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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 189-196, 2022 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201742

Реферат

Background & objectives: Data on neonatal COVID-19 are limited to the immediate postnatal period, with a primary focus on vertical transmission in inborn infants. This study was aimed to assess the characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 in outborn neonates. Methods: All neonates admitted to the paediatric emergency from August 1 to December 31, 2020, were included in the study. SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription- (RT)-PCR test was done on oro/nasopharyngeal specimens obtained at admission. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative neonates were compared and the diagnostic accuracy of a selective testing policy was assessed. Results: A total of 1225 neonates were admitted during the study period, of whom SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was performed in 969. The RT-PCR test was positive in 17 (1.8%). Mean (standard deviation) gestation and birth weight of SARS-CoV-2-infected neonates were 35.5 (3.2) wk and 2274 (695) g, respectively. Most neonates (11/17) with confirmed COVID-19 reported in the first two weeks of life. Respiratory distress (14/17) was the predominant manifestation. Five (5/17, 29.4%) SARS-CoV-2 infected neonates died. Neonates with COVID-19 were at a higher risk for all-cause mortality [odds ratio (OR): 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-8.9, P=0.03]; however, mortality did not differ after adjusting for lethal malformation (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 0.7-8.7). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative likelihood ratios (95% CI) of selective testing policy for SARS-CoV-2 infection at admission was 52.9 (28.5-76.1), 83.3 (80.7-85.6), 82.8 (80.3-85.1), 3.17 (1.98-5.07), and 0.56 (0.34-0.93) per cent, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate among the outborn neonates reporting to the paediatric emergency and tested for COVID-19 was observed to be low. The selective testing policy had poor diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing COVID-19 from non-COVID illness.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Perinat Med ; 50(6): 653-659, 2022 Jul 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197357

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: Data collected worldwide on stillbirth (SB) rates during the Covid-19 pandemic are contradictory. Variations may be due to methodological differences or population characteristics. The aim of the study is to assess the changes in SB rate, risk factors, causes of death and quality of antenatal care during the pandemic compared to the control periods. METHODS: This prospective study is based on the information collected by the Emilia-Romagna Surveillance system database. We conducted a descriptive analysis of SB rate, risk factors, causes of death and quality of cares, comparing data of the pandemic (March 2020-June 2021) with the 16 months before. RESULTS: During the pandemic, the SB rate was 3.45/1,000 births, a value in line with the rates of previous control periods. Neonatal weight >90th centile was the only risk factor for SB that significantly changed during the pandemic (2.2% vs. 8.0%; p-value: 0.024). No significant differences were found in the distribution of the causes of death groups. Concerning quality of antenatal cares, cases evaluated with suboptimal care (5.2%) did not change significantly compared to the control period (12.0%), as well as the cases with less than recommended obstetric (12.6% vs. 14%) and ultrasound evaluations (0% vs. 2.7%). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, no significant differences in SB rates were found in an area that maintained an adequate level of antenatal care. Thus, eventual associations between SB rate and the COVID-19 infection are explained by an indirect impact of the virus, rather than its direct effect.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Stillbirth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Prospective Studies , Stillbirth/epidemiology
3.
J Perinat Med ; 50(6): 822-831, 2022 Jul 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197354

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: Perinatal bereavement care is a complex area of practice. The COVID-19 pandemic led to reconfiguration of maternity and perinatal bereavement care services. This study explores Australian health care providers' perspectives of the impact of COVID-19 on the provision of respectful and supportive care following stillbirth or neonatal death. METHODS: Members of a perinatal bereavement care network were consulted at the commencement of the pandemic in Australia using an online feedback form. Respondents provided ratings and free-text comments on the impact of COVID-19 on implementation of 49 recommendations contained in the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand/Stillbirth Centre of Research Clinical Practice Guideline for Respectful and Supportive Perinatal Bereavement Care. RESULTS: Responses were received from 35 health care providers who provided perinatal bereavement care in clinical settings or through support organisations in Australia. Major impacts of COVID-19 were reported for 8 of 49 guideline recommendations. Impacts included reduced: support for mothers due to visitor restrictions; availability of cultural and spiritual support and interpreters; involvement of support people in decision-making; options for memory-making and commemorative rituals; and staff training and supervision. Adaptations to minimise impacts included virtual consultations, online staff training, use of cold cots, and increased staff support for memory-making. CONCLUSIONS: Health care providers encounter substantial challenges as they strive to implement best practice perinatal bereavement care in pandemic conditions. Some practice adaptations developed during the COVID-19 pandemic could benefit parents; however, evaluation of their effectiveness and acceptability is needed.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hospice Care , Perinatal Death , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Parents , Perinatal Care , Perinatal Death/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Stillbirth/epidemiology
6.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193927

Реферат

AIMS: In May 2020, a nationwide, web-based system for remote entry of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in inflammatory rheumatic diseases was launched and implemented in routine care (DANBIO-from-home). After 1.5 years of use, we explored clinical characteristics of patients who did versus did not use the system, and the time to first entry of PROs. METHODS: All patients followed in DANBIO were informed about DANBIO-from-home by electronic invitations or when attending their clinic. Characteristics of patients who did/did not use DANBIO-from-home in the period after implementation were explored by multivariable logistic regression analyses including demographic and clinical variables (gender, age group, diagnosis, disease duration, use of biological disease-modifying agent (bDMARD), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Patient Acceptable Symptom Scale (PASS)). Time from launch to first entry was presented as cumulative incidence curves by age group (<40/40-60/61-80/>80 years). RESULTS: Of 33 776 patients, 68% entered PROs using DANBIO-from-home at least once. Median (IQR) time to first entry was 27 (11-152) days. Factors associated with data entry in multivariate analyses (OR (95% CI)) were: female gender (1.19 (1.12 to 1.27)), bDMARD treatment (1.41 (1.33 to 1.50)), age 40-60 years (1.79 (1.63 to 1.97)), 61-80 years (1.87 (1.70 to 2.07), or age >80 years (0.57 (0.50 to 0.65)) (reference: age <40 years), lower HAQ (0.68 (0.65 to 0.71)) and PASS 'no' (1.09 (1.02 to 1.17). Diagnosis was not associated. Time to first entry of PROs was longest in patients <40 years of age (119 (24-184) days) and shortest in the 61-80 years age group (25 (8-139) days). CONCLUSION: A nationwide online platform for PRO in rheumatology achieved widespread use. Higher age, male gender, conventional treatment and disability were associated with no use.


Тема - темы
Rheumatology , Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Adult , Middle Aged , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Online Systems
7.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(6): 687-713, 2022 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185241

Реферат

The purpose of this document is to highlight practical recommendations to assist acute care hospitals to prioritize and implement strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), ventilator-associated events (VAE), and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in adults, children, and neonates. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA), and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Hospital Association, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.


Тема - темы
Cross Infection , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Pneumonia , Adult , Child , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/epidemiology , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Ventilators, Mechanical/adverse effects
8.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(12): 1080-1086, 2021 Dec 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189245

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of US children aged 24 months have not received all recommended vaccines. This study aimed to develop a prediction model to identify newborns at high risk for missing early childhood vaccines. METHODS: A retrospective cohort included 9080 infants born weighing ≥2000 g at an academic medical center between 2008 and 2013. Electronic medical record data were linked to vaccine data from the Washington State Immunization Information System. Risk models were constructed using derivation and validation samples. K-fold cross-validation identified risk factors for model inclusion based on alpha = 0.01. For each patient in the derivation set, the total number of weighted adverse risk factors was calculated and used to establish groups at low, medium, or high risk for undervaccination. Logistic regression evaluated the likelihood of not completing the 7-vaccine series by age 19 months. The final model was tested using the validation sample. RESULTS: Overall, 53.6% failed to complete the 7-vaccine series by 19 months. Six risk factors were identified: race/ethnicity, maternal language, insurance status, birth hospitalization length of stay, medical service, and hepatitis B vaccine receipt. Likelihood of non-completion was greater in the high (77.1%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.6; 99% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2, 7.4) and medium (52.7%; AOR 1.9; 99% CI: 1.6, 2.2) vs low (38.7%) risk groups in the derivation sample. Similar results were observed in the validation sample. CONCLUSIONS: Our prediction model using information readily available in birth hospitalization records consistently identified newborns at high risk for undervaccination. Early identification of high-risk families could be useful for initiating timely, tailored vaccine interventions.


Тема - темы
Hepatitis B Vaccines , Vaccination , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Nature ; 585(7826): 490-491, 2020 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185675
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 923324, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154836

Реферат

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have significantly affected health care systems and daily wellbeing. However, the indirect impacts of the pandemic on birth outcomes are not fully understood. We aimed to examine whether the pandemic altered risk of adverse birth outcomes. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included all singleton births during 2016-2020 identified in Women's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. We compared birth outcomes during COVID-19 pandemic (January-December 2020) with before the pandemic (January-December 2016-2019) using Logstic regression adjusted for confounders. Results: A total of 19,792 and 92,750 births occurred during and before the pandemic, respectively. Maternal characteristics were similar between groups, except maternal age was higher in pandemic cohort. We observed a reduction in preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) during the pandemic [5.9 vs. 5.1%, OR (95%CI) = 0.86 (0.80, 0.92)], but the difference disappeared after multivariable adjustment [adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.02 (0.94, 1.11)]. Moreover, full term infants born during the pandemic had lower birth weights than those born before the pandemic [adjusted ß (95% CI) = -17.4 (-23.9, -10.8)]. Consistently, the risks of low birthweight (LBW, <2,500 g) and small for gestational age (SGA, < P10) were increased [LBW: adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.13 (1.02, 1.24); SGA: adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.11 (1.02, 1.21)], and the risks of macrosomia (≥4,000 g) and large for gestational age (LGA, ≥P90) were decreased in the pandemic cohort [macrosomia: adjusted OR (95%CI) = 0.82 (0.77, 0.88); LGA: adjusted OR (95%CI) = 0.73 (0.69, 0.77)]. Conclusion: In this study, we observed no change in preterm birth and a decrease in birth weight of full term infants during the pandemic in Nanjing, China.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Macrosomia , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
11.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 452, 2022 Jul 27.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965734

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a serious problem that threatens the health of newborns. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of hospitalized term and preterm infants with community-acquired viral pneumonia. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of cases of community-acquired viral pneumonia in the Neonatal Department. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples were collected for pathogen detection, and clinical data were collected. We analysed pathogenic species and clinical characteristics among these infants. RESULTS: RSV is the main virus in term infants, and parainfluenza virus (PIV) 3 is the main virus in preterm infants. Patients infected with PIV3 were more susceptible to coinfection with bacteria than those with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection (p < 0.05). Preterm infants infected with PIV3 were more likely to be coinfected with bacteria than term infants (p < 0.05), mainly gram-negative bacteria (especially Klebsiella pneumonia). Term infants with bacterial infection were more prone to fever, cyanosis, moist rales, three concave signs, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, respiratory failure and the need for higher level of oxygen support and mechanical ventilation than those with simple viral infection (p < 0.05). The incidence of hyponatremia in neonatal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was high. CONCLUSIONS: RSV and PIV3 were the leading causes of neonatal viral CAP. PIV3 infection is the main cause of viral CAP in preterm infants, and these individuals are more likely to be coinfected with bacteria than term infants, mainly gram-negative bacteria. Term infants with CAP coinfected with bacteria were more likely to have greater disease severity than those with single viral infections.


Тема - темы
Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Virus Diseases , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Elife ; 92020 08 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155738

Реферат

As of 1 May 2020, there had been 6808 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Australia. Of these, 98 had died from the disease. The epidemic had been in decline since mid-March, with 308 cases confirmed nationally since 14 April. This suggests that the collective actions of the Australian public and government authorities in response to COVID-19 were sufficiently early and assiduous to avert a public health crisis - for now. Analysing factors that contribute to individual country experiences of COVID-19, such as the intensity and timing of public health interventions, will assist in the next stage of response planning globally. We describe how the epidemic and public health response unfolded in Australia up to 13 April. We estimate that the effective reproduction number was likely below one in each Australian state since mid-March and forecast that clinical demand would remain below capacity thresholds over the forecast period (from mid-to-late April).


Тема - темы
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Forecasting , Geography, Medical , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Young Adult
13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(11): e32757, 2022 Nov 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141362

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Internationally, there is increasing emphasis on early support for pregnant women to optimize the health and development of mothers and newborns. To increase intervention reach, digital and app-based interventions have been advocated. There are growing numbers of pregnancy health care apps with great variation in style, function, and objectives, but evidence about impact on pregnancy well-being and behavior change following app interaction is lacking. This paper reports on the qualitative arm of the independent multicomponent study exploring the use and outcomes of first-time mothers using the Baby Buddy app, a pregnancy and parenting support app, available in the National Health Service App Library and developed by a UK child health and well-being charity, Best Beginnings. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand when, why, and how first-time mothers use the Baby Buddy app and the perceived benefits and challenges. METHODS: This paper reports on the qualitative arm of an independent, longitudinal, mixed methods study. An Appreciative Inquiry qualitative approach was used with semistructured interviews (17/60, 28%) conducted with new mothers, either by telephone or in a focus group setting. First-time mothers were recruited from 3 study sites from across the United Kingdom. Consistent with the Appreciative Inquiry approach, mothers were prompted to discuss what worked well and what could have been better regarding their interactions with the app during pregnancy. Thematic analysis was used, and findings are presented as themes with perceived benefits and challenges. RESULTS: The main benefit, or what worked well, for first-time mothers when using the app was being able to access new information, which they felt was reliable and easy to find. This led to a feeling of increased confidence in the information they accessed, thus supporting family and professional communication. The main challenge was the preference for face-to-face information with a health care professional, particularly around specific issues that they wished to discuss in depth. What could have been improved included that there were some topics that some mothers would have preferred in more detail, but in other areas, they felt well-informed and thus did not feel a need to seek additional information via an app. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study included a small sample, it elicited rich data and insights into first-time mothers' app interactions. The findings suggest that easily accessible pregnancy information, which is perceived as reliable, can support first-time mothers in communicating with health care professionals. Face-to-face contact with professionals was preferred, particularly to discuss specific and personalized needs. Further studies on maternal and professional digital support preferences after the COVID-19 global pandemic and how they facilitate antenatal education and informed decision-making are recommended, particularly because digital solutions remain as a key element in pregnancy and early parenting care. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1017/S1463423618000294.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Infant , Child , Female , Humans , Parenting , State Medicine , Mothers
14.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270150, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140440

Реферат

We urgently need answers to basic epidemiological questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant and postpartum women and its effect on their newborns. While many national registries, health facilities, and research groups are collecting relevant data, we need a collaborative and methodologically rigorous approach to better combine these data and address knowledge gaps, especially those related to rare outcomes. We propose that using a sequential, prospective meta-analysis (PMA) is the best approach to generate data for policy- and practice-oriented guidelines. As the pandemic evolves, additional studies identified retrospectively by the steering committee or through living systematic reviews will be invited to participate in this PMA. Investigators can contribute to the PMA by either submitting individual patient data or running standardized code to generate aggregate data estimates. For the primary analysis, we will pool data using two-stage meta-analysis methods. The meta-analyses will be updated as additional data accrue in each contributing study and as additional studies meet study-specific time or data accrual thresholds for sharing. At the time of publication, investigators of 25 studies, including more than 76,000 pregnancies, in 41 countries had agreed to share data for this analysis. Among the included studies, 12 have a contemporaneous comparison group of pregnancies without COVID-19, and four studies include a comparison group of non-pregnant women of reproductive age with COVID-19. Protocols and updates will be maintained publicly. Results will be shared with key stakeholders, including the World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health (MNCAH) Research Working Group. Data contributors will share results with local stakeholders. Scientific publications will be published in open-access journals on an ongoing basis.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 732, 2022 Nov 24.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139203

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has induced high levels of stress. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between emotional stress (COVID-19 related fear, anger, frustration, and loneliness) and the use of coping strategies among adults in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data from adults aged 18 years and above were collected through an online survey from July to December 2020. The dependent variables were COVID-19 related fear (fear of infection and infecting others with COVID-19), anger, frustration, and loneliness. The independent variables were coping strategies (use of phones to communicate with family and others, video conferencing, indoor exercises, outdoor exercises, meditation/mindfulness practices, engaging in creative activities, learning a new skill, following media coverage related to COVID-19) and alcohol consumption. Five logistic regression models were developed to identify the factors associated with each dependent variables. All models were adjusted for sociodemographic variables (age, sex at birth, and the highest level of education). RESULTS: Respondents who consumed alcohol, followed media coverage for COVID-19 related information, and who spoke with friends or family on the phone had higher odds of having fear of contracting COVID-19 or transmitting infection to others, and of feeling angry, frustrated, or lonely (p < 0.05). Respondents who exercised outdoors (AOR: 0.69) or learned a new skill (AOR: 0.79) had significantly lower odds of having fear of contracting COVID-19. Respondents who practiced meditation or mindfulness (AOR: 1.47) had significantly higher odds of feeling angry. Those who spoke with friends and family on the phone (AOR: 1.32) and exercised indoors (AOR: 1.23) had significantly higher odds of feeling frustrated. Those who did video conferencing (AOR: 1.41), exercised outdoors (AOR: 1.32) and engaged with creative activities (AOR: 1.25) had higher odds of feeling lonely. CONCLUSION: Despite the significant association between emotional stress and use of coping strategies among adults in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic, it appears that coping strategies were used to ameliorate rather than prevent emotional stress. Learning new skills and exercising outdoors were used to ameliorate the fear of contracting COVID-19 in older respondents.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adaptation, Psychological , Fear/psychology
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 887, 2022 Nov 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139176

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Persons in Pakistan have suffered from various infectious diseases over the years, each impacted by various factors including climate change, seasonality, geopolitics, and resource availability. The COVID-19 pandemic is another complicating factor, with changes in the reported incidence of endemic infectious diseases and related syndromes under surveillance. METHODS: We assessed the monthly incidence of eight important infectious diseases/syndromes: acute upper respiratory infection (AURI), viral hepatitis, malaria, pneumonia, diarrhea, typhoid fever, measles, and neonatal tetanus (NNT), before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Administrative health data of monthly reported cases of these diseases/syndromes from all five provinces/regions of Pakistan for a 3-year interval (March 2018-February 2021) were analyzed using an interrupted time series approach. Reported monthly incidence for each infectious disease agent or syndrome and COVID-19 were subjected to time series visualization. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between each infectious disease/syndrome and COVID-19 was calculated and median case numbers of each disease before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic were compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Subsequently, a generalized linear negative binomial regression model was developed to determine the association between reported cases of each disease and COVID-19. RESULTS: In late February 2020, concurrent with the start of COVID-19, in all provinces, there were decreases in the reported incidence of the following diseases: AURI, pneumonia, hepatitis, diarrhea, typhoid, and measles. In contrast, the incidence of COVID was negatively associated with the reported incidence of NNT only in Punjab and Sindh, but not in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Balochistan, or Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK) & Gilgit Baltistan (GB). Similarly, COVID-19 was associated with a lowered incidence of malaria in Punjab, Sindh, and AJK & GB, but not in KPK and Balochistan. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was associated with a decreased reported incidence of most infectious diseases/syndromes studied in most provinces of Pakistan. However, exceptions included NNT in KPK, Balochistan and AJK & GB, and malaria in KPK and Balochistan. This general trend was attributed to a combination of resource diversion, misdiagnosis, misclassification, misinformation, and seasonal patterns of each disease.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Malaria , Measles , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Syndrome , Malaria/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology
17.
Headache ; 62(9): 1218-1221, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136842

Реферат

Erenumab is a monoclonal antibody (mAb) approved for the preventive treatment of migraine. While preclinical studies on calcitonin gene-related peptide mAbs did not identify any reproductive toxicity, pregnant and breastfeeding women were excluded from the pivotal human studies, and therefore the safety of calcitonin gene-related peptide medications in this population must be studied. So far, postmarketing data of accidental exposures have not brought to light any specific toxicities. Three women treated with erenumab in our series conceived while exposed to the drug. All had previous successful pregnancies, were on erenumab for more than 6 months, and had ≥80% reduction in headache frequency. The one who stopped erenumab only 1 month before conceiving had a spontaneous abortion during the first trimester due to a gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and has since conceived with an uneventful gestation. The other two women stopped treatment during the first trimester, and both pregnancies went to term with no complications. All babies have shown normal development. No plausible explanation relates the mechanism of action of erenumab and the serious complication that occurred in one patient. Continuous follow-up and reporting of all exposures are encouraged to gather safety data on pregnant and nursing women and on the development of the newborns. So far, immediately stopping the drug is advised and may contribute to decreasing the potential risks.


Тема - темы
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor Antagonists , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20314, 2022 Nov 24.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133617

Реферат

Information on effects of medication therapies during pregnancy is lacking as pregnant patients are often excluded from clinical trials. This retrospective study explores the potential of using electronic health record (EHR) data to inform safety profiles of repurposed COVID medication therapies on pregnancy outcomes using pre-COVID data. We conducted a medication-wide association study (MWAS) on prescription medication exposures during pregnancy and the risk of cesarean section, preterm birth, and stillbirth, using EHR data between 2010-2017 on deliveries at PennMedicine. Repurposed drugs studied for treatment of COVID-19 were extracted from ClinicalTrials.gov (n = 138). We adjusted for known comorbidities diagnosed within 2 years prior to birth. Using previously developed medication mapping and delivery-identification algorithms, we identified medication exposure in 2,830 of a total 63,334 deliveries; from 138 trials, we found 31 medications prescribed and included in our cohort. We found 21 (68%) of the 31 medications were not positively associated with increased risk of the outcomes examined. With caution, these medications warrant potential for inclusion of pregnant individuals in future studies, while drugs found to be associated with pregnancy outcomes require further investigation. MWAS facilitates hypothesis-driven evaluation of drug safety across all prescription medications, revealing potential drug candidates for further research.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Prescription Drugs , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cesarean Section , Premature Birth/drug therapy , Prescription Drugs/adverse effects , Prescriptions
19.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(7): 459-465, 2022 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132839

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs after infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its incidence is likely to depend on multiple factors, including the variant of the preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine effectiveness. We aimed to estimate the incidence of MIS-C, and describe the clinical phenotype, following the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.617.2 and sublineages) according to vaccination status. We aimed to compare the incidence and clinical phenotype of MIS-C from our cohort during the pre-delta era. METHODS: This prospective, population-based cohort study included patients aged 0-17 years hospitalised with MIS-C in Denmark, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition, from Aug 1, 2021, to Feb 1, 2022, a period dominated by the delta variant. We identified MIS-C cases via a nationwide research collaboration involving real-time data collection from all 18 paediatric departments. Aggregated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections by vaccination status was obtained from the Danish COVID-19 surveillance registries. The incidence of MIS-C was calculated using the estimated number of infected individuals by vaccination status. We calculated the incidence of MIS-C per 1 000 000 vaccinated and unvaccinated person-years, and estimated vaccine effectiveness as 1-incidence rate ratio using Poisson regression. Incidence and phenotype of MIS-C were compared with MIS-C cases from the first year of the pandemic. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05186597. FINDINGS: We identified 51 MIS-C cases among unvaccinated individuals and one in a fully vaccinated adolescent. The incidence of MIS-C was one in 3400 unvaccinated individuals (95% CI 2600-4600) with the delta variant and one in 9900 vaccinated individuals (95% CI 1800-390 000) with breakthrough infection. The estimated vaccine effectiveness against MIS-C after the delta variant was 94% (95% CI 55-99; p=0·0061) in individuals aged 5-17 years. The clinical phenotype during the delta wave was comparable to the pre-delta era. INTERPRETATION: We found the incidence and phenotype of MIS-C in unvaccinated children during the delta wave to be similar to the incidence during the first year of the pandemic. We found vaccine effectiveness to be high against MIS-C, which we suggest was due to protection from infection and, possibly, a decreased incidence of MIS-C after breakthrough infection. Knowledge of the incidence of MIS-C after different SARS-CoV-2 variants and the effect of vaccination might contribute to the elucidation of the extent to which MIS-C is a vaccine-preventable disease. FUNDING: National Ministry of Higher Education and Science and Innovation Fund Denmark.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Vaccination
20.
Turk J Pediatr ; 64(5): 869-875, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146194

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Pedipacks prevent wastage of blood components but they are not used efficiently in pediatric clinics. METHODS: Red cell concentrate (RCC) and platelet concentrate volumes transfused in the last eight months in the pediatric clinics were screened. To calculate the wastage of blood components, the number of transfused pedipacks, whole unit RCC, and platelet units were screened from transfusion laboratory digital records to show the number of whole RCC units or platelets units used instead of pedipacks. The study results were shared with physicians and transfusion laboratory staff and they were trained on the subject in meetings. Two years later, the transfusion laboratory records were assessed again to evaluate pedipack usage. A google questionnaire was also submitted to the transfusion laboratories of other hospitals to assess the use of pedipacks. RESULTS: RCC and platelets were used in 82.9% of the transfusions, and 31.2% of RCC and 18.4 % of platelets were transfused to patients ≤12 months. During the study period, 569 pedipacks and 117 random donor or apheresis platelets separated into satellite packs would be required. But only 48 pedipacks of RCCs and 24 units of random donor platelets/apheresis platelets separated into satellite packs were used. After two years, in RCC transfusions of 0-12 month-old patients, the transfusion laboratory release of pedipacks increased to 67.9% from 13.5%. Other centers were not also using pedipacks efficiently. The main reasons were unawareness of the subject, the blood bank delivering two units of pedipacks even when only one unit was ordered and the risk of not using the second pedipack before the expiry date, and the short expiry date of irradiated pedipacks. CONCLUSIONS: By increasing awareness of the subject, the collaboration of the clinic and laboratory and solving bureaucratic problems, rational use of blood components can be achieved.


Тема - темы
Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney Neoplasms , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Blood Transfusion , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Blood Platelets
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