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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110077

Реферат

Studies suggest that persistent symptoms after COVID-19 (long COVID) influence functioning and activities of daily living (ADL). However, it is still uncertain how and to what extent. This study aimed to describe patient-reported mental fatigue, ADL problems, ADL ability, sick leave and functional status among patients with long COVID. In this cross-sectional study, 448 patients, ≥18 years old and referred to occupational therapy at a Danish Post-COVID-19 Clinic, were included. Mental fatigue was measured by the Mental Fatigue Scale, ADL problems and ability were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, sick leave was self-reported and functional status was evaluated by the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status Scale. Mean age was 46.8 years, 73% of the patients were female, and 75% suffered from moderate to severe mental fatigue. The majority reported difficulties performing productive and leisure activities. The median performance and satisfaction scores were 4.8 and 3, respectively. In total, 56% of the patients were on sick leave, and 94% were referred to rehabilitation. A decrease in functional status was found between pre-COVID-19 and assessment. Conclusively, the patients were highly affected in their everyday life and had distinct rehabilitation needs. Future research is needed to address causalities and rehabilitation for this patient group.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Sick Leave , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Male , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Functional Status , Canada , Mental Fatigue/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110076

Реферат

With the arrival of COVID-19, educational systems have had to adapt to the social and health situation immediately. This led to the appearance of the asynchronous teaching model. Throughout the pandemic, at the educational level, we can distinguish three phases, eminently online, hybrid, and finally, face-to-face. However, the perception of educational quality in these three educational moments, taking into account the psychometric profile and gender, has not been studied. Thus, 1093 university students from Ibero-American countries were analyzed. Through a questionnaire, demographic, academic, and psychological variables were analyzed at three moments during the evolution of the pandemic. Data suggest that, during the lockdown phase, while teaching was eminently online, students presented higher levels of stress and higher difficulty of learning; class attendance, convenience, preferred method of learning, grading score, and motivation were lower, compared to other phases of teaching (hybrid and face-to-face). During this period, females presented higher stress levels than males, as well as higher levels of anxiety and loneliness, without gender differences among the other studied variables. During the hybrid and face-to-face phases, male students presented higher values in the results of difficulty learning and demanding activities. No differences were seen regarding motivation, synchronous class attendance, learning level, grades, convenience, or preferred learning method. The results from the present study suggest that, despite the effect of the pandemic on mental health, asynchronous education is postulated as an effective teaching-learning alternative. Yet, a special focus should be given to female students.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sex Factors , Universities , Communicable Disease Control , Students
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110069

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic caused serious health problems that affected people around the globe. This study aims to understand the physical distress (PhyD), psychological distress (PsyD), and coping experiences among people infected with COVID-19, develop a grounded theory, and examine PhyD, PsyD, and coping among people infected with COVID-19. A sequential exploratory mixed methods strategy is employed. A qualitative procedure is based on a grounded theory; data collection includes observation and in-depth interviews with 25 participants, aged 18 years and above. The quantitative one included 180 participants. Content analysis was applied using the Strauss and Corbin method, and ATLAS.ti software. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and the independent t-test were used. Results: The six major themes, including (1) severity of COVID-19 symptoms, (2) death anxiety, (3) uncertainty, (4) barrier to healthcare access, (5) compliance and self-regulation coping (6) post-COVID-19 effects. PhyD, PsyD, and coping were all at a moderate level. The relationship between PhyD, PsyD, and coping was positive. The prevalence in post-COVID-19 effects was 70% (95% CI 63.3-76.4%). There were higher amounts in women than men. The most frequent residual symptoms were decreased activity tolerance (40%), fatigue (33.3%), anxiety and fear of abnormal lungs (33.3%), dyspnea (27.8%), allergy (24.4%), and lung impairment (22.2%). Moreover, the prevalence of more than two symptoms was 54% (95% CI 47.2-61.7%). This study considers that the healthcare providers should be concerned with sufficient healthcare services. Interventions are needed for supporting their recovery from COVID-19 effects.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Services , Adaptation, Psychological
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110063

Реферат

Evidence about how the pandemic affected household violence in Canada is mixed, but inarguably, the risk factors increased. This study used data from the 2020 Canadian Perspective Survey Series and the 2020 and 2021 Surveys of COVID-19 and Mental Health to examine the following: changes in the prevalence of concern about violence in individuals' own homes during the pandemic; the characteristics of those who expressed concern; and the prevalence of concerns for specific household members. Among Canadians, the prevalence of concern about violence in individuals' own homes decreased significantly between July and Fall 2020 (5.8% to 4.2%). Among women, the characteristics that were significantly associated with higher adjusted odds of concern about household violence included larger household size and lower household income. Lower education among women was associated with lower adjusted odds of concern. The associations with higher adjusted odds of concern among men included: being an immigrant, larger household size, and lower household income. From Fall 2020 to Spring 2021, the prevalence of concerns for oneself and for a child/children increased (1.7% to 2.5% and 1.0% to 2.5%, respectively), but concern for other adults in the household decreased (1.9% to 1.2%). Ongoing surveillance is needed to understand vulnerable populations' exposure to household violence and to inform policies and programs.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Male , Child , Adult , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Canada/epidemiology , Violence
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110058

Реферат

University education is still being impacted two years after the COVID-19 outbreak. We performed a rapid survey in February 2022 at two public universities in Vietnam to examine the effects of the pandemic on well-being and the factors that may associate with online class preference among university students as well as to investigate the need for support to improve resilience. A web-based survey included 1589 undergraduate students in total. Both quantitative and qualitative data analysis was carried out. Overall, approximately a quarter of respondents said that they perceived an influence on their health, 42.9% expressed stress, and more than 70% reported worrying about the future. In total, 61.9% of the respondents reported having satisfaction with online classes, while over half of them preferred a program of 50% online classes. Students who live in an urban area, are female, have had pre-COVID-19 campus life experience, have decreased income, and/or experience low online satisfaction and over-information may be in need of more support. The results show implications for universities to consider policies addressing well-being and post-pandemic online education. Providing support to university students to improve their resilience against the impact on their studying, campus life, health, and well-being should be prioritized during and post-pandemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Students , Universities , Vietnam/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110054

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: The current study will evaluate the association that the COVID-19 pandemic has had with health-care workers and identify the factors that influenced the female gender being more affected. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in two hospitals in Arequipa (a Peruvian city). The participants were health-care workers. We applied a questionnaire with sociodemographic information and three scales: the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screen for DSM-5. The main outcomes were anxiety, depression, and PTSD scores. The exposure of interest was gender. The scores of the scales were estimated by medians and percentiles 25-75 (p25-p75), and we used linear regression to estimate the crude and adjusted coefficients and their respective confidence intervals at 95% (CI 95%). RESULTS: There were 109 participants, and 43.1% were women. The anxiety, depression, and PTSD median (p25-p75) scores in the study population were 6 (2-11), 6 (2-10), and 1 (0-3), respectively. The adjusted analysis showed that the female sex had 4.48 (CI 95% 2.95-6.00), 4.50 (CI 95% 2.39-6.62), and 1.13 (CI 95% 0.50-1.76) higher points on average for the scales of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms in comparison to males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Female health-care workers showed increased scores of mental health issues in comparison to male health-care workers.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
7.
Curr Oncol ; 29(11): 8565-8578, 2022 Nov 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109972

Реферат

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of telehealth was rapidly implemented without previous evidence. The ONCOTELEMD study aimed to evaluate the opinion of patients attended via telemedicine during this period and to study factors that condition patient preferences on its use. Included patients had a confirmed cancer diagnosis and were contacted by telephone between 13 March and 30 April 2020, in the Medical Oncology Service of Hospital Parc Taulí, Sabadell. A 12-question survey was presented to them between 4 February and 19 April 2021. Statistical analysis was carried out using chi-square and multivariable logistic regression tests. Six hundred forty-six patients were included; 487 responded to the survey. The median age was 68 years (27-90), 55.2% were female. Most patients had a surveillance visit (65.3%) and were diagnosed with colorectal or breast cancer (43% and 26.5%, respectively); 91.8% of patients were satisfied, and 60% would accept the use of telemedicine beyond the pandemic. Patients aged more than 50 years (OR 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19-0.81; p = 0.01) and diagnosed with breast cancer (OR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.26-0.69; p < 0.001) were less predisposed to adopt telehealth in the future. Patients agreed to be informed via telehealth of scan or lab results (62% and 84%, respectively) but not of new oral or endovenous treatments (52% and 33.5%, respectively). Additionally, 75% of patients had a medium or low-null technologic ability, and 51.3% would only use the telephone or video call to contact health professionals. However, differences were found according to age groups (p < 0.0001). In total, patients surveyed were satisfied with telemedicine and believed telehealth could have a role following the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, our results remark on the importance of individualizing the use of telehealth, showing relevant data on patient preferences and digital literacy.


Тема - темы
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Health Personnel
8.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(6): 509-518, 2022 Nov 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109628

Реферат

Background: Human monkeypox is a zoonosis caused by the monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus and close relative of variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. The disease was first reported in central Africa in 1970, where it continues to be endemic and has historically affected some of the poorest and most marginalized communities in the world. The condition has recently attracted global attention due to >14,000 cases, including five deaths, reported by the World Health Organization, and a total of 5189 confirmed monkeypox cases in the United States reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as of July 29, 2022. On July 23, 2022, the World Health Organization declared the current monkeypox outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Objective: The purpose of the present report was to review the epidemiology of monkeypox viral infection; its clinical manifestations; and current recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and use of vaccines for prevention of the disease, with a focus on those aspects that have particular relevance to the allergist/immunologist. Results: Monkeypox was discovered in the early 1970s and, for years, has been well described by researchers in west and central Africa, where the disease has been present for decades. Although this outbreak thus far has mostly affected men who have sex with men, it is possible that the disease could become endemic and could begin spreading in settings where there is close physical contact, which is how the virus is transmitted. Conclusion: Monkeypox is a different viral infection from the coronavirus. Unlike the coronavirus, which is an extremely contagious respiratory pathogen, monkeypox is primarily transmitted through body fluids and/or prolonged skin-to-skin contact. Although the control of monkeypox will require renewed efforts and resources, we have learned much from the past and have the tools to stop this virus from becoming yet another serious illness with which Americans have to contend. The allergist/immunologist can play a significant role.


Тема - темы
Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , United States , Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Allergists , Homosexuality, Male
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(11): e40751, 2022 Nov 18.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109572

Реферат

BACKGROUND: As of August 25, 2021, Jiangsu province experienced the largest COVID-19 outbreak in eastern China that was seeded by SARS-CoV-2 Delta variants. As one of the key epidemiological parameters characterizing the transmission dynamics of COVID-19, the incubation period plays an essential role in informing public health measures for epidemic control. The incubation period of COVID-19 could vary by different age, sex, disease severity, and study settings. However, the impacts of these factors on the incubation period of Delta variants remains uninvestigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to characterize the incubation period of the Delta variant using detailed contact tracing data. The effects of age, sex, and disease severity on the incubation period were investigated by multivariate regression analysis and subgroup analysis. METHODS: We extracted contact tracing data of 353 laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variants' infection in Jiangsu province, China, from July to August 2021. The distribution of incubation period of Delta variants was estimated by using likelihood-based approach with adjustment for interval-censored observations. The effects of age, sex, and disease severity on the incubation period were expiated by using multivariate logistic regression model with interval censoring. RESULTS: The mean incubation period of the Delta variant was estimated at 6.64 days (95% credible interval: 6.27-7.00). We found that female cases and cases with severe symptoms had relatively longer mean incubation periods than male cases and those with nonsevere symptoms, respectively. One-day increase in the incubation period of Delta variants was associated with a weak decrease in the probability of having severe illness with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.88 (95% credible interval: 0.71-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the incubation period was found to vary across different levels of sex, age, and disease severity of COVID-19. These findings provide additional information on the incubation period of Delta variants and highlight the importance of continuing surveillance and monitoring of the epidemiological characteristics of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants as they evolve.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Likelihood Functions , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Retrospective Studies
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e39728, 2022 Nov 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109564

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Virtual care (VC) visits (telephone or video) and email-based patient communication have been rapidly adopted to facilitate cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Inequities in access and patient experience may arise as these digital health tools become prevalent. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize inequities in access and patient-reported experience following adoption of digital health tools at a tertiary cancer center during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional study of outpatients with visits from September to December 2020. Patient characteristics and responses to an email-based patient-experience survey were collated. Inequities in access were assessed across three pairs of comparison groups: (1) patients with VC and in-person visits, (2) patients with and without documented email addresses, and (3) responders and nonresponders to the survey. Inequities in patient-reported experience were assessed among survey responders. Demographics were mapped to area-level averages from national census data. Socioeconomic status was mapped to area-level dimensions of the Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation. Covariate balance between comparison groups was assessed using standardized mean differences (SMDs), with SMD≥0.2 indicating differences between groups. Associations between patient experience satisfaction scores and covariates were assessed using multivariable analyses, with P<.05 indicating statistical significance. RESULTS: Among the 42,194 patients who had outpatient visits, 62.65% (n=26,435) had at least one VC visit and 31.15% (n=13,144) were emailable. Access to VC and email was similar across demographic and socioeconomic indices (SMD<0.2). Among emailable patients, 21.84% (2870/13,144) responded to the survey. Survey responsiveness was similar across indices, aside from a small difference by age (SMD=0.24). Among responders, 24.4% received VC and were similar to in-person responders across indices (SMD<0.2). VC and in-person responders had similar satisfaction levels with all care domains surveyed (all P>.05). Regardless of visit type, patients had variable satisfaction with care domains across demographic and socioeconomic indices. Patients with higher ethnocultural composition scores were less satisfied with the cultural appropriateness of their care (odds ratio [OR] 0.70, 95% CI 0.57-0.86). Patients with higher situational vulnerability scores were less satisfied with discussion of physical symptoms (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.48-0.93). Patients with higher residential instability scores were less satisfied with discussion of both physical (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97) and emotional (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.96) symptoms, and also with the duration of their visit (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.98; P=.02). Male patients were more satisfied with how their health care provider had listened to them (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11-2.44; P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: Adoption of VC and email can equitably maintain access and patient-reported experience in cancer care across demographics and socioeconomic indices. Existing health inequities among structurally marginalized patients must continue to be addressed to improve their care experience.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Telemedicine , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Canada , Communication , Electronics , Neoplasms/therapy
11.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 31(1): e2021836, 2022.
Статья в английский, португальский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109459

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile and temporal variation of hospital admissions and deaths due to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by COVID-19 in Piauí, Brazil, according to place of hospitalization. METHODS: We performed a descriptive study using data from the Influenza Surveillance Information System between 2020 and 2021. Case fatality ratio among hospital records with outcome and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. RESULTS: We included 12,649 individuals who were mostly male (57.1%), Black (61.2%) and had one or two comorbidities (30.5%). Case fatality ratio among hospital records with outcome was higher in the state's interior region than in its capital, with proportion of 44.1% (95%CI 42.0;46.3) for those who were hospitalized, 82.3% (95%CI 79.7;84.8) for those admitted to intensive care units and 96.6% (95%CI 94.9;97.8) for those undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: The study enabled characterization of the profile of SARS hospitalizations due to COVID-19 in Piauí and demonstrated high case fatality ratio, among hospital records with outcome, which remained high during the study period, especially in the interior of the state.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male
12.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 30(spe): e3744, 2022.
Статья в английский, португальский, испанский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109437

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic e to explore adolescents' perception of emotional and behavioral problems identified. METHOD: mixed-method explanatory sequential design. Participants were 479 adolescents aged 15 to 18 from a Brazilian Central-West region capital. RESULTS: with a total of 479 participants, mean age was 16.03 years (SD=1.01). The prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems was 61.17%, and there was a difference between the sexes (ORb=2.93; p<0.01). The highest prevalence was related to peer relationship problems (54.49%) and emotional symptoms (52.40%). Adolescents noticed an increase in loneliness, anxiety, sadness, distancing from friends and difficulties in socializing during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: most of the investigated adolescents were classified as having emotional and behavioral problems, and girls were more likely to have them than boys. The adolescents' statements reinforce the quantitative findings. In this way, there is a need to implement actions to promote and restore the adolescents' mental health, in order to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic socio-emotional impact on this population. KEYPOINTS: (1) The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on emotions and behaviors. (2) 61.17% of adolescents were classified as having emotional and behavioral problems (EBPs). (3) Girls presented the highest level of prevalence of EBP in the pandemic context. (4) Peer relationship problems and emotional symptoms were the most prevalent.


Тема - темы
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Male , Female , Adolescent , Humans , Problem Behavior/psychology , Pandemics , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions
13.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 30(spe): e3753, 2022.
Статья в английский, португальский, испанский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109436

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: to understand the biographical ruptures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent and young trans men and transmasculine people in the Brazilian context. METHOD: qualitative study - multicenter, online survey. A total of 97 self-identified trans men and 22 transmasculine people participated and completed a semi-structured form in two stages. The data was subjected to Reflective Thematic Content Analysis. The interpretation was made on a sociological basis, based on the concept of biographical rupture. RESULTS: five categories were derived: interruption of hormonization, surgeries and specialized follow-up; discomforts caused by the rupture of masculine characteristics, self-image, self-perception, and identity; vulnerability from the losses of family members and significant people, employment, and weakening of support networks; emergence of psycho-emotional problems, such as loss of meaning in life; demands for nursing care and valuing the life of transmasculine adolescents and young men in post-pandemic times. CONCLUSION: the biographical ruptures caused by the pandemic threatened the identities of trans and transmasculine people of adolescents and youth, degraded and interrupted biographies, leading them to the loss of meaning in life. Nursing professionals can be strategic and essential in overcoming threats by intervening early. KEYPOINTS: (1) Shows biographical ruptures in transmasculinities during the pandemic. (2) Elucidates threats to achieving the desired trans identity. (3) Reveals barriers in services that hinder hormone transition. (4) Presents the discourse of suicide and new stressors in mental health. (5) Raises calls for nursing practice/care in adolescent health.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Family
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277470, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109335

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization recognizes dementia as a public health priority and highlights research as an action to respond to the consequences, with early career dementia researchers (ECDRs) representing the key driving force. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, however, biomedical and psychosocial dementia research was strained worldwide. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of the pandemic on ECDRs. METHODS: In autumn 2021, the Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART) Professional Interest Area to Elevate Early Career Researchers (PEERs) and University College London conducted an online survey querying ECDRs' experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was shared through the ISTAART network, social media, podcasts, and emailing lists. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Survey data from n = 321 ECDRs from 34 countries were analyzed (67.6% women; 78.8% working in academia). Overall, 77.8% of ECDRs surveyed indicated research delays, 53.9% made project adjustments, 37.9% required additional or extended funding, and 41.8% reported a negative impact on career progression. Moreover, 19.9% felt unsupported by their institutions and employers (33% felt well supported, 42.7% somewhat supported). ECDR's conference attendance remained the same (26.5%) or increased (More: 28.6%; a lot more: 5.6%) since the start of the pandemic. Continental differences were visible, while the impact of the pandemic did not differ greatly based on ECDRs' sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a substantial impact on ECDRs worldwide and institutions, employers, and funding bodies are urged to consider the implications and lessons-learned when working with, managing, and promoting ECDRs. Strategies related to the pandemic and general career support to improve ECDRs career progression are discussed, including social media training, digital networking, and benefits of hybrid events. Global resources specific for ECDRs are highlighted.


Тема - темы
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Female , Male , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Research Personnel
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277301, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109330

Реферат

PURPOSE: To assess hospitalized COVID-19 inpatients for the prevalence of retinopathy and tear film SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and associated risk factors for their detection. METHODS: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients underwent dilated ophthalmic examination and fundus photography. Conjunctival swabs were assessed for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR via a triple target assay. We assessed the relationships of retinopathy with clinical outcomes, systemic risk factors and laboratory data. RESULTS: The median age was 59.5 years and 29 (48%) were female. Retinopathy associated with COVID-19 was observed in 12 of 60 patients (20%). The median age of patients with COVID-19 retinopathy was 51.5 compared to 62.5 years in individuals without retinopathy (p = 0.01). Median BMI was 34.3 in patients with retinopathy versus 30.9 in those without retinopathy (p = 0.04). Fifteen of 60 patients (25%) tested SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive in their tear film without a relationship with timing of illness and hospitalization. The N2 gene was particularly sensitive with 18 of 19 eyes (94.7%) showing N2-positivity, including 2 patients with alpha variant-positivity (B.1.1.7). CONCLUSION: Retinopathy was observed in 20% of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Patients with retinopathy were more likely to be younger and have higher BMI than hospitalized patients without retinopathy. Tear film SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 25% of patients. The relationship of obesity and age with retinopathy requires further investigation.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Retinal Diseases , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275832, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109322

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Studies from Asia, Europe and the USA indicate that widely available haematological parameters could be used to determine the clinical severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and predict management outcome. There is limited data from Africa on their usefulness in patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). We performed an evaluation of baseline haematological parameters as prognostic biomarkers in ICU COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively on patients with confirmed COVID-19, admitted to the adult ICU in a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, between March 2020 and February 2021. Robust Poisson regression methods and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to explore the association of haematological parameters with COVID-19 severity and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 490 patients (median age 54.1 years) were included, of whom 237 (48%) were female. The median duration of ICU stay was 6 days and 309/490 (63%) patients died. Raised neutrophil count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were associated with worse outcome. Independent risk factors associated with mortality were age (ARR 1.01, 95%CI 1.0-1.02; p = 0.002); female sex (ARR 1.23, 95%CI 1.05-1.42; p = 0.008) and D-dimer levels (ARR 1.01, 95%CI 1.002-1.03; p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that raised neutrophil count, NLR and D-dimer at the time of ICU admission were associated with higher mortality. Contrary to what has previously been reported, our study revealed females admitted to the ICU had a higher risk of mortality.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , South Africa/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Hospitalization , Retrospective Studies
17.
Neurology ; 99(14): e1486-e1498, 2022 Oct 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109249

Реферат

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Increased anxious-depressive symptomatology is observed in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer disease (AD), which may accelerate disease progression. We investigated whether ß-amyloid, cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe structures, neuroinflammation, and sociodemographic factors were associated with greater anxious-depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 confinement. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included cognitively unimpaired older adults from the Alzheimer's and Families cohort, the majority with a family history of sporadic AD. Participants performed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during the COVID-19 confinement. A subset had available retrospective (on average: 2.4 years before) HADS assessment, amyloid [18F] flutemetamol PET and structural MRI scans, and CSF markers of neuroinflammation (interleukin-6 [IL-6], triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2, and glial fibrillary acidic protein levels). We performed multivariable linear regression models to investigate the associations of prepandemic AD-related biomarkers and sociodemographic factors with HADS scores during the confinement. We further performed an analysis of covariance to adjust by participants' prepandemic anxiety-depression levels. Finally, we explored the role of stress and lifestyle changes (sleep patterns, eating, drinking, smoking habits, and medication use) on the tested associations and performed sex-stratified analyses. RESULTS: We included 921 (254 with AD biomarkers) participants. ß-amyloid positivity (B = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.1 to 6.36; p = 0.006), caregiving (B = 1.37; 95% CI 0.24-2.5; p = 0.018), sex (women: B = 1.95; 95% CI 1.1-2.79; p < 0.001), younger age (B = -0.12; 95% CI -0.18 to -0.052; p < 0.001), and lower education (B = -0.16; 95% CI -0.28 to -0.042; p = 0.008) were associated with greater anxious-depressive symptoms during the confinement. Considering prepandemic anxiety-depression levels, we further observed an association between lower levels of CSF IL-6 (B = -5.11; 95% CI -10.1 to -0.13; p = 0.044) and greater HADS scores. The results were independent of stress-related variables and lifestyle changes. Stratified analysis revealed that the associations were mainly driven by women. DISCUSSION: Our results link AD-related pathophysiology and neuroinflammation with greater anxious-depressive symptomatology during the COVID-19-related confinement, notably in women. AD pathophysiology may increase neuropsychiatric symptomatology in response to stressors. This association may imply a worse clinical prognosis in people at risk for AD after the pandemic and thus deserves to be considered by clinicians. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02485730.


Тема - темы
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Anxiety , Biomarkers , Depression , Female , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Male , Positron-Emission Tomography , Retrospective Studies , tau Proteins/metabolism
18.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 83, 2022 09 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109074

Реферат

Face masks are now worn frequently to reduce the spreading of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Their health benefits are undisputable, but covering the lower half of one's face also makes it harder for others to recognize facial expressions of emotions. Three experiments were conducted to determine how strongly the recognition of different facial expressions is impaired by masks, and which emotions are confused with each other. In each experiment, participants had to recognize facial expressions of happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, and disgust, as well as a neutral expression, displayed by male and female actors of the Radboud Faces Database. On half of the 168 trials, the lower part of the face was covered by a face mask. In all experiments, facial emotion recognition (FER) was about 20% worse for masked faces than for unmasked ones (68% correct vs. 88%). The impairment was largest for disgust, followed by fear, surprise, sadness, and happiness. It was not significant for anger and the neutral expression. As predicted, participants frequently confused emotions that share activation of the visible muscles in the upper half of the face. In addition, they displayed response biases in these confusions: They frequently misinterpreted disgust as anger, fear as surprise, and sadness as neutral, whereas the opposite confusions were less frequent. We conclude that face masks do indeed cause a marked impairment of FER and that a person perceived as angry, surprised, or neutral may actually be disgusted, fearful, or sad, respectively. This may lead to misunderstandings, confusions, and inadequate reactions by the perceivers.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Facial Recognition , Confusion , Emotions/physiology , Facial Expression , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 255, 2022 Nov 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108983

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Although the Multidimensional Interaction Model of Stress, Anxiety and Coping (MIMSAC) has been known for years, there is a lack of research examining this theory longitudinally in stressful events. This study aims to revisit the MIMSAC among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with the longitudinal design was performed during the first (W1, March 30-April 29, 2020) and second wave (W2, November 3-December 3, 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 216 university students with a mean age of 22 years (ranging from 20 to 36, M = 22.13, SD = 2.04) participated in the study. An online survey included Perceived Stress Scale, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. RESULTS: Due to the MIMSAC, all variables changed substantially across W1 and W2, adapting to an unpredictable environment. Women scored higher than men in stress, anxiety, emotion- and avoidance-oriented coping styles. We found the indirect effect of emotion-oriented coping on the stress-anxiety relationship and task-oriented coping on the anxiety-stress interaction. Avoidance was not found as a mediator in the stress-anxiety interaction. CONCLUSION: Emotion-oriented coping adversely affected mental health, increasing anxiety in response to stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Task-oriented coping efficiently decreased stress in reaction to high anxiety, but only in men. Avoidance seems to be an ineffective coping style during the COVID-19 pandemic. Campus intervention programs should focus on reducing negative emotions and increasing the frequency of task-oriented coping strategies among university students.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Stress, Psychological , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 475, 2022 11 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108765

Реферат

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relationship between pandemic events and dental emergency service frequentation. Utilization patterns in the scope of the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed and considered in regard of seasonal parameters. METHODS: All outpatients seeking treatment in a university hospital's dental emergency service were analyzed in the years 2019, 2019 and 2020 according to demographic data and emergencies were subdivided into "absolute" and "relative". The years 2018 and 2019 were used to compare COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 phases. Defined waves of the pandemic were compared with equivalent prior-year periods. RESULTS: Our study includes 11,219 dental emergency patients over a period of three years with a slight surplus of male patients. Comparing the pre-COVID-19 years and 2020 as a year of pandemic, the total count of cases decreased by more than 25%. The share of absolute emergencies in 2020 was higher than in the years before (p < 0.0001). The under-utilization during the waves was more pronounced during the first wave compared to the second waves. CONCLUSIONS: Additionally to the clear decrease by more than 25% in 2020, we found an inverse dependency of 7-day-incidence of COVID-19 and number of visits. This effect was more distinct for relative emergencies, while the number of patients with absolute emergencies remains rather constant. Probably, there is an acclimatization effect regarding the waves. Patients older than 60 years who suffered from relative emergencies showed an under-utilzation during 2020. During a pandemic such as COVID-19, the effect of under-utilization is more pronounced among elderly patients. However, a pandemic acclimatization effect seems to occur. This can be taken into account in the administration of this kind of circumstances in the future.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Male , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Emergency Service, Hospital , Retrospective Studies
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