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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1008521, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154849

Реферат

Background: There is a need to establish the effectiveness of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in reducing COVID-19-related hopitalization of patients in Jordan. As the vaccination program accelerates, it is important to determine whether the vaccines' effectiveness (VE) has successfully reduced the number of acute cases admitted to hospital. Methods: To determine the efficacy of Pfizer-BioNTech and Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccines among Jordanian patients admitted to Prince Hamza hospital, a single center case-control study was performed. The study analyzed the hospitalization rates of vaccinated (n = 536) and unvaccinated (n = 585) individuals across the 2-month period from February 6 to April 6, 2022. The cases were patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 ("case-patients"), whilst the control group were hospital patients who did not test positive for SARS-CoV-2 ("control-patients"). Results: This study found that among 1,121 total participants (561 cases and 560 control), the overall vaccine effectiveness (VE) among the participants was 84% (95% Cl 79-88%). VE was higher in females (88%, 95% Cl 84-93%) than in males (77%, 95% Cl 67-84%) (p < 0.001), and it was highest in those between the ages of 18 and 28-years-old (95%, 95% CI 86-98%). For patients with pre-existing conditions, including chronic heart disease, chronic lung disease, and diabetes, VE was higher compared to patients with no comorbidities, though the difference was not statistically significant. Finally, in comparing all vaccinated participants, VE was higher for those who received the Pfizer vaccine (VE = 92%, 95% CI 88-94%) (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.06-0.12) than for those who received the Sinopharm vaccine (VE = 67%, 95% CI 52-78%) (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.48); (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Overall, Pfizer and Sinopharm vaccines were found to be effective in limiting hospitalizations for acute cases of coronavirus among Jordanian adult's patient's cohort between February 6 and April 6, 2022, especially among patients with comorbidities.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
2.
Eur J Intern Med ; 106: 39-44, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149663

Реферат

Internal Medicine wards are an appropriate focus of antibiotic stewardship, along with emergency departments and intensive care units, because a large proportion of patients are with parenteral broad-spectrum antibiotics. Given the unmet clinical need of antibiotic optimization in the hospital and the importance of front-line practitioners for antibiotic stewardship, the barriers and tactics to overcome them were discussed in a round table at the European Congress of Internal Medicine. Better rapid diagnostic tests should help to increase appropriate early antibiotic rates, favoring diversity in antibiotic choices adapted to the awareness of local resistance patterns. Providing such is a greater challenge in low-resource settings. Prescriptions should be personalized, adjusting dosage and source control to specific patients' conditions. Shorter antibiotic duration and de-escalation are major drivers to reduce adverse events, with mortality and recurrence rates being independent of antimicrobial duration. Appropriate diagnostic tests with quick turnaround times decrease excessive antibiotic use. Antimicrobial optimization requires a multidisciplinary approach and it should be a core competence of training specialists, improving opportunities to provide safer patient care.


Тема - темы
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Prescriptions , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1034450, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142361

Реферат

Background: Online health care services have been encouraged by the Chinese government in recent years, and the COVID-19 pandemic catalyzed the rapid growing of internet hospitals. As an integral part of online health care services, little is known about the economic value and characteristics of cloud pharmacy especially for children. This study aimed to reveal the economic value and comprehensive characteristics of pediatric cloud pharmacy during the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary children's hospital in western China. Methods: A total of 33,254 online prescriptions over the course of February 2020 through December 2021 were analyzed with respect to the user profiles, diseases, consulting behaviors, distribution of departments, delivery region and distance, drug information and degree of satisfaction. The cost savings for patients calculated lost wages and the high-speed railway fees for transport to and from hospital. Results: A total of 33,254 prescriptions, including 56,216 drugs were delivered to 27 provinces and municipalities of China. The internet cloud pharmacy saved a total of more than RMB 11.17 million in financial costs for patients. Of the 33,254 delivered prescriptions, 50.40% were sent to Chongqing Province, the top 5 provinces for out-of-province prescription deliveries were Sichuan (37.77%), Guizhou (8.00%), Yunnan (1.18%), Hubei (0.66%) and Guangdong (0.42%). In terms of department distribution, neurology (31.7%), respiratory (15.0%) and endocrinology (14.6%) were the top three departments. Epilepsy (16.2%), precocious puberty (10.3%) and asthma (8.7%) were the top three frequently consulted diseases. The peak times of day for online prescriptions occurred at 9 AM and 8 PM. 99.67% of users gave full marks for their internet counseling. Conclusion: The pediatric cloud pharmacy is efficient, cost-saving and convenient for children with chronic disease or mild symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. The widespread use of this pediatric cloud pharmacy can help alleviating pressure on offline hospitals and facilitated people's lives beyond geographical and time-related limitations. Further efforts are needed to be made to improve the quality and acceptance of pediatric cloud pharmacy, as well as to regulate and standardize the management of this novel online health care service.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pharmacy , Humans , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Hospitals , Internet
4.
Euro Surveill ; 27(18)2022 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141535

Реферат

In November 2021, a clonal outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of novel sequence type ST3875 was detected in three patients who died of bloodstream infections in one hospital. By 25 April 2022, the outbreak included 339 cases from 38 hospitals across Norway. Initial hospital reports indicate Pseudomonas infection as the main contributing cause in seven deaths. In March 2022, the outbreak strain was identified in non-sterile pre-moistened disposable washcloths, used to clean patients, from three lots from the same international manufacturer.


Тема - темы
Cross Infection , Pseudomonas Infections , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0272919, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140469

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired infections of communicable viral diseases (CVDs) have been posing a tremendous challenge to healthcare workers globally. Healthcare personnel (HCP) is facing a consistent risk of viral infections, and subsequently higher rates of morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We proposed a domain-knowledge-driven infection risk model to quantify the individual HCP and the population-level risks. For individual-level risk estimation, a time-variant infection risk model is proposed to capture the transmission dynamics of CVDs. At the population-level, the infection risk is estimated using a Bayesian network model constructed from three feature sets, including individual-level factors, engineering control factors, and administrative control factors. For model validation, we investigated the case study of the Coronavirus disease, in which the individual-level and population-level infection risk models were applied. The data were collected from various sources such as COVID-19 transmission databases, health surveys/questionaries from medical centers, U.S. Department of Labor databases, and cross-sectional studies. RESULTS: Regarding the individual-level risk model, the variance-based sensitivity analysis indicated that the uncertainty in the estimated risk was attributed to two variables: the number of close contacts and the viral transmission probability. Next, the disease transmission probability was computed using a multivariate logistic regression applied for a cross-sectional HCP data in the UK, with the 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 78.23%. Combined with the previous result, we further validated the individual infection risk model by considering six occupations in the U.S. Department of Labor O*Net database. The occupation-specific risk evaluation suggested that the registered nurses, medical assistants, and respiratory therapists were the highest-risk occupations. For the population-level risk model validation, the infection risk in Texas and California was estimated, in which the infection risk in Texas was lower than that in California. This can be explained by California's higher patient load for each HCP per day and lower personal protective equipment (PPE) sufficiency level. CONCLUSION: The accurate estimation of infection risk at both individual level and population levels using our domain-knowledge-driven infection risk model will significantly enhance the PPE allocation, safety plans for HCP, and hospital staffing strategies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Virus Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Bayes Theorem , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Personnel, Hospital , Hospitals , Delivery of Health Care
6.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 309, 2022 Nov 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139266

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Machine learning (ML) algorithms have been trained to early predict critical in-hospital events from COVID-19 using patient data at admission, but little is known on how their performance compares with each other and/or with statistical logistic regression (LR). This prospective multicentre cohort study compares the performance of a LR and five ML models on the contribution of influencing predictors and predictor-to-event relationships on prediction model´s performance. METHODS: We used 25 baseline variables of 490 COVID-19 patients admitted to 8 hospitals in Germany (March-November 2020) to develop and validate (75/25 random-split) 3 linear (L1 and L2 penalty, elastic net [EN]) and 2 non-linear (support vector machine [SVM] with radial kernel, random forest [RF]) ML approaches for predicting critical events defined by intensive care unit transfer, invasive ventilation and/or death (composite end-point: 181 patients). Models were compared for performance (area-under-the-receiver-operating characteristic-curve [AUC], Brier score) and predictor importance (performance-loss metrics, partial-dependence profiles). RESULTS: Models performed close with a small benefit for LR (utilizing restricted cubic splines for non-linearity) and RF (AUC means: 0.763-0.731 [RF-L1]); Brier scores: 0.184-0.197 [LR-L1]). Top ranked predictor variables (consistently highest importance: C-reactive protein) were largely identical across models, except creatinine, which exhibited marginal (L1, L2, EN, SVM) or high/non-linear effects (LR, RF) on events. CONCLUSIONS: Although the LR and ML models analysed showed no strong differences in performance and the most influencing predictors for COVID-19-related event prediction, our results indicate a predictive benefit from taking account for non-linear predictor-to-event relationships and effects. Future efforts should focus on leveraging data-driven ML technologies from static towards dynamic modelling solutions that continuously learn and adapt to changes in data environments during the evolving pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04659187.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Logistic Models , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Machine Learning , Hospitals
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2203, 2022 Nov 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139241

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To explore the psychological experience of Juvenile patient's parents in Fangcang shelter hospital during the Omicron wave of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted by using a phenomenological research method. Sixteen parents of juvenile patients with COVID-19 were recruited from National Exhibition and Convention Center (Shanghai, China) Fangcang shelter hospital (FSH) using purposive sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face in-depth interviews over 27 days, from April 9 to May 6, 2022. The interview data were analyzed using Colaizzi seven-step analysis method. RESULTS: The psychological experiences of the parents of juvenile patients in the Fangcang shelter hospital were summarized into three themes: "perception regarding the FSH", "worried about the unmet needs of juvenile patients ", and "the psychological burden after discharge". These themes were classified into 9 sub-themes, including the acceptance of FSH, adaptability to FSH, concerns about cross-infection in the FSH, special needs of infants and young children, psychological needs of preschool children, the learning demands of school-age children, concern about re-positive, fear of sequelae, worry about social acceptance. CONCLUSION: Juvenile patients and their parents in the Fangcang shelter hospitals have both positive and negative experiences. It is suggested that facilities for minors should be planned in advance. Humanistic care for adolescent patients and health education for the public are also critical.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Infant , Child, Preschool , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Special , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Mobile Health Units , Hospitals , Parents , Follicle Stimulating Hormone
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e060994, 2022 11 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137707

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To estimate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) length of treatment effect on survival of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in a medium-sized UK Hospital, and how this effect changes according to the patient's comorbidity and COVID-19 route of acquisition (community or nosocomial) during the two waves in 2020. SETTING: The acute inpatient unit in Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh Teaching Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust (WWL), a medium-sized NHS Trust in north-west of England. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort of all confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted in WWL during 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 1830 patients (568 first wave, 1262 s wave) with antigen confirmed COVID-19 disease and severe acute respiratory syndrome admitted between 17 March 2020 (first confirmed COVID-19 case) and 31 December 2020. OUTCOME MEASURE: COVID-19 survival rate in all patients and survival rate in potentially hospital-acquired COVID-19 (PHA) patients were modelled using a predictor set which include comorbidities (eg, obesity, diabetes, chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)), wave, age, sex and care home residency, and interventions (remdesivir, dexamethasone, CPAP, intensive care unit (ICU), intubation). Secondary outcome measure was CPAP length, which was modelled using the same predictors of the survival rate. RESULTS: Mortality rate in the second wave was significantly lower than in the first wave (43.4% vs 28.1%, p<0.001), although for PHA COVID-19 patients mortality did not reduce, remaining at very high levels independently of wave and CPAP length. For all cohort, statistical modelling identified CPAP length (HR 95% CI 0.86 to 0.96) and women (HR 95% CI 0.71 to 0.81) were associated with improved survival, while being older age (HR 95% CI 1.02 to 1.03) admitted from care homes (HR 95% CI 2.22 to 2.39), IHD (HR 95% CI 1.13 to 1.24), CKD (HR 95% CI 1.14 to 1.25), obesity (HR 95% CI 1.18 to 1.28) and COPD-emphysema (HR 95% CI 1.18 to 1.57) were associated with reduced survival. Despite the detrimental effect of comorbidities, patients with CKD (95% CI 16% to 30% improvement in survival), IHD (95% CI 1% to 10% improvement in survival) and asthma (95% CI 8% to 30% improvement in survival) benefitted most from CPAP length, while no significant survival difference was found for obese and patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The experience of an Acute Trust during the COVID-19 outbreak of 2020 is documented and indicates the importance of care home and hospitals in disease acquisition. Death rates fell between the first and second wave only for community-acquired COVID-19 patients. The fall was associated to CPAP length, especially for some comorbidities. While uncovering some risk and protective factors of mortality in COVID-19 studies, the study also unravels how little is known about PHA COVID-19 and the interaction between CPAP and some comorbidities.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Female , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , State Medicine , Comorbidity , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Hospitals , Obesity , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 29(1)2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137661

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Surging volumes of patients with COVID-19 and the high infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2 challenged hospital infection control/safety, staffing, care delivery and operations as few crises have. Imperatives to ensure security of patient information, defend against cybersecurity threats and accurately identify/authenticate patients and staff were undiminished, which fostered creative use cases where hospitals leveraged identity access and management (IAM) technologies to improve infection control and minimise disruption of clinical and administrative workflows. METHODS: Working with a leading IAM solution provider, implementation personnel in the USA and UK identified all hospitals/health systems where an innovative use of IAM technology improved facility infection control and pandemic response management. Interviews/communications with hospital clinical informatics leaders collected information describing the use case deployed. RESULTS: Eight innovative/valuable hospital use cases are described: symptom-free attestation by clinicians at shift start; detection of clinician exposure/contact tracing; reporting of clinician temperature checks; inpatient telehealth consults in isolation units; virtual visits between isolated patients and families; touchless single sign-on authentication; secure access enabled for rapid expansion of personnel working remotely; and monitoring of temporary worker attendance. DISCUSSION: No systematic, comprehensive survey of all implemented IAM client sites was conducted, and other use cases may be undetected. A standardised reporting/information sharing vehicle is needed whereby IAM use cases aiding facility pandemic response and infection control can be disseminated. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical care, infection control and facility operations were improved using IAM solutions during COVID-19. Facility end-user innovation in how IAM solutions are deployed can improve infection control/patient safety, care delivery and clinical workflows during surges of epidemic infectious diseases.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Infection Control , Hospitals
10.
BMJ ; 379: e071374, 2022 11 23.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137584

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of voluntary rapid testing for SARS-CoV-2 antigen in Liverpool city on covid-19 related hospital admissions. DESIGN: Synthetic control analysis comparing hospital admissions for small areas in the intervention population with a group of control areas weighted to be similar for past covid-19 related hospital admission rates and sociodemographic factors. SETTING: Liverpool city, UK, 6 November 2020 to 2 January 2021, under the intervention of Covid-SMART (systematic meaningful asymptomatic repeated testing) voluntary, open access supervised self-testing with lateral flow devices, compared with control areas selected from the rest of England. POPULATION: General population of Liverpool (n=498 042) and a synthetic control population from the rest of England. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Weekly covid-19 related hospital admissions for neighbourhoods in England. RESULTS: The introduction of community testing was associated with a 43% (95% confidence interval 29% to 57%) reduction (146 (96 to 192) in total) in covid-19 related hospital admissions in Liverpool compared with the synthetic control population (non-adjacent set of neighbourhoods with aggregate trends in covid-19 hospital admissions similar to Liverpool) for the initial period of intensive testing with military assistance in national lockdown from 6 November to 3 December 2020. A 25% (11% to 35%) reduction (239 (104 to 333) in total) was estimated across the overall intervention period (6 November 2020 to 2 January 2021), involving fewer testing centres, before England's national roll-out of community testing, after adjusting for regional differences in tiers of covid-19 restrictions from 3 December 2020 to 2 January 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The city-wide pilot of community based asymptomatic testing for SARS-CoV-2 was associated with substantially reduced covid-19 related hospital admissions. Large scale asymptomatic rapid testing for SARS-CoV-2 could help reduce transmission and prevent hospital admissions.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization , Hospitals
11.
J Healthc Manag ; 67(6): 446-457, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135683

Реферат

GOAL: This study explored the use of a Lean daily management system (DMS) for COVID-19 response and recovery in U.S. hospitals and health systems. Originally developed in manufacturing, Lean is an evidence-based approach to quality and process improvement in healthcare. Although Lean has been studied in individual hospital units and outpatient practices, it has not been examined as a whole system response to crisis events. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 46 executive leaders, clinical leaders, and frontline staff in four hospitals and health systems across the United States. We developed a semistructured interview guide to understand DMS implementation in these care delivery organizations. As interviews took place 6-8 months following the onset of the pandemic, a subset of our interview questions centered on DMS use to meet the demands of COVID-19. Based on a deductive approach to qualitative analysis, we identified clusters of themes that described how DMS facilitated rapid system response to the public health emergency. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There were many important ways in which U.S. hospitals and health systems leveraged their DMS to address COVID-19 challenges. These included the use of tiered huddles to facilitate rapid communication, the creation of standard work for redeployed staff, and structured problem-solving to prioritize new areas for improvement. We also discovered ways that the pandemic itself affected DMS implementation in all organizations. COVID-19 universally created greater DMS visibility by opening lines of communication among leadership, strengthening measurement and accountability, and empowering staff to develop solutions at the front lines. Many lessons learned using DMS for crisis management will carry forward into COVID-19 recovery efforts. Lessons include expanding telehealth, reactivating incident command systems as needed, and efficiently coordinating resources amid potential future shortages. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Overall, the Lean DMS functioned as a robust property that enabled quick organizational response to unpredictable events. Our findings on the use of DMS are consistent with organizational resilience that emphasizes collective sense-making and awareness of incident status, team decision-making, and frequent interaction and coordination. These features of resilience are supported by DMS practices such as tiered huddles for rapid information dissemination and alignment across organizational hierarchies. When used in conjunction with plan-do-study-act methodology, huddles provide teams with enhanced feedback that strengthens their ability to make changes as needed. Moreover, gaps between work-as-imagined (how work should be done) and work-as-done (how work is actually done) may be exacerbated in the initial chaos of emergency events but can be minimized through the development of standard work protocols. As a facilitator of resilience, the Lean DMS may be used in a variety of challenging situations to ensure high standards of care.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , United States , Humans , Leadership , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitals
12.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 35(12): 1-6, 2022 Dec 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135598

Реферат

ABSTRACT: Patients who are critically ill with COVID-19 need ventilation support in the ICU. However, ICU patients are at higher risk of developing a pressure injury (PI). Unfortunately, PI prevention is not optimally implemented in Indonesia, especially in the makeshift hospitals created during the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, the authors report two cases of critically ill patients with COVID-19 who developed large sacral PIs during hospitalization in a makeshift hospital in Indonesia. The first patient developed a stage 3, 7 × 7-cm sacral PI on the 14th day of hospitalization. The second patient developed a stage 4, 12 × 8-cm sacral PI on the 16th day of hospitalization. Both patients had elevated d-dimer levels and used a noninvasive ventilator for 1 week. The wounds were treated with surgical debridement, silver hydrogel dressing, and hydrocolloid dressing and complemented with static air mattress overlay. The authors recommend that in situations where there is a shortage of healthcare workers, the government should provide pressure-redistribution devices and silicone foam dressings for all critically ill patients to prevent PI development and lighten the workload of healthcare workers.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , Indonesia , Pandemics , Hospitals
14.
Healthc Q ; 25(3): 30-35, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145326

Реферат

In March 2020, the Toronto Region COVID-19 Hospital Operations Table developed a policy to guide visitor restrictions at six hospitals (Toronto Region COVID-19 Hospital Operations Table 2021). We conducted nine interviews with the developers and implementers of the policy based on the accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework. Participants agreed that the A4R principles were met suggesting fair development and implementation of the policy. However, recurrent themes suggested that the policy disadvantaged those unable to advocate for themselves and that there were unaccounted costs to patients, such as lost time and function. We suggest that visitor policies incorporate equity considerations upfront and predetermine metrics to measure harms to patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Health Priorities , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Responsibility , Hospitals , Policy
15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e24320, 2021 01 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141293

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Many studies have focused on the characteristics of symptomatic patients with COVID-19 and clinical risk factors. This study reports the prevalence of COVID-19 in an asymptomatic population of a hospital service area (HSA) and identifies factors that affect exposure to the virus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of COVID-19 in an HSA, identify factors that may increase or decrease the risk of infection, and analyze factors that increase the number of daily contacts. METHODS: This study surveyed 1694 patients between April 30 and May 13, 2020, about their work and living situations, income, behavior, sociodemographic characteristics, and prepandemic health characteristics. This data was linked to testing data for 454 of these patients, including polymerase chain reaction test results and two different serologic assays. Positivity rate was used to calculate approximate prevalence, hospitalization rate, and infection fatality rate (IFR). Survey data was used to analyze risk factors, including the number of contacts reported by study participants. The data was also used to identify factors increasing the number of daily contacts, such as mask wearing and living environment. RESULTS: We found a positivity rate of 2.2%, a hospitalization rate of 1.2%, and an adjusted IFR of 0.55%. A higher number of daily contacts with adults and older adults increases the probability of becoming infected. Occupation, living in an apartment versus a house, and wearing a face mask outside work increased the number of daily contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Studying prevalence in an asymptomatic population revealed estimates of unreported COVID-19 cases. Occupational, living situation, and behavioral data about COVID-19-protective behaviors such as wearing a mask may aid in the identification of nonclinical factors affecting the number of daily contacts, which may increase SARS-CoV-2 exposure.


Тема - темы
Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment , Housing , Infection Control , Masks , Contact Tracing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Oct 27.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123744

Реферат

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The postpartum maternal physical and psychological state played a fundamental role in the mother-child relationship at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study is to analyze the influence of maternal psychological manifestations on the mother-child couple through three objectives (briefly expressed): (I) Determination of the main acute and chronic conditions of newborns/infants. (II) Verification of the hypothesis of the existence of a link between the following neonatal variables: gestational age, birth weight, number of days of hospitalization, and specific neonatal therapies (oxygen, surfactant, and blood products' transfusion). (III) Verification of the influence of postpartum maternal psychological status on the mother-child couple through three hypotheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two hospitals in Timișoara, Romania, between 1 March and 1 September 2020, and included 165 mothers and their 175 newborns. Mothers answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Spielberger's Inventory of State-Trait Anxiety, and the Collins and Read Revised Adult Attachment Scale. RESULTS: (I) The acute and chronic pathology of the infants in the study group was polymorphic. (II) Large correlations were identified between the following infant variables: gestational age with birth weight, and number of hospitalization days with birth weight, gestational age, and use of blood product transfusion (all p < 0.001). (III) (1) State anxiety was the only significant predictor of number of hospitalization days (p = 0.037), number of acute disorders (p = 0.028), and number of infant chronic diseases (p = 0.037). (2) Maternal depressive symptoms were the only predictor of postpartum maternal attachment (p = 0.018). (3) Depressive symptoms, state, and trait anxiety were non-significant in all models studied (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum maternal physical and psychological state plays a fundamental role on the mother-child relationship in the new social and complex family conditions.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Infant , Female , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Birth Weight , Romania/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mother-Child Relations , Mothers/psychology , Hospitals
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064105, 2022 11 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119445

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the use of process mapping and a multidisciplinary Delphi can identify potential contributors to perioperative risk. We hypothesised that this approach may identify factors not represented in common perioperative risk tools and give insights of use to future research in this area. DESIGN: Multidisciplinary, modified Delphi study. SETTING: Two centres (one tertiary, one secondary) in the UK during 2020 amidst coronavirus pressures. PARTICIPANTS: 91 stakeholders from 23 professional groups involved in the perioperative care of older patients. Key stakeholder groups were identified via process mapping of local perioperative care pathways. RESULTS: Response rate ranged from 51% in round 1 to 19% in round 3. After round 1, free text suggestions from the panel were combined with variables identified from perioperative risk scores. This yielded a total of 410 variables that were voted on in subsequent rounds. Including new suggestions from round two, 468/519 (90%) of the statements presented to the panel reached a consensus decision by the end of round 3. Identified risk factors included patient-level factors (such as ethnicity and socioeconomic status), and organisational or process factors related to the individual hospital (such as policies, staffing and organisational culture). 66/160 (41%) of the new suggestions did not feature in systematic reviews of perioperative risk scores or key process indicators. No factor categorised as 'organisational' is currently present in any perioperative risk score. CONCLUSIONS: Through process mapping and a modified Delphi we gained insights into additional factors that may contribute to perioperative risk. Many were absent from currently used risk stratification scores. These results enable an appreciation of the contextual limitations of currently used risk tools and could support future research into the generation of more holistic data sets for the development of perioperative risk assessment tools.


Тема - темы
Hospitals , Perioperative Care , Humans , Delphi Technique , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Consensus , Perioperative Care/methods
20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E72, 2022 Nov 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119419

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: The true extent of racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 hospitalizations may be hidden by misclassification of race and ethnicity. This study aimed to quantify this inaccuracy in a hospital's electronic medical record (EMR) against the gold standard of self-identification and then project data onto state-level COVID-19 hospitalizations by self-identified race and ethnicity. METHODS: To identify misclassification of race and ethnicity in the EMRs of a hospital in Honolulu, Hawaii, research and quality improvement staff members surveyed all available patients (N = 847) in 5 cohorts in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2013, and 2020 at randomly selected hospital and ambulatory units. The survey asked patients to self-identify up to 12 races and ethnicities. We compared these data with data from EMRs. We then estimated the number of COVID-19 hospitalizations by projecting racial misclassifications onto publicly available data. We determined significant differences via simulation-constructed medians and 95% CIs. RESULTS: EMR-based and self-identified race and ethnicity were the same in 86.5% of the sample. Native Hawaiians (79.2%) were significantly less likely than non-Native Hawaiians (89.4%) to be correctly classified on initial analysis; this difference was driven by Native Hawaiians being more likely than non-Native Hawaiians to be multiracial (93.4% vs 30.3%). When restricted to multiracial patients only, we found no significant difference in accuracy (P = .32). The number of COVID-19-related hospitalizations was 8.7% higher among Native Hawaiians and 3.9% higher among Pacific Islanders when we projected self-identified race and ethnicity rather than using EMR data. CONCLUSION: Using self-identified rather than hospital EMR data on race and ethnicity may uncover further disparities in COVID-19 hospitalizations.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Humans , Self Report , Hawaii/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Surveys and Questionnaires
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