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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(37): e30367, 2022 Sep 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077953

Реферат

In patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), anticoagulation was suggested as a mitigating strategy. However, little research has been conducted on the adverse consequences of anticoagulant medication. This study aimed to investigate the adverse effect of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on hemoglobin fall in COVID-19 treatment. The electronic medical records of COVID-19 patients with pneumonia were collected (including clinical characteristics, vaccination status, complete blood count, coagulation profile, inflammatory cytokines, serum biochemical indicators, and computerized tomography imaging score). Whether they received LMWH, patients were divided into the LMWH group and the control group. Count data were represented as frequency distribution, and a 2-tailed test was used to compare the 2 groups. Spearman rank correlation was used to evaluate the interrelation between changes in hemoglobin and LMWH. The confounding factors were excluded by logistic regression analysis. A total of 179 COVID-19 pneumonia patients were enrolled (81 in the LMWH group and 98 in the control group). The change in hemoglobin was -6.0g/L (IQR -10.8 to 1.0) in the LMWH group and -2.0g/L (IQR -7.0 to 4.0) in the control group (P < .001, between-group difference, -5.0 g/L; 95% confidence interval, -7.0 to -3.0, calculated with the use of the Mann-Whitney U test and the Hodges-Lehmann estimate of confidence intervals for pseudo-medians). The results of multivariate regression analysis showed that after adjusting for confounding factors, LMWH use was not associated with a decrease in hemoglobin (P > .05). In nonsevere COVID-19 patients with pneumonia, the preventive use of LMWH did not lower hemoglobin.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines , Hemoglobins , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy
2.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(7): 850-857, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050627

Реферат

Critically ill COVID-19 patients present an inflammatory and procoagulant status with a high rate of relevant macro- and microvascular thrombosis. Furthermore, high rates of heparin resistance have been described; yet, individualized anticoagulation by drug monitoring has not been sufficiently researched. We analyzed data from critically ill COVID-19 patients treated at Innsbruck Medical University Hospital with routinely adapted low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) doses according to anti-Xa peak levels, and regularly performed ClotPro analyses (a viscoelastic hemostatic whole blood test). A total of 509 anti-Xa peak measurements in 91 patients were categorized as below (<0.008 IU/mL/mg), within (0.008-0-012 IU/mL/mg) or above (> 0.012 IU/mL/mg) expected ranges with respect to the administered LMWH doses. Besides intergroup comparisons, correlations between anti-Xa levels and ClotPro clotting times (CTs) were performed (226 time points in 84 patients). Anti-Xa peak levels remained below the expected range in the majority of performed measurements (63.7%). Corresponding patients presented with higher C-reactive protein and D-dimer but lower antithrombin levels when compared with patients achieving or exceeding the expected range. Consequently, higher enoxaparin doses were applied in the sub-expected anti-Xa range group. Importantly, 47 (51.6%) patients switched between groups during their intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Anti-Xa levels correlated weakly with IN test CT and moderately with Russell's viper venom (RVV) test CT. Critically ill COVID-19 patients present with a high rate of LMWH resistance but with a variable LMWH response during their ICU stay. Therefore, LMWH-anti-Xa monitoring seems inevitable to achieve adequate target ranges. Furthermore, we propose the use of ClotPro's RVV test to assess the coagulation status during LMWH administration, as it correlates well with anti-Xa levels but more holistically reflects the coagulation cascade than anti-Xa activity alone.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Humans , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , C-Reactive Protein , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Heparin/adverse effects , Viper Venoms , Antithrombins , Factor Xa Inhibitors
3.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 33(6): 342-347, 2022 Sep 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001485

Реферат

Immunosuppressive treatment and bypassing agents are used to treat acquired haemophilia A (AHA). On the other hand, COVID-19 infection induces a hypercoagulable state. Managing bleeding, risk of thrombosis, bypassing agents, active infection and immunosuppressive treatment can be challenging. A 72-year-old man was diagnosed with acquired hemophilia A. He received steroids, rituximab and recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa). He developed severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Due to thrombotic risk, he received low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and developed an iliopsoas hematoma. Because of the risk of thrombosis, treatment with recombinant porcine FVIII (rpFVIII) was requested. Tocilizumab was administered for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and unexpected improvement of FVIII levels was noted. Concluding, rpFVIII treatment was well tolerated and effective, easy to monitor and to administer. Tocilizumab may play a role as immunosuppressive treatment for AHA. The role of LMWH remains to be established in patients with coagulopathies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hemophilia A , Pneumonia , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor VIII/therapeutic use , Hemophilia A/complications , Hemophilia A/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Pneumonia/complications , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
4.
Ann Transplant ; 27: e935874, 2022 Aug 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988529

Реферат

BACKGROUND COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been one of the greatest challenges in modern medicine. It is mostly known to affect the pulmonary system, leading to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but there is a growing body of evidence of extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 disease. CASE REPORT This article presents 3 cases of various extrapulmonary symptoms of COVID-19 disease and a literature review of similar clinical cases. Two patients had a medical history of living-donor kidney transplantation, and 1 patient was a kidney donor. We present symptoms, diagnostic processes, laboratory and imaging results, and treatment approach. Patient 1 was 29-year-old woman with new-onset diabetes mellitus due to SARS-CoV-2, which required temporary insulin treatment. Patient 2 was a 34-year-old man with fever, chronic fatigue, back pain, and abdominal pain. Imagining showed acalculous cholecystitis, epiploic appendagitis of the right colic flexure, and inflammation of pericardial fat pad in the left cardiophrenic angle. Coagulopathy due to COVID-19 was the most probable cause of the described processes. Therapeutic doses of low-molecular-weight heparin were administered. Patient 3 was a 68-year-old male kidney donor who had painless, nodular, reddening lesions on both shins, accompanied by itching on both shins and recurrent fever. The diagnosis of erythema nodosum during COVID-19 was made. After treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin, significant decreases of symptoms were observed. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 infection can have a varied course and can involve other systems and organs. Physicians should be aware of possible extrapulmonary symptoms associated with infection with this virus. Correct diagnosis is a prerequisite for proper treatment and prevention of unexpected complications.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270195, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974308

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: There are no clear data about the incidence and the prophylactic strategies of arterial and venous thromboembolic events (TE) in COVID-19 ambulatory patients. Thus, we conducted this study to analyze thromboembolic complications in this setting and to assess thromboprophylaxis management and outcomes in the real life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is an observational study including Covid-19 ambulatory patients. We assessed incidence of venous and arterial TE events as well as thromboprophylaxis outcomes and hemorrhagic complications. We defined high risk thrombo-embolic factor according to the Belgian guidelines which are the only guidelines that described thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 ambulatory patients. RESULTS: We included 2089 patients with a mean age of 43±16 years. The incidence of 30 days venous and arterial TE complications in our cohort was 1%. Venous thromboembolic complications occurred in 0.8% and arterial thromboembolic complications occurred in 0.3%.We noted at least one high-risk TE factor in 18.5% of patients but thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 22.5% of the cases, LMWH in 18.1%, and Rivaroxaban in 3.7%. Hemorrhagic events occurred in eight patients (0.3%): five patients showed minor hemorrhagic events and three patients showed major ones (0.14%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the incidence of thromboembolic complications is very low in COVID-19 ambulatory patients. Paradoxically, there is an over prescription of thrombo-prophylaxis in this population.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/complications , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221116350, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974064

Реферат

Objective: To compare Anti-Xa directed thromboprophylaxis using low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (anti-Xa peak goal 0.2-0.5 IU/mL) to alternative anticoagulation strategies in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter, single health-system study. Primary outcomes were thromboembolic events and clinically important bleeding events. Secondary outcomes included dosing comparisons between LMWH cohorts. Main Results: A total of 695 patients were included. No differences were found in the incidence of thrombotic events with any of the dosing strategies. The incidence of major bleeding was significantly higher in the standard dose thromboprophylaxis, intermediate dose subcutaneous heparin (SQH), and therapeutic anticoagulation cohorts. Forty-nine percent of patients within the anti-Xa directed group had their first anti-Xa peak at goal, while 43% were above goal. Patients who had levels above goal had dose modifications made, therefore anti-Xa directed LMWH resulted in significantly lower total daily doses compared to intermediate dose LMWH. Conclusions: Anti-Xa directed LMWH dosing provided comparable thromboprophylaxis with lower total daily doses of LMWH in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm our findings.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants , Critical Illness , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 54(3): 420-430, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971785

Реферат

Arterial and venous thrombotic events in COVID-19 cause significant morbidity and mortality among patients. Although international guidelines agree on the need for anticoagulation, it is unclear whether full-dose heparin anticoagulation confers additional benefits over prophylactic-dose anticoagulation. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of heparin full-dose anticoagulation in hospitalized non-critically ill COVID-19 patients. We searched Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE, Clinicaltrials.gov, medRxiv.org and Cochrane Central Register of clinical trials dated up to April 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing full-dose heparin anticoagulation to prophylactic-dose anticoagulation or standard treatment in hospitalized non-critically ill COVID-19 patients were included in our pooled analysis. The primary endpoint was the rate of major thrombotic events and the co-primary endpoint was the rate of major bleeding events. We identified 4 studies, all of them multicenter, randomizing 2926 patients. Major thrombotic events were 23/1524 (1.5%) in full-dose heparin anticoagulation versus 57/1402 (4.0%) in prophylactic-dose [relative risk (RR) 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.62; p˂0.01; I2 = 0%]. Clinical relevant bleeding events occurred in 1.7% (26/1524) among patients treated with heparin full anticoagulation dose compared to 1.1% (15/1403) in prophylactic-dose group (RR 1.60; 95% CI 0.85-3.03; p = 0.15; I2 = 20%). Mortality was 6.6% (101/1524) versus 8.6% (121/1402) (RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.33-1.19; p = 0.15). In this meta-analysis of high quality multicenter randomized trials, full-dose anticoagulation with heparin was associated with lower rate of major thrombotic events without differences in bleeding risk and mortality in hospitalized non critically ill COVID-19 patients.Study registration PROSPERO, review no. CRD42022301874.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Thrombosis/prevention & control
8.
Saudi Med J ; 43(7): 715-722, 2022 Jul.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955133

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of different thromboprophylaxis regimens on clinical outcomes and mortality of critical ill patients with coronavirus disease -19 (COVID-19). METHODS: We investigated the medical records of patients with positive COVID-19 (using polymerase chain reaction test) who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Sakarya University Hospital, Sakarya, Turkey, from March 2020 to January 2021. We included patients under anticoagulant therapy in the clinical course. The patients were allocated to 3 groups: Group A - low-dose (prophylactic) low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) therapy, Group B - high-dose (therapeutic) LMWH therapy, and patients that received aspirin additional to the high-dose (therapeutic) LMWH as Group C. Primary outcomes were overall mortality rates and length of stay (LOS) in ICU. Secondary outcomes were rates of major hemorrhagic and thrombotic events. RESULTS: Records of 475 patients were reviewed and 164 patients were included. No significant difference was detected in mortality rates between groups (p=0.135). Intensive care unit stay was 13 (9-24.5) days in Group A, 11 (8.75-23) days in Group B, and 13 (9-17) days in Group C without a significant difference (p=0.547). No significant difference was detected between groups in terms of thrombotic (p=0.565) and hemorrhagic events (p=0.615). CONCLUSION: A high-dose anticoagulation therapy and addition of aspirin to LMWH therapy did not decrease the mortality rates and LOS in ICU in critical ill COVID-19 patients. In addition, it did not increase the incidence of major hemorrhage and major thrombotic events.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Critical Illness/therapy , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
9.
Anticancer Res ; 42(7): 3261-3274, 2022 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924868

Реферат

Cancer and COVID-19 are both well-established risk factors predisposing to thrombosis. Both disease entities are correlated with increased incidence of venous thrombotic events through multifaceted pathogenic mechanisms involving the interaction of cancer cells or SARS-CoV2 on the one hand and the coagulation system and endothelial cells on the other hand. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended for hospitalized patients with active cancer and high-risk outpatients with cancer receiving anticancer treatment. Universal thromboprophylaxis with a high prophylactic dose of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) or therapeutic dose in select patients, is currentlyindicated for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Also, prophylactic anticoagulation is recommended for outpatients with COVID-19 at high risk for thrombosis or disease worsening. However, whether there is an additive risk of thrombosis when a patient with cancer is infected with SARS-CoV2 remains unclear In the current review, we summarize and critically discuss the literature regarding the epidemiology of thrombotic events in patients with cancer and concomitant COVID-19, the thrombotic risk assessment, and the recommendations on thromboprophylaxis for this subgroup of patients. Current data do not support an additive thrombotic risk for patients with cancer and COVID-19. Of note, patients with cancer have less access to intensive care unit care, a setting associated with high thrombotic risk. Based on current evidence, patients with cancer and COVID-19 should be assessed with well-established risk assessment models for medically ill patients and receive thromboprophylaxis, preferentially with LMWH, according to existing recommendations. Prospective trials on well-characterized populations do not exist.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Endothelial Cells , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 295: 119818, 2022 Nov 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914200

Реферат

Heparin, an old but first-line anticoagulant, has been used over a century. It is a heterogeneous, linear, highly sulfated, anionic glycosaminoglycan with a broad distribution in relative molecular weight and charge density. These structural properties allow heparin to selectively interact with multiple proteins, leading to heparin's various pharmacological functions, such as anticoagulant, anti-viral, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Clinical data suggest that unfractionated heparin or low molecule weight heparin could decrease mortality in COVID-19 patients with sepsis-induced hypercoagulation through the anticoagulant, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities of these drugs. Thus, the non-anticoagulant activity of heparin has again aroused attention. This review highlights recent advances in the preparation of heparin-derived drugs and clinical research on its non-anticoagulant properties over the past decade, to further the development and utilization of these important drugs.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Heparin , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/chemistry , Heparin/pharmacology , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/chemistry , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans
11.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(6): 1817-1825, 2022 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906506

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients are at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Standard doses of anticoagulant prophylaxis may not be sufficiently effective for the prevention of VTE. The objective of this systematic-review and meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of high-dose versus low-dose thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to October 2021 for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing high-dose with low-dose thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. The primary efficacy outcome was the occurrence of VTE and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 5470 patients from 9 RCTs were included. Four trials included critically ill patients, four non-critically ill patients, and one included both. VTE occurred in 2.9% of patients on high-dose and in 5.7% of patients on low-dose thromboprophylaxis (relative risk [RR] 0.53; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 0.41-0.69; I2 = 0%; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome, 22). Major bleeding occurred in 2.5% and 1.4% of patients, respectively (RR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.20-2.66; I2 = 0%; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome, 100). All-cause mortality did not differ between groups (RR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.75-1.26; I2 = 47%). The risk of VTE was significantly reduced by high-dose thromboprophylaxis in non-critically ill (RR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.35-0.86; I2 = 0%), but not in critically ill patients (RR 0.69; 95% CI, 0.39-1.21; I2 = 36%). DISCUSSION: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, high-dose thromboprophylaxis is more effective than low-dose for the prevention of VTE but increases the risk of major bleeding.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
12.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 33(5): 239-256, 2022 Jul 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891118

Реферат

During sepsis, an initial prothrombotic shift takes place, in which coagulatory acute-phase proteins are increased, while anticoagulatory factors and platelet count decrease. Further on, the fibrinolytic system becomes impaired, which contributes to disease severity. At a later stage in sepsis, coagulation factors may become depleted, and sepsis patients may shift into a hypo-coagulable state with an increased bleeding risk. During the pro-coagulatory shift, critically ill patients have an increased thrombosis risk that ranges from developing micro-thromboses that impair organ function to life-threatening thromboembolic events. Here, thrombin plays a key role in coagulation as well as in inflammation. For thromboprophylaxis, low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) and unfractionated heparins (UFHs) are recommended. Nevertheless, there are conditions such as heparin resistance or heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), wherein heparin becomes ineffective or even puts the patient at an increased prothrombotic risk. In these cases, argatroban, a direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI), might be a potential alternative anticoagulatory strategy. Yet, caution is advised with regard to dosing of argatroban especially in sepsis. Therefore, the starting dose of argatroban is recommended to be low and should be titrated to the targeted anticoagulation level and be closely monitored in the further course of treatment. The authors of this review recommend using DTIs such as argatroban as an alternative anticoagulant in critically ill patients suffering from sepsis or COVID-19 with suspected or confirmed HIT, HIT-like conditions, impaired fibrinolysis, in patients on extracorporeal circuits and patients with heparin resistance, when closely monitored.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , Critical Illness , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pipecolic Acids , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sulfonamides , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
13.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 54(3): 431-437, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885483

Реферат

We observed multiple fatal intracranial hemorrhages shortly after initiating therapeutic anticoagulation for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in COVID-19 patients suggesting increased anticoagulation risk associated with COVID-19. The objective of this study is to quantify risk of major hemorrhage in hospitalized COVID-19 patients on therapeutic anticoagulation for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving therapeutic anticoagulation for DVT, PE or both at four New York City hospitals were evaluated for hemorrhagic complications. These were categorized as major (including fatal) or clinically relevant non-major according to the criteria of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Hemorrhagic complications were correlated with clinical and laboratory data, ICD-10 code diagnoses and type of anticoagulation treatment. Minor hemorrhages were excluded. Major/clinically relevant hemorrhages occurred in 36 of 170 (21%) hospitalized COVID-19 patients being treated with therapeutic anticoagulation for VTE including 4 (2.4%) fatal hemorrhages. Hemorrhage was 3.4 times more likely with unfractionated heparin 27/76 (36%) compared to 8/81 (10%) with low molecular weight heparin (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that major hemorrhage was associated with intubation (p = 0.04) and elevated serum LDH (p < 0.001) and low fibrinogen (p = 0.05). Increased risk of hemorrhagic complications in treating VTE in hospitalized COVID-19 patients should be considered especially when using unfractionated heparin, in intubated patients, with low fibrinogen and/or elevated LDH. Checking serum fibrinogen and LDH before initiating therapeutic anticoagulation and monitoring coagulation parameters frequently may reduce bleeding complications.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrinogen/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis
14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(6): 691-696, 2022 Mar 20.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806655

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) remains a serious health threat worldwide. We aimed to investigate whether low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) can promote organ function recovery in moderate Covid-19 pneumonia patients. METHODS: We initiated an LMWH protocol in Covid-19 patients with increased D-dimer, body mass index >30 kg/m2 or a history of diabetes from January 18, 2020 at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. In this retrospective study, we assigned moderate Covid- 19 pneumonia patients admitted between January 18th and April 18, 2020 receiving the LMWH protocol to the LMWH group. Moderate patients who met the inclusion criteria but did not receive LMWH protocol were included in the control group by 1:2 propensity score matching. General clinical information, indicators for renal function, arterial blood gas analyses, arterial blood lactic acid content (mmol/L), and coagulation indexes at 0 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 11 days after admission were recorded and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were 41 patients in the LMWH group and 82 patients in the control group. General information in both groups were similar. Compared to the control group, the arterial blood lactic acid content (mmol/L) at day 11 (1.3 [1.1, 1.7] vs. 1.2 [0.9, 1.3], P = 0.016) was reduced in the LMWH group. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the LMWH group was higher than that in the control group at day 7 (108.54 [89.11, 128.17] vs. 116.85 [103.39, 133.47], P = 0.039) and day 11 (113.74 [94.49, 126.34] vs. 128.31 [112.75, 144, 12], P  = 0.003). The serum creatinine levels (Scr) in the LMWH group were lower than that in the control group at day 7 (62.13 [51.47, 77.64] vs. 55.49 [49.50, 65.75], P = 0.038) and day 11 (63.35 [50.17, 75.73] vs. 51.62 [44.62, 61.24], P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: LMWH treatment can reduce arterial blood lactic acid levels and improve eGFR in moderate Covid-19 pneumonia patients. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to further investigate this issue. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR.org.cn, ChiCTR2000034796.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , China , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Lactic Acid , Retrospective Studies
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745765

Реферат

Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a rare condition related to a state of hypercoagulability in advanced neoplastic disease. Most of the time, arterial thromboembolic event precedes the diagnosis of NBTE. We report here a case of NBTE responsible for multiple ischaemic strokes, which leads to the diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Aortic and mitral valvular regurgitations secondary to NBTE appeared within 6 weeks despite therapeutic anticoagulation with direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) in stroke prevention of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Bivalvular regurgitations resolved 8 weeks after therapeutic switch to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and chemotherapy. DOACs are a possible alternative to LMWH for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with active neoplasia. There is a lack of evidence for a clinical efficiency for the prevention of arterial thromboembolism in NBTE. We propose here a short review of the efficacy of anticoagulant therapy for the prevention of arterial thromboembolism in NBTE.


Тема - темы
Adenocarcinoma , Endocarditis, Non-Infective , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Endocarditis, Non-Infective/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Non-Infective/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Non-Infective/etiology , Heparin , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(9): 1291.e1-1291.e5, 2022 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739641

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate safety and effectiveness of prophylactic anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in individuals hospitalised for COVID-19. METHODS: Using healthcare records from the Capital Region of Denmark (March 2020-February 2021) and Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden (February 2020-September 2021), we conducted an observational cohort study comparing clinical outcomes 30 days after admission among individuals hospitalised for COVID-19 starting prophylactic LMWH during the first 48 hours of hospitalisation with outcomes among those not receiving prophylactic anticoagulation. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounders and bias due to missing information. Risk ratios, risk differences and robust 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using binomial regression. Country-specific risk ratios were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: We included 1692 and 1868 individuals in the Danish and Swedish cohorts. Of these, 771 (46%) and 1167 (62%) received prophylactic LMWH up to 48 hours after admission. The combined mortality in Denmark and Sweden was 12% (N = 432) and the pooled risk ratio was 0.91 (CI 0.60-1.38) comparing individuals who received LMWH to those who did not. The relative risk of ICU admission was 1.12 (0.76-1.66), while we observed no increased risk of bleeding 0.63 (0.13-2.94). The relative risk of venous thromboembolism was 0.80 (0.43-1.47). CONCLUSION: We found no benefit on mortality with prophylactic LMWH and no increased risk of bleeding among COVID-19 patients receiving prophylactic LMWH.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Hemorrhage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Sweden/epidemiology
19.
Ter Arkh ; 93(11): 1255-1263, 2021 Nov 15.
Статья в Русский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1698726

Реферат

AIM: To study the relationship of hemostatic disorders with inflammation and estimate their role in the course and outcomes of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 215 consecutive patients with moderate and severe forms of acute COVID-19. The patients were on anticoagulants and immunosuppressive drugs. Hemostasis was assessed using the thrombodynamics assay, thromboelastography, fibrinogen and D-dimer levels, prothrombin time, and soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (ethanol gelation test). The hemostatic parameters were correlated with hematological and biochemical tests, including markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukins 6 and 8), as well as with the disease severity and outcomes. RESULTS: Laboratory signs of coagulopathy were revealed in the vast majority of the cases. Despite the use of low-molecular-weight heparins in the prophylactic and therapeutic doses, coagulopathy in COVID-19 manifested predominantly as hypercoagulability that correlated directly with the systemic inflammation and metabolic changes due to liver and kidney dysfunction. A direct relationship was found between the grade of coagulopathy and the severity of COVID-19, including comorbidities and the mortality. The chronometric hypocoagulability observed in about 1/4 cases was associated with a high level of C-reactive protein, which may decelerate coagulation in vitro and thereby mask the true inflammatory thrombophilia. Persistent hyperfibrinogenemia and high D-dimer in the absence of consumption coagulopathy suggest the predominance of local and/or regional microthrombosis over disseminated intravascular coagulation. CONCLUSION: The results obtained substantiate the need for laboratory monitoring of hemostasis and active prophylaxis and treatment of thrombotic complications in COVID-19.


Тема - темы
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Hemostatics , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , C-Reactive Protein , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Thrombophilia/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Fibrinogen , Inflammation , Interleukins , Ethanol
20.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(3): 309-317, 2022 Apr.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692483

Реферат

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare form of stroke that often affects younger age groups, especially reproductive age group females. CVT is a potentially fatal neurological condition that can be frequently overlooked due to the vague nature of its clinical and radiological presentation. Headache is the most common presenting symptom. However, a wide range of symptoms can be present and the symptom onset can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Neuroimaging is mandatory in cases where CVT is suspected. Both magnetic resonance venography and computed tomography venography can confirm a diagnosis of CVT. Anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin is the mainstay of treatment. Intracranial hemorrhage is not considered a contraindication to the use of anticoagulants in CVT. Endovascular intervention is still controversial but can be a treatment option for patients with neurological deterioration or thrombus progression, despite the use of anticoagulation or with development of new or worsening intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with CVT have an increased risk of recurrence of CVT and other types of venous thromboembolism. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CVT in adults. Commentary about increased presentation of CVT in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), or after immunization against COVID-19, is also provided.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/drug therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
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