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2.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 843-855, 2021 09 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106189

Реферат

BACKGROUND: A previous efficacy trial found benefit from inhaled budesonide for COVID-19 in patients not admitted to hospital, but effectiveness in high-risk individuals is unknown. We aimed to establish whether inhaled budesonide reduces time to recovery and COVID-19-related hospital admissions or deaths among people at high risk of complications in the community. METHODS: PRINCIPLE is a multicentre, open-label, multi-arm, randomised, controlled, adaptive platform trial done remotely from a central trial site and at primary care centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 65 years or older or 50 years or older with comorbidities, and unwell for up to 14 days with suspected COVID-19 but not admitted to hospital. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care, usual care plus inhaled budesonide (800 µg twice daily for 14 days), or usual care plus other interventions, and followed up for 28 days. Participants were aware of group assignment. The coprimary endpoints are time to first self-reported recovery and hospital admission or death related to COVID-19, within 28 days, analysed using Bayesian models. The primary analysis population included all eligible SARS-CoV-2-positive participants randomly assigned to budesonide, usual care, and other interventions, from the start of the platform trial until the budesonide group was closed. This trial is registered at the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN86534580) and is ongoing. FINDINGS: The trial began enrolment on April 2, 2020, with randomisation to budesonide from Nov 27, 2020, until March 31, 2021, when the prespecified time to recovery superiority criterion was met. 4700 participants were randomly assigned to budesonide (n=1073), usual care alone (n=1988), or other treatments (n=1639). The primary analysis model includes 2530 SARS-CoV-2-positive participants, with 787 in the budesonide group, 1069 in the usual care group, and 974 receiving other treatments. There was a benefit in time to first self-reported recovery of an estimated 2·94 days (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] 1·19 to 5·12) in the budesonide group versus the usual care group (11·8 days [95% BCI 10·0 to 14·1] vs 14·7 days [12·3 to 18·0]; hazard ratio 1·21 [95% BCI 1·08 to 1·36]), with a probability of superiority greater than 0·999, meeting the prespecified superiority threshold of 0·99. For the hospital admission or death outcome, the estimated rate was 6·8% (95% BCI 4·1 to 10·2) in the budesonide group versus 8·8% (5·5 to 12·7) in the usual care group (estimated absolute difference 2·0% [95% BCI -0·2 to 4·5]; odds ratio 0·75 [95% BCI 0·55 to 1·03]), with a probability of superiority 0·963, below the prespecified superiority threshold of 0·975. Two participants in the budesonide group and four in the usual care group had serious adverse events (hospital admissions unrelated to COVID-19). INTERPRETATION: Inhaled budesonide improves time to recovery, with a chance of also reducing hospital admissions or deaths (although our results did not meet the superiority threshold), in people with COVID-19 in the community who are at higher risk of complications. FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research and United Kingdom Research Innovation.


Тема - темы
Budesonide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Aged , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(1): 18-26, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100783

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic mental illness are frequently hospitalized and discharged from psychiatry wards. This situation is referred to as the "revolving door phenomenon" (RDP). In addition to factors related to the patient and the disease, limited number of beds leading to shortened hospital stay are among the reasons associated with frequent hospitalization. This study aims to compare patients with RDP and patients with single hospitalization in terms of clinical, sociodemographic, and treatment-oriented characteristics in order to evaluate the risk factors causing frequent hospitalization. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this study, patients who were admitted and hospitalized between May 1, 2011 - May 1, 2016 were retrospectively evaluated from patient records. The RDP group consisted of 74 patients and the single-hospitalization group consisted of 59 patients who met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: The RDP group had significantly higher rates of male gender, ECT history, past suicide attempts, multiple drug treatment, clozapine use, legal incidents, and noncompliance to follow up following discharge compared to the single-hospitalization group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that Turkey also has RDP patients with characteristics and hospitalization patterns similar to patients in countries with different cultural, social, and economic conditions. It is important to identify and correct factors that cause frequent hospitalization as it will reduce the burden of the health system as well as provide benefit to the patient.


Тема - темы
Bipolar Disorder , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mood Disorders , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Turkey/epidemiology
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(20): 7705-7712, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100860

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Real-life data for vaccination against COVID-19 are sorely needed. This was a population-based analysis aiming at investigating the hospitalization risk for COVID-19 of 98,982 subjects and compare features of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 between 01/07/2021 and 11/02/2022 were included in the study. RESULTS: 582 patients were included in the analysis [males: 58.6% (n=341), vaccinated patients: 28.5% (n=166), unvaccinated patients: 71.5% (n=416)]. Median age of vaccinated patients was significantly higher compared to median age of unvaccinated [74.0 (95% CI: 72.0-77.0) vs. 59.0 (95% CI: 57.0-62.0), p=0.0001]. Mean latency time (±SD) from the second dose to hospitalization was 5.7±2.6 months. Between 01/07/2021 and 01/12/2021, unvaccinated subjects had higher risk for hospitalization compared to vaccinated [HR: 2.82, 95% CI: 2.30-3.45, p<0.0001]. Between 02/12/2021 and 11/02/2022, unvaccinated subjects presented with higher risk for hospitalization than subjects that had received booster dose [HR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.44-2.98, p=0.005], but not than subjects that got two doses. Median value of hospitalization days was higher in unvaccinated patients compared to vaccinated [7.0 (95% CI: 7.0-8.0) vs. 6.0 (95% CI: 5.0-7.0), p=0.02]. Finally, age-adjusted analysis showed that hospitalized unvaccinated patients presented with significantly higher mortality risk compared to hospitalized vaccinated patients [HR: 2.59, 95% CI: 1.69-3.98, p<0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination against COVID-19 remains the best way to contain the pandemic. There is an amenable need for booster dose during the omicron era.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Vaccination , Pandemics
5.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 107, 2020 Oct 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098376

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 presents challenges to the emergency care system that could lead to emergency department (ED) crowding. The Huddinge site at the Karolinska university hospital (KH) responded through a rapid transformation of inpatient care capacity together with changing working methods in the ED. The aim is to describe the KH response to the COVID-19 crisis, and how ED crowding, and important input, throughput and output factors for ED crowding developed at KH during a 30-day baseline period followed by the first 60 days of the COVID-19 outbreak in Stockholm Region. METHODS: Different phases in the development of the crisis were described and identified retrospectively based on major events that changed the conditions for the ED. Results were presented for each phase separately. The outcome ED length of stay (ED LOS) was calculated with mean and 95% confidence intervals. Input, throughput, output and demographic factors were described using distributions, proportions and means. Pearson correlation between ED LOS and emergency ward occupancy by phase was estimated with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: As new working methods were introduced between phase 2 and 3, ED LOS declined from mean (95% CI) 386 (373-399) minutes to 307 (297-317). Imaging proportion was reduced from 29 to 18% and admission rate increased from 34 to 43%. Correlation (95% CI) between emergency ward occupancy and ED LOS by phase was 0.94 (0.55-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to avoid ED crowding, even during extreme and quickly changing conditions by leveraging previously known input, throughput and output factors. One key factor was the change in working methods in the ED with higher competence, less diagnostics and increased focus on rapid clinical admission decisions. Another important factor was the reduction in bed occupancy in emergency wards that enabled a timely admission to inpatient care. A key limitation was the retrospective study design.


Тема - темы
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Crowding , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bed Occupancy , COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden
6.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 106, 2020 Oct 27.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098375

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency. Here, we developed and validated a practical model based on the data from a multi-center cohort in China for early identification and prediction of which patients will be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Data of 1087 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were collected from 49 sites between January 2 and February 28, 2020, in Sichuan and Wuhan. Patients were randomly categorized into the training and validation cohorts (7:3). The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and logistic regression analyzes were used to develop the nomogram. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated for the C-index, calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. Further, the nomogram was externally validated in a different cohort. RESULTS: The individualized prediction nomogram included 6 predictors: age, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, fever, and chronic kidney disease. The model demonstrated a high discriminative ability in the training cohort (C-index = 0.829), which was confirmed in the external validation cohort (C-index = 0.776). In addition, the calibration plots confirmed good concordance for predicting the risk of ICU admission. Decision curve analysis revealed that the prediction nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSION: We established an early prediction model incorporating clinical characteristics that could be quickly obtained on hospital admission, even in community health centers. This model can be conveniently used to predict the individual risk for ICU admission of patients with COVID-19 and optimize the use of limited resources.


Тема - темы
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nomograms , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(42): e303, 2022 Oct 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099099

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The risk of severe outcomes with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) delta variant remains low in children and adolescents, but less is known about its effect on the SARS-CoV-2-naïve population. This study evaluated clinical manifestations and risk factors for moderate-to-critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in mostly SARS-CoV-2-naïve children and adolescents in 2021. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included patients aged 0-18 years who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at 8 referring hospitals in South Korea during the predelta-predominant and delta-predominant periods in 2021. Each case was labeled as either hospitalization with medical needs or for isolation. Severity was categorized as mild, moderate, severe, or critical with regard to pneumonia presence and illness severity. RESULTS: Among 753 cases, most (99.5%) had no prior history of COVID-19 or vaccination against COVID-19. The proportions of hospitalization with medical needs (3.5% vs. 19.7%), moderate illness (0.9% vs. 4.0%), and severe/critical illness (0.8% vs. 5.3%) increased during delta predominance. The risk of moderate-to-critical COVID-19 among hospitalizations with medical needs was higher among patients aged 12-18 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-11.8) and with obesity (aOR, 6.9; 95% CI, 2.4-19.6) but not among patients infected during delta predominance. However, children with obesity experienced more severe COVID-19 during delta predominance (aOR, 6.1; 95% CI, 1.2-29.6). CONCLUSION: Despite its similar severity among most SARS-CoV-2-naïve children and adolescents, the delta variant may affect COVID-19 severity in those with high-risk underlying medical conditions. Underlying conditions, particularly obesity, may cause severe COVID-19 in children and adolescents, warranting strong consideration for vaccinating high-risk children.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology
8.
Trials ; 23(1): 273, 2022 Apr 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098437

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a heterogeneous outcome in individuals from remaining asymptomatic to death. In a majority of cases, mild symptoms are present that do not require hospitalization and can be successfully treated in the outpatient setting, though symptoms may persist for a long duration. We hypothesize that drugs suitable for decentralized study in outpatients will have efficacy among infected outpatients METHODS: The TREAT NOW platform is designed to accommodate testing multiple agents with the ability to incorporate new agents in the future. TREAT NOW is an adaptive, blinded, multi-center, placebo-controlled superiority randomized clinical trial which started with two active therapies (hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir) and placebo, with the hydroxychloroquine arm dropped shortly after enrollment began due to external evidence. Each arm has a target enrollment of 300 participants who will be randomly assigned in an equal allocation to receive either an active therapy or placebo twice daily for 14 days with daily electronic surveys collected over days 1 through 16 and on day 29 to evaluate symptoms and a modified COVID-19 ordinal outcome scale. Participants are enrolled remotely by telephone and consented with a digital interface, study drug is overnight mailed to study participants, and data collection occurs electronically without in-person interactions. DISCUSSION: If effective treatments for COVID-19 can be identified for individuals in the outpatient setting before they advance to severe disease, it will prevent progression to more severe disease, reduce the need for hospitalization, and shorten the duration of symptoms. The novel decentralized, "no touch" approach used by the TREAT NOW platform has distinction advantages over traditional in-person trials to reach broader populations and perform study procedures in a pragmatic yet rigorous manner. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04372628. Registered on April 30, 2020. First posted on May 4, 2020.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Outpatients , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 297, 2022 Oct 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098346

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Routine follow-up of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 is recommended, however due to the ongoing high number of infections this is not without significant health resource and economic burden. In a previous study we investigated the prevalence of, and risk factors for, persistent chest radiograph (CXR) abnormalities post-hospitalisation with COVID-19 and identified a 5-point composite score that strongly predicted risk of persistent CXR abnormality at 12-weeks. Here we sought to validate and refine our findings in an independent cohort of patients. METHODOLOGY: A single-centre prospective study of consecutive patients attending a virtual post-hospitalisation COVID-19 clinic and CXR as part of their standard clinical care between 2nd March - 22nd June 2021. Inpatient and follow-up CXRs were scored by the assessing clinician for extent of pulmonary infiltrates (0-4 in each lung) with complete resolution defined as a follow-up score of zero. RESULTS: 182 consecutive patients were identified of which 31% had persistent CXR abnormality at 12-weeks. Patients with persistent CXR abnormality were significantly older (p < 0.001), had a longer hospital length of stay (p = 0.005), and had a higher incidence of both level 2 or 3 facility admission (level 2/3 care) (p = 0.003) and ever-smoking history (p = 0.038). Testing our composite score in the present cohort we found it predicted persistent CXR abnormality with reasonable accuracy (area under the receiver operator curve [AUROC 0.64]). Refining this score replacing obesity with Age ≥ 50 years, we identify the SHADE-750 score (1-point each for; Smoking history, Higher-level care (level 2/3 admission), Age ≥ 50 years, Duration of admission ≥ 15 days and Enzyme-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH ≥ 750U/L), that accurately predicted risk of persistent CXR abnormality, both in the present cohort (AUROC 0.73) and when retrospectively applied to our 1st cohort (AUROC 0.79). Applied to both cohorts combined (n = 213) it again performed strongly (AUROC 0.75) with all patients with a score of zero (n = 18) having complete CXR resolution at 12-weeks. CONCLUSIONS: In two independent cohorts of patients hospitalised with COVID-19, we identify a 5-point score which accurately predicts patients at risk of persistent CXR abnormality at 12-weeks. This tool could be used by clinicians to identify patients in which radiological follow-up may not be required.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Radiography, Thoracic , Hospitalization , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Risk Factors , Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 813, 2022 Oct 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098322

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) is the largest health care provider in Mexico, covering about 48% of the Mexican population. In this report, we describe the epidemiological patterns related to confirmed cases, hospitalizations, intubations, and in-hospital mortality due to COVID-19 and associated factors, during five epidemic waves recorded in the IMSS surveillance system. METHODS: We analyzed COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed cases from the Online Epidemiological Surveillance System (SINOLAVE) from March 29th, 2020, to August 27th, 2022. We constructed weekly epidemic curves describing temporal patterns of confirmed cases and hospitalizations by age, gender, and wave. We also estimated hospitalization, intubation, and hospital case fatality rates. The mean days of in-hospital stay and hospital admission delay were calculated across five pandemic waves. Logistic regression models were employed to assess the association between demographic factors, comorbidities, wave, and vaccination and the risk of severe disease and in-hospital death. RESULTS: A total of 3,396,375 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were recorded across the five waves. The introduction of rapid antigen testing at the end of 2020 increased detection and modified epidemiological estimates. Overall, 11% (95% CI 10.9, 11.1) of confirmed cases were hospitalized, 20.6% (95% CI 20.5, 20.7) of the hospitalized cases were intubated, and the hospital case fatality rate was 45.1% (95% CI 44.9, 45.3). The mean in-hospital stay was 9.11 days, and patients were admitted on average 5.07 days after symptoms onset. The most recent waves dominated by the Omicron variant had the highest incidence. Hospitalization, intubation, and mean hospitalization days decreased during subsequent waves. The in-hospital case fatality rate fluctuated across waves, reaching its highest value during the second wave in winter 2020. A notable decrease in hospitalization was observed primarily among individuals ≥ 60 years. The risk of severe disease and death was positively associated with comorbidities, age, and male gender; and declined with later waves and vaccination status. CONCLUSION: During the five pandemic waves, we observed an increase in the number of cases and a reduction in severity metrics. During the first three waves, the high in-hospital fatality rate was associated with hospitalization practices for critical patients with comorbidities.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospital Mortality , Mexico/epidemiology , Hospitalization
11.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098298

Реферат

BACKGROUND: As mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly age-dependent, we aimed to identify population subgroups at an elevated risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 using age-/gender-adjusted data from European cohort studies with the aim to identify populations that could potentially benefit from booster vaccinations. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of underlying medical conditions as prognostic factors for adverse outcomes due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including death, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation within three separate settings (community, hospital and ICU). Cohort studies that reported at least age and gender-adjusted data from Europe were identified through a search of peer-reviewed articles published until 11 June 2021 in Ovid Medline and Embase. Results are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and absolute risk differences in deaths per 1000 COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: We included 88 cohort studies with age-/gender-adjusted data from 6 653 207 SARS-CoV-2 patients from Europe. Hospital-based mortality was associated with high and moderate certainty evidence for solid organ tumours, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, liver disease and obesity, while a higher risk, albeit with low certainty, was noted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. Community-based mortality was associated with a history of heart failure, stroke, diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Evidence of high/moderate certainty revealed a strong association between hospitalisation for COVID-19 and solid organ transplant recipients, sleep apnoea, diabetes, stroke and liver disease. INTERPRETATION: The results confirmed the strong association between specific prognostic factors and mortality and hospital admission. Prioritisation of booster vaccinations and the implementation of nonpharmaceutical protective measures for these populations may contribute to a reduction in COVID-19 mortality, ICU and hospital admissions.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Europe/epidemiology , Male , Female
12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(2): 228-229, 2021 Feb.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096442

Реферат

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has migrated to regions that were initially spared, and it is likely that different populations are currently at risk for illness. Herein, we present our observations of the change in characteristics and resource use of COVID-19 patients over time in a national system of community hospitals to help inform those managing surge planning, operational management, and future policy decisions.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virginia/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(1): 89-92, 2021 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096391
14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(11): 1258-1265, 2020 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096345

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The role of severe respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-laden aerosols in the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains uncertain. Discordant findings of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples were noted in early reports. METHODS: Sampling of air close to 6 asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients with and without surgical masks was performed with sampling devices using sterile gelatin filters. Frequently touched environmental surfaces near 21 patients were swabbed before daily environmental disinfection. The correlation between the viral loads of patients' clinical samples and environmental samples was analyzed. RESULTS: All air samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the 6 patients singly isolated inside airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) with 12 air changes per hour. Of 377 environmental samples near 21 patients, 19 (5.0%) were positive by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with a median viral load of 9.2 × 102 copies/mL (range, 1.1 × 102 to 9.4 × 104 copies/mL). The contamination rate was highest on patients' mobile phones (6 of 77, 7.8%), followed by bed rails (4 of 74, 5.4%) and toilet door handles (4 of 76, 5.3%). We detected a significant correlation between viral load ranges in clinical samples and positivity rate of environmental samples (P < .001). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detectable by air samplers, which suggests that the airborne route is not the predominant mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Wearing a surgical mask, appropriate hand hygiene, and thorough environmental disinfection are sufficient infection control measures for COVID-19 patients isolated singly in AIIRs. However, this conclusion may not apply during aerosol-generating procedures or in cohort wards with large numbers of COVID-19 patients.


Тема - темы
Air Microbiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Fomites/virology , Infection Control/methods , Patients' Rooms , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aerosols , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
15.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(9): 1075-1076, 2020 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096337
16.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(8): 983-984, 2020 Aug.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096250
17.
N Engl J Med ; 387(18): e51, 2022 11 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096906
18.
Rev Clin Esp (Barc) ; 222(8): 468-478, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095943

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Various studies have identified factors associated with risk of mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, their sample size has often been limited and their results partially contradictory. This study evaluated factors associated with COVID-19 mortality in the population of Madrid over 75 years of age, in infected patients, and in hospitalized patients up to January 2021. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This population-based cohort study analyzed all residents of the Community of Madrid born before January 1, 1945 who were alive as of December 31, 2019. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from primary care electronic medical records (PC-Madrid), data on hospital admissions from the Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD, Minimum Data Set), and data on mortality from the Índice Nacional de Defunciones (INDEF, National Death Index). Data on SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death were collected from March 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021. RESULTS: A total of 587,603 subjects were included in the cohort. Of them, 41,603 (7.1%) had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, of which 22,362 (53.7% of the infected individuals) were hospitalized and 11,251 (27%) died. Male sex and age were the factors most closely associated with mortality, though many comorbidities also had an influence. The associations were stronger in the analysis of the total population than in the analysis of infected or hospitalized patients. Mortality among hospitalized patients was lower during the second wave (33.4%) than during the first wave (41.2%) of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Age, sex, and numerous comorbidities are associated with risk of death due to COVID-19. Mortality in hospitalized patients declined notably after the first wave of the pandemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics
19.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 73(3)2022 Jun.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091455

Реферат

Systemic inflammation is a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Anti-inflammatory therapy is considered crucial to modulate the hyperinflammatory response (cytokine storm) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. There is currently no specific, conclusively proven, cost-efficient, and worldwide available anti-inflammatory therapy available to treat COVID-19 patients with cytokine storm. The present study aimed to investigate the treatment benefit of oral colchicine for hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. Colchicine is an approved drug and possesses multiple anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This was a pilot, open-label randomized controlled clinical trial comparing standard of care (SOC) plus oral colchicine (colchicine arm) vs. SOC alone (control arm) in non-ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. Colchicine treatment was initiated within first 48 hours of admission delivered at 1.5 mg loading dose, followed by 0.5 mg b.i.d. for next 6 days and 0.5 mg q.d. for the second week. A total of 96 patients were randomly allocated to the colchicine (n=48) and control groups (n=48). Both colchicine and control group patients experienced similar clinical outcomes by day 14 of hospitalization. Treatment outcome by day 14 in colchicine vs control arm: recovered and discharged alive: 36 (75.0%) vs. 37 (77.1%), remain admitted after 14-days: 4 (8.3%) vs. 5 (10.4%), ICU transferred: 4 (8.3%) vs. 3 (6.3%), and mortality: 4 (8.3%) vs. 3 (6.3%). The speed of improvement of COVID-19 acute symptoms including shortness of breath, fever, cough, the need of supplementary oxygen, and oxygen saturation level, was almost identical in the two groups. Length of hospitalization was on average 1.5 day shorter in the colchicine group. There was no evidence for a difference between the two groups in the follow-up serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP). According to the results of our study, oral colchicine does not appear to show clinical benefits in non-ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. It is possible that the anti-inflammatory pathways of colchicine are not crucially involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
20.
Acta Biomed ; 93(5): e2022313, 2022 Oct 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091393

Реферат

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The pandemic caused by SARS-COV-2 has increased Semi-Intensive Care Unit (SICU) admission, causing an increase in healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Mostly HAI reveals the same risk factors, but fewer studies have analyzed the possibility of multiple coinfections in these patients. The study aimed was to identify patterns of co-presence of different species describing at the same time the association between such patterns and patient demographics and, finally, comparing the patterns between the two cohorts of COVID-19 patients admitted at Policlinico during the first wave and the second one). METHODS: All the patients admitted to SICUs during two COVID-19 waves, from March to June 2020 months and from October to December 2020, were screened following the local infection control surveillance program; whoever manifested fever has undergone on microbiological culture to detect bacterial species. Statistical analysis was performed to observe the existence of microbiological patterns through DBSCAN method. RESULTS: 246 patients were investigated and 83 patients were considered in our study because they presented infection symptoms with a mean age of 67 years and 33.7% of female patients. During the first and second waves were found respectively 10 and 8 bacterial clusters with no difference regarding the most frequent species. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the importance of an analysis which considers the risk factors for the possibility of co- and superinfection (such as age and gender) to structure a good prognostic tool to predict which patients will encounter severe coinfections during hospitalization.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Humans , Female , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Coinfection/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Retrospective Studies
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