts with the host cell angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor. These flavonoids were adsorbed onto TiO2 functionalized nanoparticles (FTNP). This new nanoparticulate compound was assayed in vitro against two different coronaviruses; HCoV 229E and SARS-CoV-2, in both cases a clear antiviral effect was observed. Furthermore, using a reporter-based cell culture model, a potent antiviral activity is demonstrated. The adsorption of flavonoids to functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles induces a ~ threefold increase of that activity. These studies also indicate that FTNP interferes with the SARS-CoV-2 spike, impairing the cell fusion mechanism. KEY POINTS/HIGHLIGHTS: • Unique TiO2 nanoparticles displaying flavonoid showed potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. • The nanoparticles precisely targeting SARS-CoV-2 were quantitatively verified by cell infectivity in vitro. • Flavonoids on nanoparticles impair the interactions between the spike glycoprotein and ACE-2 receptor.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Titanium
7.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 18.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953750

Реферат

Voltage-gated potassium channels of the Kv1.3 type are considered a potential new molecular target in several pathologies, including some cancer disorders and COVID-19. Lipophilic non-toxic organic inhibitors of Kv1.3 channels, such as statins and flavonoids, may have clinical applications in supporting the therapy of some cancer diseases, such as breast, pancreas, and lung cancer; melanoma; or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This study focuses on the influence of the co-application of statins-simvastatin (SIM) or mevastatin (MEV)-with flavonoids 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), 6-prenylnarigenin (6-PN), xanthohumol (XANT), acacetin (ACAC), or chrysin on the activity of Kv1.3 channels, viability, and the apoptosis of cancer cells in the human T cell line Jurkat. We showed that the inhibitory effect of co-application of the statins with flavonoids was significantly more potent than the effects exerted by each compound applied alone. Combinations of simvastatin with chrysin, as well as mevastatin with 8-prenylnaringenin, seem to be the most promising. We also found that these results correlate with an increased ability of the statin-flavonoid combination to reduce viability and induce apoptosis in cancer cells compared to single compounds. Our findings suggest that the co-application of statins and flavonoids at low concentrations may increase the effectiveness and safety of cancer therapy. Thus, the simultaneous application of statins and flavonoids may be a new and promising anticancer strategy.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Neoplasms , Apoptosis , Cell Line , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Kv1.3 Potassium Channel/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Simvastatin/pharmacology
8.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 22(5): 22-30, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951886

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Flavonoid class phytochemicals are natural compounds present in different medicinal plants, vegetables and fruits. Ginkgo biloba contains significant amounts of bioflavonoid 'bilobetin'. Bilobetin is an active phytochemical used for the treatment of human health complications due to its medicinal properties and therapeutic benefit. The purpose of this work is to collect and reviewed scientific data on bilobetin from different literature sources; highlight their biological properties, pharmacological activities and analytical aspects. METHODS: Health beneficial aspects of bilobetin have been investigated in the present work through scientific data analysis. PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, Scopus, etc. have been searched in the present work in order to collect scientific information on bilobetin. Medicinal importance and therapeutic benefit of bilobetin has been searched in the present work through these databases of bilobetin. Detailed pharmacological activities of bilobetin have been reviewed in the present work through literature data analysis of various scientific research works. However, analytical data of bilobetin were also collected and reviewed in the present reaserch. RESULTS: Literature data analysis of bilobetin in the present work revealed the medicinal properties and therapeutic potential of bilobetin mainly due to its anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and anti-proliferative activities. Literature data analysis revealed the effectiveness of bilobetin on osteoporosis, glucose metabolism, adipocytes, SARS CoV-2, Influenza A virus and human thrombin. Scientific data also revealed the importance of different analytical techniques for the isolation, separation, identification, and quantification of bilobetin. CONCLUSION: Scientific data analysis revealed biological importance and pharmacological activities of bilobetin in the health sector.


Тема - темы
Biflavonoids , COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
9.
Phytother Res ; 36(7): 2921-2939, 2022 Jul.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941314

Реферат

Flavonoids are phenolic compounds naturally found in plants and commonly consumed in diets. Herein, flavonoids were sequentially evaluated by a comparative in silico study associated with systematic literature search. This was followed by an in vitro study and enzyme inhibition assays against vital SARS-CoV-2 proteins including spike (S) protein, main protease (Mpro ), RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp), and human transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2). The results obtained revealed 10 flavonoids with potential antiviral activity. Out of them, silibinin showed promising selectivity index against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Screening against S protein discloses the highest inhibition activity of silibinin. Mapping the activity of silibinin indicated its excellent binding inhibition activity against SARS-CoV-2 S protein, Mpro and RdRP at IC50 0.029, 0.021, and 0.042 µM, respectively, while it showed no inhibition activity against TMPRSS2 at its IC50(SARS-CoV-2) . Silibinin was tested safe on human mammalian cells at >7-fold its IC50(SARS-CoV-2) . Additionally, silibinin exhibited >90% virucidal activity at 0.031 µM. Comparative molecular docking (MD) showed that silibinin possesses the highest binding affinity to S protein and RdRP at -7.78 and -7.15 kcal/mol, respectively. MDs showed that silibinin exhibited stable interaction with key amino acids of SARS-CoV-2 targets. Collectively, silibinin, an FDA-approved drug, can significantly interfere with SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication through multi-targeting activity.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , RNA , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Silybin/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Systematic Reviews as Topic
10.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 30.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917793

Реферат

Despite the fast development of vaccines, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still circulating and generating variants of concern (VoC) that escape the humoral immune response. In this context, the search for anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds is still essential. A class of natural polyphenols known as flavonoids, frequently available in fruits and vegetables, is widely explored in the treatment of different diseases and used as a scaffold for the design of novel drugs. Therefore, herein we evaluate seven flavonoids divided into three subclasses, isoflavone (genistein), flavone (apigenin and luteolin) and flavonol (fisetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin), for COVID-19 treatment using cell-based assays and in silico calculations validated with experimental enzymatic data. The flavonols were better SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors than isoflavone and flavones. The increasing number of hydroxyl groups in ring B of the flavonols kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin decreased the 50% effective concentration (EC50) value due to their impact on the orientation of the compounds inside the target. Myricetin and fisetin appear to be preferred candidates; they are both anti-inflammatory (decreasing TNF-α levels) and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 mainly by targeting the processability of the main protease (Mpro) in a non-competitive manner, with a potency comparable to the repurposed drug atazanavir. However, fisetin and myricetin might also be considered hits that are amenable to synthetic modification to improve their anti-SARS-CoV-2 profile by inhibiting not only Mpro, but also the 3'-5' exonuclease (ExoN).


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Flavones , Isoflavones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavones/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonols/pharmacology , Humans , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Kaempferols , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875712

Реферат

Hydroxylated polyphenols, also called flavonoids, are richly present in vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, herbs, seeds, stems, and flowers of numerous plants. They possess numerous medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammation. Studies show that flavonoids activate antioxidant pathways that render an anti-inflammatory effect. They inhibit the secretions of enzymes such as lysozymes and ß-glucuronidase and inhibit the secretion of arachidonic acid, which reduces inflammatory reactions. Flavonoids such as quercetin, genistein, apigenin, kaempferol, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate modulate the expression and activation of a cytokine such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8); regulate the gene expression of many pro-inflammatory molecules such s nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM), and E-selectins; and also inhibits inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and lipoxygenase, which are pro-inflammatory enzymes. Understanding the anti-inflammatory action of flavonoids provides better treatment options, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, obstructive pulmonary disorder, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. This review highlights the sources, biochemical activities, and role of flavonoids in enhancing human health.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Flavonoids , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
12.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820345

Реферат

(1) Background: Natural constituents are still a preferred route for counteracting the outbreak of COVID-19. Essentially, flavonoids have been found to be among the most promising molecules identified as coronavirus inhibitors. Recently, a new SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant has spread in many countries, which has raised awareness of the role of natural constituents in attempts to contribute to therapeutic protocols. (2) Methods: Using various chromatographic techniques, triterpenes (1-7), phenolics (8-11), and flavonoids (12-17) were isolated from Euphorbia dendroides and computationally screened against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. As a first step, molecular docking calculations were performed for all investigated compounds. Promising compounds were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations (MD) for 200 ns, in addition to molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations (MM/PBSA) to determine binding energy. (3) Results: MM/PBSA binding energy calculations showed that compound 14 (quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucuronopyranoside) and compound 15 (quercetin-3-O-glucuronide 6″-O-methyl ester) exhibited strong inhibition of Omicron, with ΔGbinding of -41.0 and -32.4 kcal/mol, respectively. Finally, drug likeness evaluations based on Lipinski's rule of five also showed that the discovered compounds exhibited good oral bioavailability. (4) Conclusions: It is foreseeable that these results provide a novel intellectual contribution in light of the decreasing prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 and could be a good addition to the therapeutic protocol.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Euphorbia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Euphorbia/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycoproteins , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Curr Drug Targets ; 23(4): 420-436, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799012

Реферат

Chrysin (a flavonoid) has shown various promising pharmacological activities viz. anticancer, anti-diabetic, immune-modulation, antidepressant, and anti-asthmatic. Additionally, it exhibited potential protective effects against various toxins on different organs like the liver, brain, kidney, and heart. A multitude of studies have been conducted to explore the possible targets for its possible mechanism of action. However, its therapeutic applications have been limited due to its poor oral bioavailability. The major reason for its poor bioavailability is its extensive first-pass metabolism. A critical review of the pharmacological properties of chrysin and its associated molecular targets has not been discussed as yet comprehensively. Therefore, the emphasis of the present work is to provide an in-depth understanding of molecular targets accountable for the pharmacological actions of chrysin. Moreover, a schematic diagram was made for the first time to represent the comprehensive pharmacokinetic properties of chrysin, which helps to understand the biopharmaceutical aspect for its successful delivery. An in-depth understanding of the biopharmaceutical properties of chrysin will help in adopting a suitable formulation approach to overcome poor oral bioavailability. Additionally, it facilitates to study the possible pharmacokinetic interactions of chrysin with other drugs. Hence, we found that chrysin is a miraculous natural agent with myriad therapeutic properties, and its benefit can be exploited with an in-depth understanding of molecular targets, pharmacological actions, and biopharmaceutical attributes.


Тема - темы
Biological Products , Flavonoids , Biological Availability , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations
14.
ChemMedChem ; 17(8): e202100782, 2022 04 20.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797944

Реферат

The recent emergence of pandemic of coronavirus (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has raised significant global health concerns. More importantly, there is no specific therapeutics currently available to combat against this deadly infection. The enzyme 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) is known to be essential for viral life cycle as it controls the coronavirus replication. 3CLpro could be a potential drug target as established before in the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In the current study, we wanted to explore the potential of fused flavonoids as 3CLpro inhibitors. Fused flavonoids (5a,10a-dihydro-11H-benzofuro[3,2-b]chromene) are unexplored for their potential bioactivities due to their low natural occurrences. Their synthetic congeners are also rare due to unavailability of general synthetic methodology. Here we designed a simple strategy to synthesize 5a,10a-dihydro-11H-benzofuro[3,2-b]chromene skeleton and it's four novel derivatives. Our structural bioinformatics study clearly shows excellent potential of the synthesized compounds in comparison to experimentally validated inhibitor N3. Moreover, in-silico ADMET study displays excellent druggability and extremely low level of toxicity of the synthesized molecules. Further, for better understanding, the molecular dynamic approach was implemented to study the change in dynamicity after the compounds bind to the protein. A detailed investigation through clustering analysis and distance calculation gave us sound comprehensive data about their molecular interaction. In summary, we anticipate that the currently synthesized molecules could not only be a potential set of inhibitors against 3CLpro but also the insights acquired from the current study would be instrumental in further developing novel natural flavonoid based anti-COVID therapeutic spectrums.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Benzopyrans/therapeutic use , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry
15.
Drug Metab Bioanal Lett ; 15(1): 2-11, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775549

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Herbal products are derived from different natural sources, mainly used as a source of food material and medicine in the health sectors since ancient times. Herbal products have gained popularity in modern medicine due to their beneficial health properties and pharmacological activities. Flavonoids are an important class of secondary metabolites found to be present in medicinal plants and their derived products. Flavonoids have been known for their anti-allergic, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, antithrombotic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective activities in the medicine. Nicotiflorin is a flavonoidal class phytochemical, found in medicinal plants, including Traditional Chinese medicine. METHODS: Scientific data on the medicinal importance and pharmacological activities of nicotiflorin have been collected and analyzed in the present work in order to know the therapeutic importance of nicotiflorin in medicine. Scientific data have been collected from Google, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed and Scopus and analyzed in the present work. Analytical techniques data of separation, isolation and identification of nicotiflorin have also been collected and presented in the current work. Further biological importance of flavonoidal class phytochemicals was also discussed in the present work to understand the biological importance of nicotiflorin in medicine as it belongs to the flavonoid class. RESULTS: Scientific data analysis revealed the therapeutic importance and pharmacological activities of nicotiflorin. Nicotiflorin has significant biological potential against coronavirus, ischemia, renal impairment, hepatic complication, memory dysfunction and myocardial infarction. The biological potential of nicotiflorin against α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes, multiple myeloma cells and insulin secretion has also been discussed in the present work. Analytical data revealed the significance of modern analytical tools in medicine for the isolation, separation and quantification of nicotiflorin. CONCLUSION: Scientific data analysis of different research works revealed the biological importance and therapeutic potential of nicotiflorin in medicine.


Тема - темы
Cardiac Glycosides , Plants, Medicinal , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
16.
Phytother Res ; 36(5): 2042-2060, 2022 May.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750432

Реферат

The high incidence of post-covid symptoms in humans confirms the need for effective treatment. Due to long-term complications across several disciplines, special treatment programs emerge for affected patients, emphasizing multidisciplinary care. For these reasons, we decided to look at current knowledge about possible long-term complications of COVID-19 disease and then present the effect of flavonoids, which could help alleviate or eliminate complications in humans after overcoming the COVID-19 infection. Based on articles published from 2003 to 2021, we summarize the flavonoids-based molecular mechanisms associated with the post-COVID-19 syndrome and simultaneously provide a complex view regarding their prophylactic and therapeutic potential. Review clearly sorts out the outcome of post-COVID-19 syndrome according particular body systems. The conclusion is that flavonoids play an important role in prevention of many diseases. We suggest that flavonoids as critical nutritional supplements, are suitable for the alleviation and shortening of the period associated with the post-COVID-19 syndrome. The most promising flavonoid with noteworthy therapeutic and prophylactic effect appears to be quercetin.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Mol Model ; 28(4): 82, 2022 Mar 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729317

Реферат

Novel SARS coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that was identified and spread from Wuhan in 2019. On January 30th, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus outbreak as a Global Public Health Emergency. Although Remdesivir and Molnupiravir are FDA-approved drugs for COVID-19, finding new efficient and low-cost antiviral drugs against COVID-19 for applying in more countries can still be helpful. One of the potential sources for finding new and low-cost drugs is the herbal compounds in addition to repurposing FDA-approved drugs. So, in this study, we focused on finding effective drug candidates against COVID-19 based on the computational approaches. As ACE2 serves as a critical receptor for cell entry of this virus. Inhibiting the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 on human ACE2 provides a promising therapeutic approach for developing drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we applied a bioinformatics approach to identify possible potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. A library of FDA-approved compounds and five natural compounds was screened using Smina docking. Top-docking compounds are then applied in Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation to assess the stability of ACE2-inhibitor complexes. Results indicate that Luteolin and Chrysin represent high conformation stability with ACE2 during 120 ns of Molecular Dynamics simulation. The binding free energies of Luteolin and Chrysin were calculated by the Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area method (MM/PBSA) which confirmed the relative binding free energy of these drugs to ACE2 in favor of the effective binding. So, Luteolin and Chrysin could sufficiently interact with ACE2 and block the Spike binding pocket of ACE2 and can be a potential inhibitor against the binding of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 receptor which is an early stage of infection. Luteolin and Chrysin could be suggestive as beneficial compounds for preventing or reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission and infection which need experimental work to prove.


Тема - темы
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Luteolin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , Drug Repositioning , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding
18.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Mar 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715570

Реферат

A new flavonoid, Jusanin, (1) has been isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia commutata. The chemical structure of Jusanin has been elucidated using 1D, 2D NMR, and HR-Ms spectroscopic methods to be 5,2',4'-trihydroxy-6,7,5'-trimethoxyflavone. Being new in nature, the inhibition potential of 1 has been estimated against SARS-CoV-2 using different in silico techniques. Firstly, molecular similarity and fingerprint studies have been conducted for Jusanin against co-crystallized ligands of eight different SARS-CoV-2 essential proteins. The studies indicated the similarity between 1 and X77, the co-crystallized ligand SARS-CoV-2 main protease (PDB ID: 6W63). To confirm the obtained results, a DFT study was carried out and indicated the similarity of (total energy, HOMO, LUMO, gap energy, and dipole moment) between 1 and X77. Accordingly, molecular docking studies of 1 against the target enzyme have been achieved and showed that 1 bonded correctly in the protein's active site with a binding energy of -19.54 Kcal/mol. Additionally, in silico ADMET in addition to the toxicity evaluation of Jusanin against seven models have been preceded and indicated the general safety and the likeness of Jusanin to be a drug. Finally, molecular dynamics simulation studies were applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the Mpro-Jusanin complex and confirmed the correct binding at 100 ns. In addition to 1, three other metabolites have been isolated and identified to be сapillartemisin A (2), methyl-3-[S-hydroxyprenyl]-cumarate (3), and ß-sitosterol (4).


Тема - темы
Artemisia/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonoids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Animals , Artemisia/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Density Functional Theory , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Lethal Dose 50 , Male , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Skin/drug effects , Skin/pathology
19.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Mar 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715569

Реферат

COVID-19 is an endothelial disease. All the major comorbidities that increase the risk for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 including old age, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disease, compromised immune system, coronary artery disease or heart failure are associated with dysfunctional endothelium. Genetics and environmental factors (epigenetics) are major risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and poor COVID-19 outcomes and higher risk of mortality. Old age is a non-modifiable risk factor. All other risk factors are modifiable. This review also identifies dietary risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Potential dietary preventions that address endothelial dysfunction and its sequelae may have an important role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection severity and are key factors for future research to address. This review presents some dietary bioactives with demonstrated efficacy against dysfunctional endothelial cells. This review also covers dietary bioactives with efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Dietary bioactive compounds that prevent endothelial dysfunction and its sequelae, especially in the gastrointestinal tract, will result in more effective prevention of SARS-CoV-2 variant infection severity and are key factors for future food research to address.


Тема - темы
Endothelium/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Functional Food/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelium/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Stilbenes/therapeutic use , Terpenes/pharmacology , Terpenes/therapeutic use
20.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715568

Реферат

Baicalin is a major active ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria baicalensis, and has been shown to have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. However, the protein targets of baicalin have remained unclear. Herein, a chemical proteomics strategy was developed by combining baicalin-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (BCL-N3@MNPs) and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify the target proteins of baicalin. Bioinformatics analysis with the use of Gene Ontology, STRING and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, was performed to annotate the biological functions and the associated signaling pathways of the baicalin targeting proteins. Fourteen proteins in human embryonic kidney cells were identified to interact with baicalin with various binding affinities. Bioinformatics analysis revealed these proteins are mainly ATP-binding and/or ATPase activity proteins, such as CKB, HSP86, HSP70-1, HSP90, ATPSF1ß and ACTG1, and highly associated with the regulation of the role of PKR in interferon induction and the antiviral response signaling pathway (P = 10-6), PI3K/AKT signaling pathway (P = 10-5) and eNOS signaling pathway (P = 10-4). The results show that baicalin exerts multiply pharmacological functions, such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant functions, through regulating the PKR and PI3K/AKT/eNOS signaling pathways by targeting ATP-binding and ATPase activity proteins. These findings provide a fundamental insight into further studies on the mechanism of action of baicalin.


Тема - темы
Flavonoids/pharmacology , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Flavonoids/chemistry , Humans , Magnetite Nanoparticles/chemistry , Magnetite Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Protein Interaction Mapping
Критерии поиска