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1.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 59: 102154, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105536

Реферат

A male in his 90 s consulted a doctor because he experienced several days of general fatigue and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with heart failure, and diuretic medications taken for 3 days relieved his symptoms. However, he was found dead on the morning of the fourth day after consultation. He had received a third dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine approximately 2 weeks before death. An autopsy revealed dissection of the ascending aorta and pericardial hemotamponade. The heart showed a white villous surface, and the pericardium was fibrously thick. Microscopic examination revealed pericarditis with predominantly macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration. These histological findings were compatible with those of post-vaccination myocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, histopathologically proven pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination has not been reported. In the present case, extended inflammation of the aortic adventitia was a possible cause of aortic wall fragility followed by dissection.


Тема - темы
Aneurysm, Dissecting , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Male , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Autopsy , RNA, Messenger , Pericarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/pathology , Aneurysm, Dissecting/etiology , Aorta/pathology , Myocarditis/complications , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Vaccination , Diuretics
2.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 475-489, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101547

Реферат

The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections featured new and important findings about the neurologic complications of HIV-1, COVID-19, and other infections. Long-term analyses identified that cognitive decline over time, phenotypic aging, and stroke are associated with various comorbidities in people with HIV. Neuroimaging studies showed greater neuroinflammation, white matter damage, demyelination, and overall brain aging in people with chronic HIV infection. Childhood trauma and exposure to environmental pollutants contribute to these neuroimaging findings. Studies of blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers showed that systemic inflammation, neurodegeneration, endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and iron dysregulation are associated with worse cognition in people with HIV. Some animal studies focused on myeloid cells of the central nervous system, but other animal and human studies showed that lymphoid cells also contribute to HIV neuropathogenesis. The deleterious central nervous system effects of polypharmacy and anticholinergic drugs in people with HIV were demonstrated. In contrast, a large randomized controlled trial showed that integrase strand transfer inhibitor therapy was not associated with neurotoxicity. Studies of cryptococcal meningitis demonstrated he cost-effectiveness of single high-dose liposomal amphotericin and the prognostic value of the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay. People hospitalized with COVID-19 had more anxiety over time after discharge. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen is present in cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of viral RNA. Systemic inflammation, astrocyte activation, and tryptophan metabolism pathways are associated with post-COVID-19 neurologic syndromes. Whether these processes are independent or intertwined during HIV-1 and COVID-19 infections requires further study.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Nervous System Diseases , Male , Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation
3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(39): 5735-5749, 2022 Oct 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099935

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was perhaps the most severe global health crisis in living memory. Alongside respiratory symptoms, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal liver function, and even acute liver failure were reported in patients suffering from severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 pneumonia. However, the precise triggers of these forms of liver damage and how they affect the course and outcomes of COVID-19 itself remain unclear. AIM: To analyze the impact of liver enzyme abnormalities on the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. METHODS: In this study, 684 depersonalized medical records from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the 2020-2021 period were analyzed. COVID-19 was diagnosed according to the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health (2021). Patients were assigned to two groups: those with elevated liver enzymes (Group 1: 603 patients), where at least one out of four liver enzymes were elevated (following the norm of hospital laboratory tests: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥ 40, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ≥ 40, gamma-glutamyl transferase ≥ 36, or alkaline phosphatase ≥ 150) at any point of hospitalization, from admission to discharge; and the control group (Group 2: 81 patients), with normal liver enzymes during hospitalization. COVID-19 severity was assessed according to the interim World Health Organization guidance (2022). Data on viral pneumonia complications, laboratory tests, and underlying diseases were also collected and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 603 (88.2%) patients produced abnormal liver test results. ALT and AST levels were elevated by a factor of less than 3 in 54.9% and 74.8% of cases with increased enzyme levels, respectively. Patients in Group 1 had almost double the chance of bacterial viral pneumonia complications [odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, P = 0.0217], required oxygen supply more often, and displayed higher biochemical inflammation indices than those in Group 2. No differences in other COVID-19 complications or underlying diseases were observed between groups. Preexisting hepatitis of a different etiology was rarely documented (in only 3.5% of patients), and had no impact on the severity of COVID-19. Only 5 (0.73%) patients experienced acute liver failure, 4 of whom died. Overall, the majority of the deceased patients (17 out of 20) had elevated liver enzymes, and most were male. All deceased patients had at least one underlying disease or combination thereof, and the deceased suffered significantly more often from heart diseases, hypertension, and urinary tract infections than those who made recoveries. Alongside male gender (OR = 1.72, P = 0.0161) and older age (OR = 1.02, P = 0.0234), diabetes (OR = 3.22, P = 0.0016) and hyperlipidemia (OR = 2.67, P = 0.0238), but not obesity, were confirmed as independent factors associated with more a severe COVID-19 infection in our cohort. CONCLUSION: In our study, the presence of liver impairment allows us to predict a more severe inflammation with a higher risk of bacterial complication and worse outcomes of COVID-19. Therefore, patients with severe disease forms should have their liver tests monitored regularly and their results should be considered when selecting treatment to avoid further liver damage or even insufficiency.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Pneumonia, Viral , United States , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Liver Failure, Acute/complications , Inflammation/complications
4.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090286

Реферат

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a kind of lung disease with acute dyspnea, pulmonary inflammation, respiratory distress, and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, accompanied by the mid- and end-stage characteristics of COVID-19, clinically. It is imperative to find non-toxic natural substances on preventing ALI and its complications. The animal experiments demonstrated that Lentinus edodes polysaccharides (PLE) had a potential role in alleviating ALI by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, which was manifested by reducing the levels of serum lung injury indicators (C3, hs-CRP, and GGT), reducing the levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6), and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) in the lung. Furthermore, PLE had the typical characteristics of pyran-type linked by ß-type glycosidic linkages. The conclusions indicated that PLE could be used as functional foods and natural drugs in preventing ALI.


Тема - темы
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Shiitake Mushrooms , Animals , Oxidative Stress , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Lung , Lipopolysaccharides
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090203

Реферат

Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (MIS-C) is characterized by persistent fever and evidence of single or multiorgan dysfunction, and laboratory evidence of inflammation, elevated neutrophils, reduced lymphocytes, and low albumin. The pathophysiological mechanisms of MIS-C are still unknown. Proinflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species and decreased antioxidant enzymes, seems to play a central role. Virus entry activates NOXs and inhibits Nrf-2 antioxidant response inducing free radicals. The biological functions of nonphagocytic NOXs are still under study and appear to include: defense of epithelia, intracellular signaling mechanisms for growth regulation and cell differentiation, and post-translational modifications of proteins. This educational review has the aim of analyzing the newest evidence on the role of oxidative stress (OS) in MIS-C. Only by relating inflammatory mediators to OS evaluation in children following SARS-CoV-2 infection will it be possible to achieve a better understanding of these mechanisms and to reduce long-term morbidity. The link between inflammation and OS is key to developing effective prevention strategies with antioxidants to protect children.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Syndrome , Oxidative Stress
6.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 87, 2022 Oct 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089199

Реферат

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causal agent of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a systemic illness characterized by variably severe pulmonary symptoms, cardiac conduction abnormalities, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal bleeding, as well as neurologic deficits, renal insufficiency, myalgias, endocrine abnormalities, and other perturbations that reflect widespread microvascular injury and a pro-inflammatory state. The mechanisms underlying the various manifestations of viral infection are incompletely understood but most data suggest that severe COVID-19 results from virus-driven perturbations in the immune system and resultant tissue injury. Aberrant interferon-related responses lead to alterations in cytokine elaboration that deplete resident immune cells while simultaneously recruiting hyperactive macrophages and functionally altered neutrophils, thereby tipping the balance from adaptive immunity to innate immunity. Disproportionate activation of these macrophages and neutrophils further depletes normal activity of B-cells, T-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. In addition, this pro-inflammatory state stimulates uncontrolled complement activation and development of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETS), both of which promote the coagulation cascade and induce a state of "thrombo-inflammation". These perturbations have similar manifestations in multiple organ systems, which frequently show pathologic findings related to microvascular injury and thrombosis of large and small vessels. However, the pulmonary findings in patients with severe COVID-19 are generally more pronounced than those of other organs. Not only do they feature inflammatory thromboses and endothelial injury, but much of the parenchymal damage stems from failed maturation of alveolar pneumocytes, interactions between type 2 pneumocytes and non-resident macrophages, and a greater degree of NET formation. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathogenesis underlying organ damage that can occur in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Understanding these mechanisms of injury is important to development of future therapies for patients with COVID-19, many of which will likely target specific components of the immune system, particularly NET induction, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and subpopulations of immune cells.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Cytokines , Interferons
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(43): 48464-48475, 2022 Nov 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087121

Реферат

Rapid and precise serum cytokine quantification provides immense clinical significance in monitoring the immune status of patients in rapidly evolving infectious/inflammatory disorders, examplified by the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. However, real-time information on predictive cytokine biomarkers to guide targetable immune pathways in pathogenic inflammation is critically lacking, because of the insufficient detection range and detection limit in current label-free cytokine immunoassays. In this work, we report a highly sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance imaging (LSPRi) immunoassay for label-free Interleukin 6 (IL-6) detection utilizing rationally designed peptide aptamers as the capture interface. Benefiting from its characteristically smaller dimension and direct functionalization on the sensing surface via Au-S bonding, the peptide-aptamer-based LSPRi immunoassay achieved enhanced label-free serum IL-6 detection with a record-breaking limit of detection down to 4.6 pg/mL, and a wide dynamic range of ∼6 orders of magnitude (values from 4.6 to 1 × 106 pg/mL were observed). The immunoassay was validated in vitro for label-free analysis of SARS-CoV-2 induced inflammation, and further applied in rapid quantification of serum IL-6 profiles in COVID-19 patients. Our peptide aptamer LSPRi immunoassay demonstrates great potency in label-free cytokine detection with unprecedented sensing capability to provide accurate and timely interpretation of the inflammatory status and disease progression, and determination of prognosis.


Тема - темы
Aptamers, Peptide , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines/analysis , Interleukin-6 , Immunoassay/methods , Inflammation
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 19.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082150

Реферат

The serious clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection is usually accompanied by acute kidney injury (AKI), worsening prognosis and increasing mortality. AKI in COVID-19 is above all a consequence of systemic dysregulations leading to inflammation, thrombosis, vascular endothelial damage and necrosis. All these processes rely on the interactions between innate immunity elements, including circulating blood cells, resident renal cells, their cytokine products, complement systems, coagulation cascades and contact systems. Numerous simultaneous pathways of innate immunity should secure an effective host defense. Since they all form a network of cross-linked auto-amplification loops, uncontrolled activation is possible. When the actions of selected pathways amplify, cascade activation evades control and the propagation of inflammation and necrosis worsens, accompanied by complement overactivity and immunothrombosis. The systemic activation of innate immunity reaches the kidney, where the damage affecting single tubular cells spreads through tissue collateral damage and triggers AKI. This review is an attempt to synthetize the connections between innate immunity components engaged in COVID-19-related AKI and to summarize the knowledge on the pathophysiological background of processes responsible for renal damage.


Тема - темы
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Complement System Proteins , Necrosis , Cytokines
9.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 68(5): 177-185, 2022 May 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072247

Реферат

Venous thrombosis is a semi-solid formation of blood components that coalesce in the venous system, and the pathological process of its formation is called venous thrombosis. The deep veins of the lower extremities are a common site of prevalence, and the clinical diagnosis of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis can occur independently or as a complication of other diseases. There is a clear link between inflammation and coagulation/anticoagulation, with inflammatory mechanisms upregulating pro-inflammatory factors, downregulating natural anticoagulant substances, and inhibiting fibrinolytic activity; systemic inflammation is a strong pro-thrombotic stimulus; and in vivo, natural anticoagulant substances not only prevent thrombosis, but also deter inflammatory processes. The interconnection between inflammation and coagulation plays an important role in venous thrombosis. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between inflammatory markers CRP and Fg, FVIII:C and FIX:C by measuring plasma CRP concentration, Fg level, FVIII:C and FIX:C levels in patients with DVT diagnosed by ultrasound, and explored the role and mechanism of inflammatory response and coagulation factor abnormalities and the interaction between them in the development of DVT. In this paper, human blood DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol extraction, and CRP 1059G/C gene polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme segment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) nucleotide typing technique, and the genotypes of each subject were distinguished according to the bands seen by gel electrophoresis, and the frequency of each genotype was counted. Plasma CRP concentrations were measured by immunoturbidimetric assay, FVIII:C and FIX:C levels were measured by phase I assay, and plasma Fg levels were measured by coagulation assay in 59 cases (38 males and 21 females, aged 21-82 years, mean 49.67±11.12 years) and 26 controls (17 males and 9 females, aged 32-67 years, mean 50.13±8.96 years). The above indexes were compared between the two groups, and the correlation between CRP and FVIII:C, FIX:C and Fg was analyzed. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme segment length polymorphism nucleotide typing technique was used to detect the relationship between CRP 1059G/C gene polymorphism and DVT, to further search for risk factors of venous thrombosis, thus providing new ideas for the future prevention and treatment of this disease in clinical practice.


Тема - темы
Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants , Biomarkers , Blood Cells , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Nucleotides , Risk Factors
10.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071662

Реферат

The unpredictable nature of new variants of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-highly transmissible and some with vaccine-resistance, have led to an increased need for feasible lifestyle modifications as complementary therapies. Systemic inflammation is the common hallmark of communicable diseases like severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes mellitus, and cancers, all for which mitigation of severe outcomes is of paramount importance. Dietary quality is associated with NCDs, and intermittent fasting (IF) has been suggested as an effective approach for treatment and prevention of some NCDs, similar to that of caloric restriction. There is a paucity of high-quality data from randomized controlled trials regarding the impact of IF and the intake of specific nutrients on inflammation and post-infection outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The current review of recent literature was performed to explore the immunomodulatory roles of IF regimens and supplements involving the intake of specific nutrients including vitamins (A, B, C, D, and E), zinc, and nutraceuticals (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, quercetin, and probiotics) on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, with consideration of how they may be related to SARS-CoV-2.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Fasting , Quercetin , Inflammation , Vitamins , Oxidative Stress , Zinc , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
11.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071661

Реферат

Overweight and obesity are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and represent risk factors for various diseases, including COVID-19. However, most published studies on COVID-19 defined obesity by the body mass index (BMI), which does not encounter adipose tissue distribution, thus neglecting immunometabolic high-risk patterns. Therefore, we comprehensively analyzed baseline anthropometry (BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WtHR), visceral (VAT), epicardial (EAT), subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue masses and liver fat, inflammation markers (CRP, ferritin, interleukin-6), and immunonutritional scores (CRP-to-albumin ratio (CAR), modified Glasgow prognostic score, neutrophile-to-lymphocyte ratio, prognostic nutritional index)) in 58 consecutive COVID-19 patients of the early pandemic phase with regard to the necessity of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Here, metabolically high-risk adipose tissues represented by increased VAT, liver fat, and WtHR strongly correlated with higher levels of inflammation, pathologic immunonutritional scores, and the need for IMV. In contrast, the prognostic value of BMI was inferior and absent with regard to SAT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified an optimized IMV risk prediction model employing liver fat, WtHR, and CAR. In summary, we suggest an immunometabolically risk-adjusted model to predict COVID-19-induced respiratory failure better than BMI-based stratification, which warrants prospective validation.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Body Mass Index , Interleukin-6 , Obesity/complications , Obesity/pathology , Inflammation/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Albumins , Ferritins , Risk Assessment , Intra-Abdominal Fat/pathology , Risk Factors
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071515

Реферат

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a mortal threat to human health. The elucidation of the relationship between peripheral immune cells and the development of inflammation is essential for revealing the pathogenic mechanism of COVID-19 and developing related antiviral drugs. The immune cell metabolism-targeting therapies exhibit a desirable anti-inflammatory effect in some treatment cases. In this study, based on differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis, a genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) was reconstructed by integrating transcriptome data to characterize the adaptive metabolic changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in severe COVID-19 patients. Differential flux analysis revealed that metabolic changes such as enhanced aerobic glycolysis, impaired oxidative phosphorylation, fluctuating biogenesis of lipids, vitamins (folate and retinol), and nucleotides played important roles in the inflammation adaptation of PBMCs. Moreover, the main metabolic enzymes such as the solute carrier (SLC) family 2 member 3 (SLC2A3) and fatty acid synthase (FASN), responsible for the reactions with large differential fluxes, were identified as potential therapeutic targets. Our results revealed the inflammation regulation potentials of partial metabolic reactions with differential fluxes and their metabolites. This study provides a reference for developing potential PBMC metabolism-targeting therapy strategies against COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Vitamin A/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Nucleotides/metabolism , Vitamins/metabolism , Fatty Acid Synthases/metabolism , Folic Acid/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Lipids
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071506

Реферат

COVID-19 is a recently emerged viral infection worldwide. SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus, is believed to have emerged from bat coronaviruses, probably through host conversion. The bat coronavirus which has the highest gene homology to SARS-CoV-2 specifically infects deep forest bats in China whose habitat extends through the Middle East to Southern Europe. Host conversion might have occurred due to the deforestation by humans exposing wild bats to the environment they had never encountered before. SARS-CoV-2 infects cells through two mechanisms: through its receptor ACE2 with the help of enzyme TMPRSS and through membrane fusion with the help of elastases in the inflammatory condition. Obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary diseases cause poor prognosis of COVID-19. Aging is another factor promoting poor prognosis. These diseases and aging cause low-level and persistent inflammation in humans, which can promote poor prognosis of COVID-19. Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are the major inflammatory skin diseases. These inflammatory skin conditions, however, do not seem to cause poor prognosis for COVID-19 based on the epidemiological data accumulated so far. These mechanisms need to be elucidated.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Inflammation
14.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104305, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068885

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by enhanced platelet activation and diffuse hemostatic alterations, which may contribute to immunothrombosis/thromboinflammation and subsequent development of target-organ damage. Thrombopoietin (THPO), a growth factor essential to megakariocyte proliferation, is known to prime platelet activation and leukocyte-platelet interaction. In addition, THPO concentrations increase in several critical diseases, such as acute cardiac ischemia and sepsis, thus representing a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Furthermore, several data suggest that interleukin (IL)-6 is one of the most important inflammatory mediators involved in these phenomena, which led to explore the potential therapeutic role of IL-6 inhibitors. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to study THPO and IL-6 concentrations in COVID-19 patients at the time of first clinical evaluation in the Emergency Department (ED), and to investigate their potential use as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we sought to explore the role of THPO contained in plasma samples obtained from COVID-19 patients in priming in vitro platelet activation and leukocyte-platelet interaction. METHODS: We enrolled 66 patients presenting to the ED with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, including 47 with confirmed COVID-19 and 19 in whom COVID-19 was excluded (Non-COVID-19 patients). As controls, we also recruited 18 healthy subjects. In vitro, we reproduced the effects of increased circulating THPO on platelet function by adding plasma from COVID-19 patients or controls to platelet-rich plasma or whole blood obtained by healthy donors, and we indirectly studied the effect of THPO on platelet activation by blocking its biological activity. FINDINGS: THPO levels were higher in COVID-19 patients than in both Non-COVID-19 patients and healthy subjects. Studying THPO as diagnostic marker for the diagnosis of COVID-19 by receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) statistics, we found an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73, with an optimal cut-off value of 42.60 pg/mL. IL-6 was higher in COVID-19 patients than in healthy subjects, but did not differ between COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 patients. THPO concentrations measured at the time of diagnosis in the ED were also higher in COVID-19 patients subsequently developing a severe disease than in those with mild disease. Evaluating THPO as biomarker for severe COVID-19 using ROC analysis, we found an AUC of 0.71, with an optimal cut-off value of 57.11 pg/mL. IL-6 was also higher in severe than in mild COVID-19 patients, with an AUC for severe COVID-19 of 0.83 and an optimal cut-off value of 23 pg/ml. THPO concentrations correlated with those of IL-6 (r=0.2963; p=0.043), and decreased 24 h after the administration of tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor blocking antibody, showing that the increase of THPO levels depends on IL-6-stimulated hepatic synthesis. In vitro, plasma obtained from COVID-19 patients, but not from healthy subjects, primed platelet aggregation and leukocyte-platelet binding, and these effects were reduced by inhibiting THPO activity. INTERPRETATION: Increased THPO may be proposed as an early biomarker for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and for the identification of patients at risk of developing critical illness. Elevated THPO may contribute to enhance platelet activation and leukocyte-platelet interaction in COVID-19 patients, thus potentially participating in immunothrombosis/thromboinflammation. FUNDING: This work was supported by Ministero dell'Università e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica (MURST) ex 60% to GM and EL.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Thrombopoietin/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Interleukin-6 , Prospective Studies , Inflammation , Platelet Activation , Biomarkers
15.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(9): 253, 2022 08 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067594

Реферат

SIRT1 was discovered in 1979 but growing interest in this protein occurred only 20 years later when its overexpression was reported to prolong the lifespan of yeast. Since then, several studies have shown the benefits of its increased expression in preventing or delaying of many diseases. SIRT1, as a histone deacetylase, is an epigenetic regulator but it has wide range of non-histone targets which are involved in metabolism, energy sensing pathways, circadian machinery and in inflammatory regulation. Disturbances in these interconnected processes cause different diseases, however it seems they have common roots in unbalanced inflammatory processes and lower level or inactivation of SIRT1. SIRT1 inactivation was implicated in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) severity as well and its low level counted as a predictor of uncontrolled COVID-19. Several other diseases such as metabolic disease, obesity, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease or depression are related to chronic inflammation and similarly show decreased SIRT1 level. It has recently been known that SIRT1 is inducible by calorie restriction/proper diet, physical activity and appropriate emotional state. Indeed, a healthier metabolic state belongs to higher level of SIRT1 expression. These suggest that appropriate lifestyle as non-pharmacological treatment may be a beneficial tool in the prevention of inflammation or metabolic disturbance-related diseases as well as could be a part of the complementary therapy in medical practice to reach better therapeutic response and quality of life. We aimed in this review to link the beneficial effect of SIRT1 with those diseases, where its level decreased. Moreover, we aimed to collect evidences of interventions or treatments, which increase SIRT1 expression and thus, open the possibility to use them as preventive or complementary therapies in medical practice.


Тема - темы
Epigenesis, Genetic , Metabolic Diseases , Neoplasms , Sirtuin 1 , COVID-19 , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Metabolic Diseases/genetics , Metabolic Diseases/prevention & control , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Sirtuin 1/genetics , Sirtuin 1/metabolism
16.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 Oct 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065730

Реферат

Despite the advancement of vaccination and therapies currently available, deaths due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are still heavily documented. Severely infected individuals experience a generalized inflammatory storm, caused by massive secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that can lead to endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, multi-organ failure, and even death. COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) therapy, selected primarily based on anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels, has not been as convincing as expected in the fight against COVID-19. Given the consequences of a dysfunctional endothelium on the progression of the disease, we propose that the selection of plasma for CCP therapy should be based on more specific parameters that take into consideration the effect on vascular inflammation. Thus, in the present study, we have characterized a subset of CCP that have been used for CCP therapy and measured their anti- or pro-inflammatory effect on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Our data revealed that the longer the time lapse between the onset of symptoms and the plasma donation, the more mitochondrial dysfunction can be evidenced. The concentration of blood endothelial cell extracellular vesicles (BEC-EVs) was increased in the plasma of young individuals with mild symptoms. This type of selected convalescent plasma promoted the activation of the blood vascular endothelium, as reflected by the overexpression of ICAM1 and NFκB1 and the downregulation of VE-Cadherin. We propose this mechanism is a warning signal sent by the injured endothelium to trigger self-defense of peripheral blood vessels against excessive inflammation. Therefore, these results are in line with our previous data. They suggest that a more specific selection of COVID-19 convalescent plasma should be based on the time of donation following the onset of the clinical symptoms of the donor, the severity of the symptoms, and the age of the donor. These characteristics are relatively easy to identify in any hospital and would reflect the concentration of plasma BEC-EVs and be optimal in CCP therapy.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Extracellular Vesicles , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation , Pandemics
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 991256, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065519

Реферат

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of diseases characterized by inflammation and destruction of small and medium-sized blood vessels. Clinical disease phenotypes include microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). The incidence of AAV has been on the rise in recent years with advances in ANCA testing. The etiology and pathogenesis of AAV are multifactorial and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, as well as innate and adaptive immune system responses. Multiple case reports have shown that sustained exposure to silica in an occupational environment resulted in a significantly increased risk of ANCA positivity. A meta-analysis involving six case-control studies showed that silica exposure was positively associated with AAV incidence. Additionally, exposure to air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), is a risk factor for AAV. AAV has seasonal trends. Studies have shown that various environmental factors stimulate the body to activate neutrophils and expose their own antigens, resulting in the release of proteases and neutrophil extracellular traps, which damage vascular endothelial cells. Additionally, the activation of complement replacement pathways may exacerbate vascular inflammation. However, the role of environmental factors in the etiology of AAV remains unclear and has received little attention. In this review, we summarized the recent literature on the study of environmental factors, such as seasons, air pollution, latitude, silica, and microbial infection, in AAV with the aim of exploring the relationship between environmental factors and AAV and possible mechanisms of action to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of AAV.


Тема - темы
Air Pollutants , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Churg-Strauss Syndrome , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/epidemiology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/etiology , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Carbon Monoxide/therapeutic use , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/complications , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Peptide Hydrolases , Silicon Dioxide
18.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066296

Реферат

The link between being pregnant and overweight or obese and the infectivity and virulence of the SARS CoV-2 virus is likely to be caused by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein glycosylation, which may work as a glycan shield. Methylglyoxal (MGO), an important advanced glycation end-product (AGE), and glycated albumin (GA) are the results of poor subclinical glucose metabolism and are indices of oxidative stress. Forty-one consecutive cases of SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant patients comprising 25% pre-pregnancy overweight women and 25% obese women were recruited. The aim of our study was to compare the blood levels of MGO and GA in pregnant women with asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection with pregnant women without SARS-CoV-2 infection with low risk and uneventful pregnancies and to evaluate the relative perinatal outcomes. The MGO and GA values of the SARS-CoV-2 cases were statistically significantly higher than those of the negative control subjects. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant patients who suffered of moderate to severe COVID-19 syndrome had higher values of GA than those infected and presenting with mild symptoms or those with asymptomatic infection. Premature delivery and infants of a small size for their gestational age were overrepresented in this cohort, even in mild-asymptomatic patients for whom delivery was not indicated by the COVID-19 syndrome. Moreover, ethnic minorities were overrepresented among the severe cases. The AGE-RAGE oxidative stress axis on the placenta and multiple organs caused by MGO and GA levels, associated with the biological mechanisms of the glycation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, could help to explain the infectivity and virulence of this virus in pregnant patients affected by being overweight or obese or having gestational diabetes, and the increased risk of premature delivery and/or low newborn weight.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Glucose , Glycosylation , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation , Obesity , Overweight , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Pyruvaldehyde , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Oct 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066249

Реферат

Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a very sensitive marker of inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Its clinical utility can be appreciated in both intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Recent evidence suggests a link between intestinal inflammation and dermatological, rheumatic and neurological diseases. This review focuses on the role of FC in non-gastrointestinal disease, such as rheumatic, dermatologic, neurologic and last but not least SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Biomarkers , Intestines , Inflammation
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066134

Реферат

Skeletal muscle serves as the optimal effective organ to balance glucose homeostasis, but insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle breaks this balance by impeding glucose uptake and causes metabolic disorders. IR in skeletal muscle is caused by multiple factors, and it has been reported that systemic low-grade inflammation is related to skeletal muscle IR, though its molecular mechanisms need to be ulteriorly studied. Pyroptosis is a novel inflammatory-mediated type of cell death. It has recently been reported that pyroptosis is associated with a decline in insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. The appropriate occurrence of pyroptosis positively eliminates pathogenic factors, whereas its excessive activation may aggravate inflammatory responses and expedite disease progression. The relationship between pyroptosis and IR in skeletal muscle and its underlined mechanism need to be further illustrated. The role of pyroptosis during the process of IR alleviation induced by non-drug interventions, such as exercise, also needs to be clarified. In this paper, we review and describe the molecular mechanisms of pyroptosis and further comb the roles of its relevant key factors in skeletal muscle IR, aiming to propose a novel theoretical basis for the relationship between pyroptosis and muscle IR and provide new research targets for the improvement of IR-related diseases.


Тема - темы
Insulin Resistance , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyroptosis
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