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5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5567, 2022 04 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931451

Реферат

Despite the contribution of dyslipidemia to the high and rising burden of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Sub-Saharan Africa; the condition is under-diagnosed, under-treated, and under-described. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of dyslipidemias, estimate a 10-year cardiovascular disease risk and associated factors in adults (≥ 35 to ≤ 85 years) living in Asmara, Eritrea. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among individuals without overt CVDs in Asmara, Eritrea, from October 2020 to November 2020. After stratified multistage sampling, a total of 386 (144 (37%) males and 242 (63%) females, mean age ± SD, 52.17 ± 13.29 years) respondents were randomly selected. The WHO NCD STEPS instrument version 3.1 questionnaire was used to collect data. Information on socio-demographic variables was collected via interviews by trained data collectors. Measurements/or analyses including anthropometric, lipid panel, fasting plasma glucose, and blood pressure were also undertaken. Finally, data was analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 26.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). All p-values were 2-sided and the level of significance was set at p < 0.05 for all analyses. The frequency of dyslipidemia in this population was disproportionately high (87.4%) with the worst affected subgroup in the 51-60 age band. Further, 98% of the study participants were not aware of their diagnosis. In terms of individual lipid markers, the proportions were as follows: low HDL-C (55.2%); high TC (49.7%); high LDL (44.8%); high TG (38.1%). The mean ± SD, for HDL-C, TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and TG were 45.28 ± 9.60; 205.24 ± 45.77; 130.77 ± 36.15; 160.22 ± 42.09 and 144.5 ± 61.26 mg/dL, respectively. Regarding NCEP ATP III risk criteria, 17.6%, 19.4%, 16.3%, 19.7%, and 54.7% were in high or very high-risk categories for TC, Non-HDL-C, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C, respectively. Among all respondents, 59.6% had mixed dyslipidemias with TC + TG + LDL-C dominating. In addition, 27.3%, 28.04%, 23.0%, and 8.6% had abnormalities in 1, 2, 3 and 4 lipid abnormalities, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression modeling suggested that dyslipidemia was lower in subjects who were employed (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24-0.97, p = 0.015); self-employed (aOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-1.00, p = 0.018); and married (aOR 2.35, 95% CI 1.19-4.66, p = 0.009). A higher likelihood of dyslipidemia was also associated with increasing DBP (aOR 1.04 mmHg (1.00-1.09, p = 0.001) and increasing FPG (aOR 1.02 per 1 mg/dL, 95% CI 1.00-1.05, p = 0.001). Separately, Framingham CVD Risk score estimates suggested that 12.7% and 2.8% were at 10 years CVD high risk or very high-risk strata. High frequency of poor lipid health may be a prominent contributor to the high burden of atherosclerotic CVDs-related mortality and morbidity in Asmara, Eritrea. Consequently, efforts directed at early detection, and evidence-based interventions are warranted. The low awareness rate also points at education within the population as a possible intervention pathway.


Тема - темы
Cardiovascular Diseases , Dyslipidemias , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eritrea/epidemiology , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors
6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 118(4): 787-788, 2022 04.
Статья в английский, португальский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918363
7.
Glob Heart ; 17(1): 40, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911977

Реферат

Background and aims: Limited data exist on the cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 from low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to describe cardiovascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in low, lower-middle, upper-middle- and high-income countries (LIC, LMIC, UMIC, HIC). Methods: Through a prospective cohort study, data on demographics and pre-existing conditions at hospital admission, clinical outcomes at hospital discharge (death, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), renal failure, neurological events, and pulmonary outcomes), 30-day vital status, and re-hospitalization were collected. Descriptive analyses and multivariable log-binomial regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity/income groups, and clinical characteristics, were performed. Results: Forty hospitals from 23 countries recruited 5,313 patients with COVID-19 (LIC = 7.1%, LMIC = 47.5%, UMIC = 19.6%, HIC = 25.7%). Mean age was 57.0 (±16.1) years, male 59.4%, pre-existing conditions included: hypertension 47.3%, diabetes 32.0%, coronary heart disease 10.9%, and heart failure 5.5%. The most frequently reported cardiovascular discharge diagnoses were cardiac arrest (5.5%), acute heart failure (3.8%), and myocardial infarction (1.6%). The rate of in-hospital deaths was 12.9% (N = 683), and post-discharge 30 days deaths was 2.6% (N = 118) (overall death rate 15.1%). The most common causes of death were respiratory failure (39.3%) and sudden cardiac death (20.0%). The predictors of overall mortality included older age (≥60 years), male sex, pre-existing coronary heart disease, renal disease, diabetes, ICU admission, oxygen therapy, and higher respiratory rates (p < 0.001 for each). Compared to Caucasians, Asians, Blacks, and Hispanics had almost 2-4 times higher risk of death. Further, patients from LIC, LMIC, UMIC versus. HIC had 2-3 times increased risk of death. Conclusions: The LIC, LMIC, and UMIC's have sparse data on COVID-19. We provide robust evidence on COVID-19 outcomes in these countries. This study can help guide future health care planning for the pandemic globally.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Failure , Aftercare , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 20(7): 507-513, 2022 Jul.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900916

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has induced an increase in anxiety, stress, and depression in the world population, prompting a reevaluation of these well-known risk factors on cardiovascular burden. AREAS COVERED: This short report analyzes the impact of the pandemic on stress and depression, highlighting how the phenomenon has particularly affected women and highlights the strategies that can be undertaken after the pandemic to reduce stress and depression. We have analyzed the pandemic because it has completely changed the scenario of cardiovascular risk factors with an important increase in socio-economic stressors. EXPERT OPINION: It is still difficult to assess the damage produced on cardiovascular risk just as it is almost impossible to predict how the overwhelming and important increase in Long-Covid Syndromes will impact the population. Strong action is needed to support critical situations and to implement social campaigns aimed at restoring healthy lifestyles. Physical activity can be an easy and inexpensive tool to help cope with stress and depression.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
10.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(10): 20-22, 2022 05.
Статья в Немецкий | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899373
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892882

Реферат

People with severe mental illness (PSMI) have a shorter life expectancy and are more likely to have cardiovascular disease than the general population. Patients, carers, psychiatric professionals and primary care providers can all play a role in increasing PSMI physical health. The present qualitative exploratory study aimed to explore the views of these four populations as part of the multi-phase COPsyCAT project, whose objective is to build and test a cardiovascular risk prevention programme for PSMI. Overall, 107 people participated in the study's 16 focus groups, which were transcribed and analysed in a thematic analysis. With a view to building the health promotion programme, major themes identified in the corpus were translated into a list of needs as follows: communication, information, training and support. Results show that it is essential to improve communication between all the different stakeholders in mental health. The greatest challenge facing this programme will be to adapt it to the needs and expectations of PSMI while facilitating work between the various mental health stakeholders. Simple and inexpensive actions could be taken to improve the cardiovascular health of PSMI and will be experimented with during the programme's feasibility study which will start in September 2022.


Тема - темы
Cardiovascular Diseases , Mental Disorders , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Qualitative Research , Risk Factors
12.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 118(5): 927-934, 2022 05.
Статья в английский, португальский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865768

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown a higher prevalence of deaths in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) during hospitalization for COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of high cardiovascular risk in patients hospitalized in intensive care for COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective study with patients admitted to an intensive care unit, with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR, and with at least one troponin measurement during hospitalization. The criteria for defining high cardiovascular risk (HCR) patients were: history of established cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease), diabetes, chronic kidney disease with clearance < 60ml/min, or presence of 3 CRFs (hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, or age > 65 years). The primary outcome of this study is all-cause in-hospital mortality. P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: This study included 236 patients, mean age = 61.14±16.2 years, with 63.1% men, 55.5% hypertensive, and 33.1% diabetic; 47.4% of the patients also presented HCR. A significant increase in mortality was observed as the number of risk factors increased (0 FRC: 5.9%; 1 FRC: 17.5%; 2 FRC: 32.2% and ≥3 FRC: 41.2%; p=0.001). In the logistic regression adjusted for severity (SAPS3 score), the HCR and myocardial injury group had a higher occurrence of in-hospital mortality (OR 40.38; 95% CI 11.78-138.39). Patients without HCR but with myocardial injury also exhibited a significant association with the primary outcome (OR 16.7; 95% CI 4.45-62.74). CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized in intensive care for COVID-19, HCR impacts in-hospital mortality only in patients with myocardial injury.


FUNDAMENTO: Alguns estudos demonstraram uma maior prevalência de óbitos em portadores de fatores de risco cardiovascular (FRC) durante internação por COVID-19. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o impacto do alto risco cardiovascular em pacientes internados em terapia intensiva por COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com pacientes admitidos em terapia intensiva, com diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 por RT-PCR e com pelo menos uma dosagem de troponina durante a internação. Os critérios para definição de paciente de alto risco cardiovascular (ARC) foram: histórico de doença cardiovascular estabelecida (infarto, AVC ou doença arterial periférica), diabetes, doença renal crônica com clearance < 60ml/min ou presença de 3 FRC (hipertensão, tabagismo, dislipidemia ou idade > 65 anos). O desfecho primário deste estudo é mortalidade hospitalar por todas as causas. P<0,05 foi considerado significativo. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 236 pacientes, média de idade= 61,14±16,2 anos, com 63,1% homens, 55,5% hipertensos e 33,1% diabéticos. Um total de 47,4% dos pacientes apresentavam ARC. Observou-se um aumento significativo da mortalidade conforme aumento do número de fatores de risco (0 FRC: 5,9%; 1 FRC: 17,5%; 2 FRC: 32,2% e ≥3 FRC: 41,2%; p=0,001). Na regressão logística ajustada para gravidade (escore SAPS3), o grupo de alto risco cardiovascular e troponina elevada apresentou maior ocorrência de mortalidade hospitalar (OR 40,38; IC95% 11,78-138,39). Pacientes sem alto risco cardiovascular, mas com troponina elevada, também exibiram associação significativa com o desfecho primário (OR 16,7; IC95% 4,45-62,74). CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes internados em terapia intensiva por COVID-19, a presença de alto risco cardiovascular afeta a mortalidade hospitalar somente em pacientes que apresentaram elevação de troponina.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Critical Care , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e055903, 2022 05 24.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865171

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to report the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and other non-communicable diseases among migrant workers in Singapore admitted for COVID-19 infection, to highlight disease burden and the need for changes in health screening and healthcare delivery in this unique population. SETTING: The study was conducted in the largest tertiary hospital in Singapore. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: 883 migrant workers who had mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 infection admitted to three isolation wards between 6 April 2020 and 31 May 2020 were included in this study. OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measures were the prevalence of pre-existing and newly diagnosed comorbid conditions and the prevalence of CVRFs-diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia-and non-communicable diseases at the time of discharge. The OR of having specific CVRFs depending on country of origin was generated via multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The median age of our study population was 45 years. 17.0% had pre-existing conditions and 25.9% received new diagnoses. Of the new diagnoses, 15.7% were acute medical conditions and 84.3% chronic medical conditions. The prevalence of CVRFs was higher in Southeast Asian and South Asian migrant workers compared with Chinese. The prevalence of non-communicable diseases on discharge was highest among Southeast Asians (49.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak in a large number of migrant workers in Singapore unmasked a significant disease burden among them, increasing stakeholders' interests in their welfare. Moving forward, system-level changes are necessary to deliver healthcare sustainably and effect improvements in migrant workers' health.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Noncommunicable Diseases , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore/epidemiology
14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(1): 79-87, 2022 05 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865033

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has allowed for viral load (VL) suppression and increased life expectancy for persons with HIV (PWH). Altered brain integrity, measured by neuropsychological (NP) performance and neuroimaging, is still prevalent among virally suppressed PWH. Age-related conditions such as cardiovascular disease may also affect brain integrity. This study investigated the effects of cardiovascular risk, VL, and HIV serostatus on cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain volumetrics, and cognitive function in PWH and persons without HIV (PWoH). METHODS: Ten-year cardiovascular risk, using the Framingham Heart Study criteria, was calculated in PWH (n = 164) on cART with undetectable (≤20 copies/mL; n = 134) or detectable (>20 copies/mL; n = 30) VL and PWoH (n = 66). The effects of cardiovascular risk on brain integrity (CBF, volume, and cognition) were compared for PWH (undetectable and detectable VL) and PWoH. RESULTS: PWH had smaller brain volumes and worse NP scores than PWoH. PWH with detectable and undetectable VL had similar brain integrity measures. Higher cardiovascular risk was associated with smaller volumes and lower CBF in multiple brain regions for PWH and PWoH. Significant interactions between HIV serostatus and cardiovascular risk on brain volumes were observed in frontal, orbitofrontal, and motor regions. Cardiovascular risk was not associated with cognition for PWH or PWoH. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroimaging, but not cognitive measures, was associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. HIV serostatus was associated with diminished brain volumes and worse cognition while CBF remained unchanged, reflecting potential protective effects of cART. Neuroimaging measures of structure (volume) and function (CBF) may identify contributions of comorbidities, but future longitudinal studies are needed.


Тема - темы
Cardiovascular Diseases , HIV Infections , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Risk Factors , Viral Load
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013334, 2022 01 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838126

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Debates on effective and safe diets for managing obesity in adults are ongoing. Low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets (also known as 'low-carb diets') continue to be widely promoted, marketed and commercialised as being more effective for weight loss, and healthier, than 'balanced'-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets to weight-reducing diets with balanced ranges of carbohydrates, in relation to changes in weight and cardiovascular risk, in overweight and obese adults without and with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science Core Collection (Clarivate Analytics), ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to 25 June 2021, and screened reference lists of included trials and relevant systematic reviews. Language or publication restrictions were not applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults (18 years+) who were overweight or living with obesity, without or with T2DM, and without or with cardiovascular conditions or risk factors. Trials had to compare low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets to balanced-carbohydrate (45% to 65% of total energy (TE)) weight-reducing diets, have a weight-reducing phase of 2 weeks or longer and be explicitly implemented for the primary purpose of reducing weight, with or without advice to restrict energy intake.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts and full-text articles to determine eligibility; and independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias using RoB 2 and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We stratified analyses by participants without and with T2DM, and by diets with weight-reducing phases only and those with weight-reducing phases followed by weight-maintenance phases. Primary outcomes were change in body weight (kg) and the number of participants per group with weight loss of at least 5%, assessed at short- (three months to < 12 months) and long-term (≥ 12 months) follow-up. MAIN RESULTS: We included 61 parallel-arm RCTs that randomised 6925 participants to either low-carbohydrate or balanced-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets. All trials were conducted in high-income countries except for one in China. Most participants (n = 5118 randomised) did not have T2DM. Mean baseline weight across trials was 95 kg (range 66 to 132 kg). Participants with T2DM were older (mean 57 years, range 50 to 65) than those without T2DM (mean 45 years, range 22 to 62). Most trials included men and women (42/61; 3/19 men only; 16/19 women only), and people without baseline cardiovascular conditions, risk factors or events (36/61). Mean baseline diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol across trials were within normal ranges. The longest weight-reducing phase of diets was two years in participants without and with T2DM. Evidence from studies with weight-reducing phases followed by weight-maintenance phases was limited. Most trials investigated low-carbohydrate diets (> 50 g to 150 g per day or < 45% of TE; n = 42), followed by very low (≤ 50 g per day or < 10% of TE; n = 14), and then incremental increases from very low to low (n = 5). The most common diets compared were low-carbohydrate, balanced-fat (20 to 35% of TE) and high-protein (> 20% of TE) treatment diets versus control diets balanced for the three macronutrients (24/61). In most trials (45/61) the energy prescription or approach used to restrict energy intake was similar in both groups. We assessed the overall risk of bias of outcomes across trials as predominantly high, mostly from bias due to missing outcome data. Using GRADE, we assessed the certainty of evidence as moderate to very low across outcomes.  Participants without and with T2DM lost weight when following weight-reducing phases of both diets at the short (range: 12.2 to 0.33 kg) and long term (range: 13.1 to 1.7 kg).  In overweight and obese participants without T2DM: low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets compared to balanced-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets (weight-reducing phases only) probably result in little to no difference in change in body weight over three to 8.5 months (mean difference (MD) -1.07 kg, (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.55 to -0.59, I2 = 51%, 3286 participants, 37 RCTs, moderate-certainty evidence) and over one to two years (MD -0.93 kg, 95% CI -1.81 to -0.04, I2 = 40%, 1805 participants, 14 RCTs, moderate-certainty evidence); as well as change in DBP and LDL cholesterol over one to two years. The evidence is very uncertain about whether there is a difference in the number of participants per group with weight loss of at least 5% at one year (risk ratio (RR) 1.11, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.31, I2 = 17%, 137 participants, 2 RCTs, very low-certainty evidence).  In overweight and obese participants with T2DM: low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets compared to balanced-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets (weight-reducing phases only) probably result in little to no difference in change in body weight over three to six months (MD -1.26 kg, 95% CI -2.44 to -0.09, I2 = 47%, 1114 participants, 14 RCTs, moderate-certainty evidence) and over one to two years (MD -0.33 kg, 95% CI -2.13 to 1.46, I2 = 10%, 813 participants, 7 RCTs, moderate-certainty evidence); as well in change in DBP, HbA1c and LDL cholesterol over 1 to 2 years. The evidence is very uncertain about whether there is a difference in the number of participants per group with weight loss of at least 5% at one to two years (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.20, I2 = 0%, 106 participants, 2 RCTs, very low-certainty evidence).  Evidence on participant-reported adverse effects was limited, and we could not draw any conclusions about these.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is probably little to no difference in weight reduction and changes in cardiovascular risk factors up to two years' follow-up, when overweight and obese participants without and with T2DM are randomised to either low-carbohydrate or balanced-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets.


Тема - темы
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Energy Intake , Adult , Body Weight , Carbohydrates , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Male
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e937048, 2022 May 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835855

Реферат

The consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection include short-term, long-term, mild, and severe clinical symptoms. The cardiovascular system, including endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiac myocytes, are important targets for SARS-CoV-2. In February 2022, the findings from a large US cohort of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 and two sets of control cohorts evaluated the risk and 12-month cardiovascular disease burden. Individuals who had COVID-19 had a 72% increased risk of heart failure, a 63% increased risk of myocardial infarction, and a 52% increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with controls. These results were independent of gender, race, age, and other cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and chronic kidney disease. As of 25 April 2022, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that more than 80 million people in the US, more than 22 million people in the UK, and more than 505 million people worldwide were infected with SARS-CoV-2. This Editorial aims to present what is currently known about the cardiovascular outcomes at one year following SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlights that primary care physicians should be mindful of the COVID-19 infection status of their patients when evaluating cardiovascular health.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Endothelial Cells , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e228873, 2022 04 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825757

Реферат

Importance: Influenza infection is associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. Our prior systematic review and meta-analysis hypothesized that influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events. Objective: To evaluate, via an updated meta-analysis, if seasonal influenza vaccination is associated with a lower risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events and assess whether the newest cardiovascular outcome trial results are consistent with prior findings. Data Sources: A previously published meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and a large 2021 cardiovascular outcome trial. Study Selection: Studies with RCTs published between 2000 and 2021 that randomized participants to either influenza vaccine or placebo/control. Eligible participants were inpatients and outpatients recruited for international multicenter RCTs and randomized to receive either influenza vaccine or placebo/control. Data Extraction and Synthesis: PRISMA guidelines were followed in the extraction of study details, and risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Trial quality was evaluated using Cochrane criteria. Data were analyzed January 2020 and December 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Random-effects Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were derived for a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality within 12 months of follow-up. Where available, analyses were stratified by patients with and without recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) within 1 year of randomization. Results: Six published RCTs comprising a total of 9001 patients were included (mean age, 65.5 years; 42.5% women; 52.3% with a cardiac history). Overall, influenza vaccine was associated with a lower risk of composite cardiovascular events (3.6% vs 5.4%; RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53-0.83; P < .001). A treatment interaction was detected between patients with recent ACS (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) and without recent ACS (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.68-1.47) (P for interaction = .02). For cardiovascular mortality, a treatment interaction was also detected between patients with recent ACS (RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.85) and without recent ACS (RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.84-2.50) (P for interaction = .006), while 1.7% of vaccine recipients died of cardiovascular causes compared with 2.5% of placebo or control recipients (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.42-1.30; P = .29). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, receipt of influenza vaccination was associated with a 34% lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, and individuals with recent ACS had a 45% lower risk. Given influenza poses a threat to population health during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is integral to counsel high-risk patients on the cardiovascular benefits of influenza vaccination.


Тема - темы
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Aged , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vaccination
19.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 50(2): 103-111, 2022 03 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786228

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 infection is a global pandemic that has affected the whole world population. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of cross-sectional area, muscle index, and muscle attenuation values in computed tomography-based skeletal groups [erector spinae muscle, pectoralis muscle, and total skeletal muscle] of patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 and with at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor. METHODS: A total of 232 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor were enrolled in the study, retrospectively. The cross-sectional area, muscle index, and attenuation of erector spine muscle, pectoralis muscle, and total skeletal muscle were automatically measured on computed tomography images. The study population was assigned into tertiles on the basis of the total SMcsa index. The relationship between the values obtained and the length of hospital stay, admission to intensive care unit, the need for invasive mechani cal ventilation, and mortality was investigated. RESULTS: Admission to intensive care unit, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and mor tality were higher at tertile 3 groups than in the other groups (all P values <.001). Statistically, all muscle measurements were significantly lower in tertile 3 (P <.001). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and total SMcsa index were predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 on the basis of Cox regression analysis. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis for the proportion of survivors relative to the total SMcsa index, tertile 3 had the highest mortal ity (survival rates 57%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia and attendant cardiovascular comorbidities can effectively assess dis ease severity and predict outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Sarcopenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sarcopenia/complications , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3669-3675, 2022 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782627

Реферат

The present study aimed to assess the association of 16 polymorphisms in genes encoding prothrombotic and cardiovascular risk factors with COVID-19 disease severity: FV G1691A, FV H1299R, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298, factor XIII V34L, PAI-1 4G/5G, EPCR haplotypes (A1/A2/A3), eNOS -786 T > C, eNOS G894T, LTA C804A, ACE I/D, ITGB3 PIA1/A2, ITGA2B Baka/b, ß-Fbg -455 G > A and ApoB R3500Q. The study included 30 patients with severe COVID-19 and 49 non-severe COVID-19 patients. All studied polymorphisms except ITGA2B Baka/b were determined using multilocus genotyping assays CVD StripAssays (ViennaLab Diagnostics), while ITGA2B was genotyped using a real-time PCR method based on TaqMan technology. A higher frequency of carriers of at least one ITGB3 PIA2 allele was found in severe COVID-19 patients (p = 0.009). The distribution of genotypes was significantly different for ß-Fbg -455 G > A (p = 0.042), with only three homozygous AA genotypes found among severe COVID-19 patients. The association with an increased risk for severe COVID-19 was found for ITGB3, with carriers of at least one ITGB3 PIA2 allele having a 3.5-fold greater risk of severe COVID-19 (p = 0.011). Genotype distribution differences were obtained for the combinations of FV H1299R and FXIII V34L (p = 0.026), ITGB3 PIA1/A2 and ITGA2B Baka/b (p = 0.024), and ACE I/D and PAI-1 4G/5G (p = 0.046). ITGB3 polymorphism emerged as an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 and homozygosity for ß-Fbg -455 G > A mutation could contribute to disease severity. The combined effect of polymorphisms in genes encoding prothrombotic and cardiovascular risk factors could further contribute to disease severity.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Pilot Projects , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/genetics , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
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