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1.
Blood ; 140(8): 809-814, 2022 08 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083050

Реферат

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) includes a thromboinflammatory syndrome that may manifest with microvascular and macrovascular thrombosis. Patients with COVID-19 have a higher incidence of venous thromboembolism than other hospitalized patients. Three randomized control trials suggesting benefit of therapeutic heparin in hospitalized noncritically ill patients with COVID-19 have led to conditional guideline recommendations for this treatment. By contrast, prophylactic-dose heparin is recommended for critically ill patients. Unprecedented collaboration and rapidly funded research have improved care of hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Heparin/pharmacology , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
2.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(7): 814-827, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028759

Реферат

Thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications continue to remain frequent complications that significantly impact the morbidity and mortality of patients implanted with mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs). The severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a number of COVID-19 patients being supported by MCSDs, specifically extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which in turn has created a crucial need for rapid assessment of hemostatic status in these patients to avoid bleeding and thrombotic complications. Currently, conventional plasma-based coagulation assays such as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are used to assess hemostasis, and the activated clotting time (ACT) and aPTT are the most common tests used to monitor heparin anticoagulation in patients on ECMO. Unfractionated heparin remains the mainstay anticoagulation therapy for patients on ECMO. Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) offers little guidance on the subject but does state that each institution should create its internal anticoagulation protocols. Viscoelastic assays (VEAs) are increasingly recognized by ELSO and ECMO community for their potential to assess hemostatic derangements in patients implanted with MCSDs as well as guidance for appropriate hemostatic therapy. This review focuses on the evidence for the use of viscoelastic assays to assess overall hemostasis and to guide the treatment of adult patients connected to an ECMO circuit. Limitations of the use of conventional assays, ACT, and VEA are also discussed.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hemostatics , Adult , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 1020-1023, 2022 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018742

Реферат

Although several studies have utilized AI (artificial intelligence)-based solutions to enhance the decision making for mechanical ventilation, as well as, for mortality in COVID-19, the extraction of explainable predictors regarding heparin's effect in intensive care and mortality has been left unresolved. In the present study, we developed an explainable AI (XAI) workflow to shed light into predictors for admission in the intensive care unit (ICU), as well as, for mortality across those hospitalized COVID-19 patients who received heparin. AI empowered classifiers, such as, the hybrid Extreme gradient boosting (HXGBoost) with customized loss functions were trained on time-series curated clinical data to develop robust AI models. Shapley additive explanation analysis (SHAP) was conducted to determine the positive or negative impact of the predictors in the model's output. The HXGBoost predicted the risk for intensive care and mortality with 0.84 and 0.85 accuracy, respectively. SHAP analysis indicated that the low percentage of lymphocytes at day 7 along with increased FiO2 at days 1 and 5, low SatO2 at days 3 and 7 increase the probability for mortality and highlight the positive effect of heparin administration at the early days of hospitalization for reducing mortality.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Artificial Intelligence , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010124

Реферат

For over two years, the world has been facing the epidemiological and health challenge of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Growing problems are also complications after the development of COVID-19 in the form of post and long- COVID syndromes, posing a challenge for the medical community, both for clinicians and the scientific world. SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, especially thromboembolic complications, which are associated with both thrombosis of small and very small vessels due to immunothrombosis, and the development of venous thromboembolism. Low molecular wight heparin (LMHW) are the basic agents used in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications in COVID-19. There is still a great deal of controversy regarding both the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications, including the prophylaxis dose or the optimal duration of anticoagulant treatment in patients with an episode of venous thromboembolism.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013554, 2022 04 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990403

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Patients with kidney failure require vascular access to receive maintenance haemodialysis (HD), which can be achieved by an arteriovenous fistula or a central venous catheter (CVC). CVC use is related to frequent complications such as venous stenosis and infection. Venous stenosis occurs mainly due to trauma caused by the entrance of the catheter into the venous lumen and repeated contact with the vein wall.  A biofilm, a colony of irreversible adherent and self-sufficient micro-organisms embedded in a self-produced matrix of exopolysaccharides, is associated with the development of infections in patients with indwelling catheters. Despite its clinical relevance, the treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients receiving maintenance HD remains controversial, especially regarding catheter management. Antibiotic lock solutions may sterilise the catheter, treat the infection and prevent unnecessary catheter procedures. However, such treatment may also lead to antibiotic resistance or even clinical worsening in certain more virulent pathogens. Catheter removal and delayed replacement may remove the source of infection, improving infectious outcomes, but this approach may also increase vascular access stenosis, thrombosis or both, or even central vein access failure. Catheter guidewire exchange attempts to remove the source of infection while maintaining access to the same vein and, therefore, may improve clinical outcomes and preserve central veins for future access. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of different interventions for CRBSI treatment in patients receiving maintenance HD through a permanent CVC, such as systemic antibiotics alone or systemic antibiotics combined with either lock solutions or catheter guidewire exchange or catheter replacement. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 21 December 2021 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register were identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the management of CRBSI in permanent CVCs in people receiving maintenance HD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed their risk of bias, and performed data extraction. Results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) or hazard ratios (HR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two RCTs and one quasi-RCT that enrolled 760 participants addressing the treatment of CRBSIs in people (children and adults) receiving maintenance HD through CVC. No two studies compared the same interventions. The quasi-RCT compared two different lock solutions (tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and heparin) with concurrent systemic antibiotics. One RCT compared systemic antibiotics alone and in association with an ethanol lock solution, and the other compared systemic antibiotics with different catheter management strategies (guidewire exchange versus removal and replacement). The overall certainty of the evidence was downgraded due to the small number of participants, high risk of bias in many domains, especially randomisation, allocation, and other sources of bias, and missing outcome data. It is uncertain whether an ethanol lock solution used with concurrent systemic antibiotics improved CRBSI eradication compared to systemic antibiotics alone (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.23) because the certainty of this evidence is very low. There were no reported differences between the effects of TPA and heparin lock solutions on cure rates (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.15) or between catheter guidewire exchange versus catheter removal with delayed replacement, expressed as catheter infection-free survival (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.79). To date, no results are available comparing other interventions. Outcomes such as venous stenosis and/or thrombosis, antibiotic resistance, death, and adverse events were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently, there is no available high certainty evidence to support one treatment over another for CRBSIs. The benefit of using ethanol lock treatment in combination with systemic antibiotics compared to systemic antibiotics alone for CRBSIs in patients receiving maintenance HD remains uncertain due to the very low certainty of the evidence. Hence, further RCTs to identify the benefits and harms of CRBSI treatment options are needed. Future studies should unify CRBSI and cure definitions and improve methodological design.


Тема - темы
Catheter-Related Infections , Central Venous Catheters , Sepsis , Adult , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Child , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Sepsis/drug therapy
6.
BMJ ; 375: n2400, 2021 10 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978540

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of therapeutic heparin compared with prophylactic heparin among moderately ill patients with covid-19 admitted to hospital wards. DESIGN: Randomised controlled, adaptive, open label clinical trial. SETTING: 28 hospitals in Brazil, Canada, Ireland, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and US. PARTICIPANTS: 465 adults admitted to hospital wards with covid-19 and increased D-dimer levels were recruited between 29 May 2020 and 12 April 2021 and were randomly assigned to therapeutic dose heparin (n=228) or prophylactic dose heparin (n=237). INTERVENTIONS: Therapeutic dose or prophylactic dose heparin (low molecular weight or unfractionated heparin), to be continued until hospital discharge, day 28, or death. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a composite of death, invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, or admission to an intensive care unit, assessed up to 28 days. The secondary outcomes included all cause death, the composite of all cause death or any mechanical ventilation, and venous thromboembolism. Safety outcomes included major bleeding. Outcomes were blindly adjudicated. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 60 years; 264 (56.8%) were men and the mean body mass index was 30.3 kg/m2. At 28 days, the primary composite outcome had occurred in 37/228 patients (16.2%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and 52/237 (21.9%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (odds ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.43 to 1.10; P=0.12). Deaths occurred in four patients (1.8%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and 18 patients (7.6%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.22, 0.07 to 0.65; P=0.006). The composite of all cause death or any mechanical ventilation occurred in 23 patients (10.1%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and 38 (16.0%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.59, 0.34 to 1.02; P=0.06). Venous thromboembolism occurred in two patients (0.9%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and six (2.5%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.34, 0.07 to 1.71; P=0.19). Major bleeding occurred in two patients (0.9%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and four (1.7%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.52, 0.09 to 2.85; P=0.69). CONCLUSIONS: In moderately ill patients with covid-19 and increased D-dimer levels admitted to hospital wards, therapeutic heparin was not significantly associated with a reduction in the primary outcome but the odds of death at 28 days was decreased. The risk of major bleeding appeared low in this trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04362085.


Тема - темы
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
ASAIO J ; 68(7): 920-924, 2022 07 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967929

Реферат

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) contributes to coagulopathy, necessitating systemic anticoagulation to prevent thrombosis. Traditionally, unfractionated heparin (UFH) has been the anticoagulant of choice, however, due to many inadequacies new evidence suggests benefit with the use of direct thrombin inhibitors. This retrospective cohort sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin compared to UFH in ECMO patients. Primary endpoints included incidence of bleeding and thrombosis. Percent time in therapeutic range (TR), time to achieve TR and number of dose titrations required to maintain TR were calculated to assess efficacy of institutional protocols. Overall incidence of thrombosis was low, with one event in the bivalirudin group and no events in the UFH group. No difference was found in rates of bleeding between groups (6% vs . 10%, P = 0.44). Bivalirudin yielded higher percent time in TR (86% vs. 33%, P < 0.001), faster time to TR (2 vs . 18 hr, P < 0.001) and required fewer dose adjustments to maintain TR (2 vs . 11, P < 0.001) compared to UFH. These results suggest bivalirudin and UFH are associated with similar rates of bleeding and thrombosis in patients requiring ECMO support. Our results demonstrate the favorable pharmacokinetic profile of bivalirudin, and its ability to consistently maintain TR when compared to UFH.


Тема - темы
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Thrombosis , Adult , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/complications , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hirudin Therapy , Hirudins/adverse effects , Humans , Peptide Fragments/adverse effects , Peptide Fragments/therapeutic use , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
8.
Biosci Trends ; 16(4): 307-311, 2022 Sep 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969709

Реферат

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increases in abnormal coagulation, and particularly D-dimer (D-D) levels. Heparin therapy has been recommended as pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in patients hospitalized with COVID-19; however, data on its efficacy are lacking. The current study retrospectively analyzed changes in blood coagulation and the impact of heparin therapy. Medical records of 593 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were collected. On admission, elevated fibrinogen (Fg) levels were noted in with 42.2% (250/593) of patients, followed by increases in D-D (28.5%) and a prolonged prothrombin time (PT) (23.9%). Patients with severe/critical COVID-19 had a higher proportion of abnormal coagulation parameters than patients with mild/ordinary COVID-19. Dynamic changes in coagulation parameters were plotted on timeline charts for 97 patients with COVID-19 after heparin treatment. These changes, when combined with Fg, PT, D-D, and other indicators, may provide a relatively comprehensive description of coagulation abnormalities. Heparin seems to be important in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 based on the current findings. The efficacy of heparin in the treatment of COVID-19 should be confirmed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as soon as possible.


Тема - темы
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrinogen , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 108, 2022 May 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951270

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in cardiac surgery is performed under systemic heparinization. Adequacy of heparin therapy and anticoagulation during ECC is assessed by activated clotting time (ACT), although there are concerns regarding the reliability of this measure. The ACT can be affected by factors other than heparin anticoagulation. A novel factor that should be considered is the influence of a COVID-19 infection. More than half of the hospitalized COVID-19 patients develop coagulation abnormalities with dysregulated coagulation test results. Patients recently recovered from COVID-19 may still demonstrate some forms of coagulation disorder affecting the ACT. This case describes an inaccurate point-of-care ACT testing in a patient with previous COVID-19 infection undergoing cardiac surgery with ECC and the alternative coagulation testing performed. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-years-old Caucasian male presented with symptomatic severe mitral valve regurgitation for which he underwent surgery. Medical history revealed a COVID-19 infection one month before surgery. Pre-operative hematological lab results were normal and baseline ACT during surgery was 100 s. To achieve an adequate ACT of > 400 s, multiple doses of heparin were needed and after administration of a triple dose (75,000 IE heparin in total) this adequate ACT was achieved. In the meanwhile we measured anti-Xa level and APTT, which were at adequate levels when ACT was still < 400 s. DISCUSSION: This case emphasizes the need of alternative methods for monitoring heparin therapy in case ACT does not respond adequately. Another point to highlight in this case is the poorly correlated relation between ACT and APTT and anti-Xa in light of the recent COVID-19 infection. Although studies have shown that COVID-19 infection can cause coagulopathy and altered hemostatic parameters, ACT has never been investigated in COVID-19 patient. Understanding the correlation between ACT, APTT and anti-Xa in COVID-19 patients is mandatory.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Humans , Male , Point-of-Care Systems , Reproducibility of Results , Whole Blood Coagulation Time
10.
Intern Med ; 61(12): 1869-1876, 2022 Jun 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951857

Реферат

A 73-year-old man receiving hemodialysis and antiplatelets was admitted with a mild case of COVID-19. Heparin was added, and iliopsoas hemorrhage developed. He was successfully treated by interventional radiology. A 76-year-old man receiving hemodialysis and antiplatelets was admitted with mild COVID-19. Heparin was added, and iliacus hemorrhage developed. Despite heparin discontinuation, he died of worsening pneumonia. A 74-year-old man undergoing hemodialysis was admitted with severe COVID-19. Gastrointestinal bleeding developed during continuous hemodiafiltration with heparin. Upon switching to nafamostat and increasing the dose, iliopsoas hemorrhage developed. Despite interventional radiology, he died of infectious complications. Attention to hemorrhagic complications is therefore needed in patients with COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
11.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(7): e469-e471, 2022 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927001

Тема - темы
Carbon , Heparin , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans
12.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(6): 984-997, 2022 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915318

Реферат

Two years since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic, there remain few clinically effective drugs to complement vaccines. One is the anticoagulant, heparin, which in 2004 was found able to inhibit invasion of SARS-CoV (CoV-1) and which has been employed during the current pandemic to prevent thromboembolic complications and moderate potentially damaging inflammation. Heparin has also been shown experimentally to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 attachment and infection in susceptible cells. At high therapeutic doses however, heparin increases the risk of bleeding and prolonged use can cause heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, a serious side effect. One alternative, with structural similarities to heparin, is the plant-derived, semi-synthetic polysaccharide, pentosan polysulfate (PPS). PPS is an established drug for the oral treatment of interstitial cystitis, is well-tolerated, and exhibits weaker anticoagulant effects than heparin. In an established Vero cell model, PPS and its fractions of varying molecular weights inhibited invasion by SARS-CoV-2. Intact PPS and its size-defined fractions were characterized by molecular weight distribution and chemical structure using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, then employed to explore the structural basis of interactions with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (S1 RBD) and the inhibition of Vero cell invasion. PPS was as effective as unfractionated heparin, but more effective in inhibiting cell infection than low-molecular-weight heparin (on a weight/volume basis). Isothermal titration calorimetry and viral plaque-forming assays demonstrated size-dependent binding to S1 RBD and inhibition of Vero cell invasion, suggesting the potential application of PPS as a novel inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Тема - темы
Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Attachment , Animals , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Heparin/therapeutic use , Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester/pharmacology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment/drug effects
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 295: 119818, 2022 Nov 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914200

Реферат

Heparin, an old but first-line anticoagulant, has been used over a century. It is a heterogeneous, linear, highly sulfated, anionic glycosaminoglycan with a broad distribution in relative molecular weight and charge density. These structural properties allow heparin to selectively interact with multiple proteins, leading to heparin's various pharmacological functions, such as anticoagulant, anti-viral, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Clinical data suggest that unfractionated heparin or low molecule weight heparin could decrease mortality in COVID-19 patients with sepsis-induced hypercoagulation through the anticoagulant, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities of these drugs. Thus, the non-anticoagulant activity of heparin has again aroused attention. This review highlights recent advances in the preparation of heparin-derived drugs and clinical research on its non-anticoagulant properties over the past decade, to further the development and utilization of these important drugs.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Heparin , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/chemistry , Heparin/pharmacology , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/chemistry , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans
14.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 265, 2022 06 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885321

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening syndrome eliciting highly heterogeneous host responses. Current prognostic evaluation methods used in clinical practice are characterized by an inadequate effectiveness in predicting sepsis mortality. Rapid identification of patients with high mortality risk is urgently needed. The phenotyping of patients will assistant invaluably in tailoring treatments. METHODS: Machine learning and deep learning technology are used to characterize the patients' phenotype and determine the sepsis severity. The database used in this study is MIMIC-III and MIMIC-IV ('Medical information Mart for intensive care') which is a large, public, and freely available database. The K-means clustering is used to classify the sepsis phenotype. Convolutional neural network (CNN) was used to predict the 28-day survival rate based on 35 blood test variables of the sepsis patients, whereas a double coefficient quadratic multivariate fitting function (DCQMFF) is utilized to predict the 28-day survival rate with only 11 features of sepsis patients. RESULTS: The patients were grouped into four clusters with a clear survival nomogram. The first cluster (C_1) was characterized by low white blood cell count, low neutrophil, and the highest lymphocyte proportion. C_2 obtained the lowest Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and the highest survival rate. C_3 was characterized by significantly prolonged PTT, high SIC, and a higher proportion of patients using heparin than the patients in other clusters. The early mortality rate of patients in C_3 was high but with a better long-term survival rate than that in C_4. C_4 contained septic coagulation patients with the worst prognosis, characterized by slightly prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PTT), significantly prolonged prothrombin time (PT), and high septic coagulation disease score (SIC). The survival rate prediction accuracy of CNN and DCQMFF models reached 92% and 82%, respectively. The models were tested on an external dataset (MIMIC-IV) and achieved good performance. A DCQMFF-based application platform was established for fast prediction of the 28-day survival rate. CONCLUSION: CNN and DCQMFF accurately predicted the sepsis patients' survival, while K-means successfully identified the phenotype groups. The distinct phenotypes associated with survival, and significant features correlated with mortality were identified. The findings suggest that sepsis patients with abnormal coagulation had poor outcomes, abnormal coagulation increase mortality during sepsis. The anticoagulation effects of appropriate heparin sodium treatment may improve extensive micro thrombosis-caused organ failure.


Тема - темы
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Sepsis , Hematologic Tests , Heparin/pharmacology , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Machine Learning , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
15.
Blood ; 139(23): 3358-3359, 2022 06 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885275
16.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(5): 509-513, 2022 May.
Статья в Китайский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903523

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnosis process and treatment experience of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with heparin resistance (HR). METHODS: The medical team of the First People's Hospital of Lianyungang admitted 2 severe COVID-19 patients with HR in intensive care unit (ICU) during their support to the designated hospital for the treatment of COVID-19 patients in Lianyungang City in November 2021. The clinical features, laboratory examinations, imaging features, treatment and prognosis of the two patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Both severe COVID-19 patients received mechanical ventilation, 1 patient was treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Both patients were complicated with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis and HR phenomenon under routine dose anticoagulant therapy. The maximum daily dose of unfractionated heparin exceeded 35 000 U (up to 43 200 U), the 2 patients failed to meet the standard of anticoagulation treatment, and the course of disease was prolonged. After that, argatroban was given 0.4 µg×kg-1×min-1 combined with anticoagulant therapy, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of patients undergoing ECMO could be maintained at 55-60 seconds and the activated coagulation time (ACT) of them could be maintained at 180-200 seconds. After ECMO support or later sequential mechanical ventilation, both patients recovered and were discharged, and deep venous thrombosis was also effectively controlled. CONCLUSIONS: HR phenomenon often occurs during the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients, the anticoagulation regimen should be adjusted in time, and the anticoagulation effect combined with argatroban is clear.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time
17.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(8): 949-954, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900718

Реферат

Although the worldwide usage of direct oral anticoagulants has continuously increased over the past decade, heparin remains an important weapon in the current arsenal of anticoagulant drugs. Parenteral heparin administration (i.e., either intravenously or subcutaneously) has represented for decades the only possible route for generating a significant anticoagulant effect, although being notoriously associated with some important drawbacks such as discomfort and risk of low compliance, thus paving the way to searching for more amenable means of administration. We provide here an updated analysis of animal and human studies that have explored the feasibility, suitability, and efficiency of heparin administration through the unconventional nasal route, as a possible alternative to the more traditional parenteral injection. The major hurdles that contribute to impair intranasal absorption and systemic delivery of heparin are represented by its relatively high molecular weight and negative charge. Therefore, although pure drug administration would not be associated with efficient nasal adsorption, or by systemic biological activity (i.e., anticoagulant effect), the combination of low molecular weight heparins and absorption enhancers such as surfactants, mucoadhesive, cyclodextrins, polyethylenimines and encapsulation into (nano)carriers seems effective to at least partially improve drug transport through the nasal route and allow systemic delivery in animals. Besides generating anticoagulant effects, intranasal heparin administration can also produce local pleiotropic effects, mostly related to anti-inflammatory properties, such as attenuating airway allergic inflammation or inhibiting the binding of the spike protein of some coronaviruses (including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) to their host cell receptors. This preliminary evidence represents a valuable premise for planning future studies in humans aimed at establishing the pharmacokinetics and biological activity of locally and systemically delivered intranasal heparin formulations.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Heparin , Animals , Humans , Heparin/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Administration, Intranasal
18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 58: 84-88, 2022 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866778

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Although several reports recommend the use of systemic anticoagulation therapy in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, appropriate target population and timing of administration are unknown. We assessed association between therapeutic anticoagulation administration with unfractionated heparin and outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, assuming that anticoagulant administration effects are influenced by therapy timing. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included severe COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation in a tertiary emergency critical care hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in Japan from May 1, 2020 to September 30, 2021. All included patients were divided into early and late-phase administration groups based on therapeutic anticoagulant administration timing (≤5 and >5 days, respectively, after commencing oxygen therapy). Primary outcomes (in-hospital mortality and adverse events related to anticoagulation therapy) and secondary outcomes [veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), ventilator-free days (VFD), and ICU-free days] were compared between groups using univariate and multivariate models. RESULTS: Of 198 included patients 104 (52.5%) and 94 (47.5%) were in early-phase and late-phase administration groups, respectively. Although background characteristics were similar between the groups, the early-phase administration group had a significantly lower in-hospital mortality rate (3.8% vs. 27.7%; p < 0.001), lower adverse event rates (1.9% vs. 12.8%; p < 0.001), significantly longer VFD and ICU-free days, and lower ECMO rates, than the late-phase administration group, in the multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS: Late administration of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia was significantly associated with worse outcomes than early administration.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e051971, 2022 05 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832439

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: Coagulation changes associated with COVID-19 suggest the presence of a hypercoagulable state with pulmonary microthrombosis and thromboembolic complications. We assessed the dynamic association of COVID-19-related coagulation abnormalities with respiratory failure and mortality. DESIGN: Single-centre, prospective cohort study with descriptive analysis and logistic regression. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital, North India. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission between August 2020 and November 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared the coagulation abnormalities using standard coagulation tests like prothrombin time, D-dimer, platelet count, etc and point-of-care global coagulation test, Sonoclot (glass beaded(gb) and heparinase-treated(h)). Incidence of thromboembolic or bleeding events and presence of endogenous heparinoids were assessed. Cox proportional Hazards test was used to assess the predictors of 28-day mortality. MEASUREMENT: All patients underwent Sonoclot (glass beaded) test at admission apart from the routine investigations. In patients at risk of thromboembolic or bleeding phenomena, paired tests were performed at day 1 and 3 with Sonoclot. Activated clotting time (ACT) <110 s and peak amplitude >75 units were used as the cut-off for hypercoagulable state. Presence of heparin-like effect (HLE) was defined by a correction of ACT ≥40 s in h-Sonoclot. RESULTS: Of 215 patients admitted to ICU, we included 74 treatment naive subjects. A procoagulant profile was seen in 45.5% (n=5), 32.4% (n=11) and 20.7% (n=6) in low-flow, high-flow and invasive ventilation groups. Paired Sonoclot assays in a subgroup of 33 patients demonstrated the presence of HLE in 17 (51.5%) and 20 (62.5%) at day 1 and 3, respectively. HLE (day 1) was noted in 59% of those who bled during the disease course. Mortality was observed only in the invasive ventilation group (16, 55.2%) with overall mortality of 21.6%. HLE predicted the need for mechanical ventilation (HR 1.2 CI 1.04 to 1.4 p=0.00). On multivariate analysis, the presence of HLE (HR 1.01; CI 1.006 to 1.030; p=0.025), increased C reactive protein (HR 1.040; CI 1.020 to 1.090; p=0.014), decreased platelet function (HR 0.901; CI 0.702 to 1.100 p=0.045) predicted mortality at 28days. CONCLUSION: HLE contributed to hypocoagulable effect and associated with the need for invasive ventilation and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04668404; ClinicalTrials.gov.in. Available from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04668404.


Тема - темы
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hemorrhage , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Prospective Studies
20.
Lancet ; 399(10319): 50-59, 2022 01 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815305

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are at risk for thrombotic events after discharge; the role of extended thromboprophylaxis in this population is unknown. METHODS: In this open-label, multicentre, randomised trial conducted at 14 centres in Brazil, patients hospitalised with COVID-19 at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism [IMPROVE] venous thromboembolism [VTE] score of ≥4 or 2-3 with a D-dimer >500 ng/mL) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive, at hospital discharge, rivaroxaban 10 mg/day or no anticoagulation for 35 days. The primary efficacy outcome in an intention-to-treat analysis was a composite of symptomatic or fatal venous thromboembolism, asymptomatic venous thromboembolism on bilateral lower-limb venous ultrasound and CT pulmonary angiogram, symptomatic arterial thromboembolism, and cardiovascular death at day 35. Adjudication was blinded. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. The primary and safety analyses were carried out in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04662684. FINDINGS: From Oct 8, 2020, to June 29, 2021, 997 patients were screened. Of these patients, 677 did not meet eligibility criteria; the remaining 320 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban (n=160 [50%]) or no anticoagulation (n=160 [50%]). All patients received thromboprophylaxis with standard doses of heparin during hospitalisation. 165 (52%) patients were in the intensive care unit while hospitalised. 197 (62%) patients had an IMPROVE score of 2-3 and elevated D-dimer levels and 121 (38%) had a score of 4 or more. Two patients (one in each group) were lost to follow-up due to withdrawal of consent and not included in the intention-to-treat primary analysis. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in five (3%) of 159 patients assigned to rivaroxaban and 15 (9%) of 159 patients assigned to no anticoagulation (relative risk 0·33, 95% CI 0·12-0·90; p=0·0293). No major bleeding occurred in either study group. Allergic reactions occurred in two (1%) patients in the rivaroxaban group. INTERPRETATION: In patients at high risk discharged after hospitalisation due to COVID-19, thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban 10 mg/day for 35 days improved clinical outcomes compared with no extended thromboprophylaxis. FUNDING: Bayer.


Тема - темы
Aftercare , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/pharmacology , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Treatment Outcome
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