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1.
Virol Sin ; 37(5): 731-739, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150803

Реферат

Latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may be reactivated to cause herpes zoster, which affects one in three people during their lifetime. The currently available subunit vaccine Shingrix™ is superior to the attenuated vaccine Zostavax® in terms of both safety and efficacy, but the supply of its key adjuvant component QS21 is limited. With ionizable lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) that were recently approved by the FDA for COVID-19 mRNA vaccines as carriers, and oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODNs) approved by the FDA for a subunit hepatitis B vaccine as immunostimulators, we developed a LNP vaccine encapsulating VZV-glycoprotein E (gE) and CpG ODN, and compared its immunogenicity with Shingrix™ in C57BL/6J mice. The results showed that the LNP vaccine induced comparable levels of gE-specific IgG antibodies to Shingrix™ as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most importantly, the LNP vaccine induced comparable levels of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) that plays decisive roles in the efficacy of zoster vaccines to Shingrix™ in a VZV-primed mouse model that was adopted for preclinical studies of Shingrix™. Number of IL-2 and IFN-γ secreting splenocytes and proportion of T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine-expressing CD4+ T cells in LNP-CpG-adjuvanted VZV-gE vaccinated mice were similar to that of Shingrix™ boosted mice. All of the components in this LNP vaccine can be artificially and economically synthesized in large quantities, indicating the potential of LNP-CpG-adjuvanted VZV-gE as a more cost-effective zoster vaccine.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Herpes Zoster , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Immunoglobulin G , Interleukin-2 , Liposomes , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nanoparticles , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Subunit
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1023255, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142030

Реферат

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines currently in use have contributed to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Notwithstanding, the high mutation rate, fundamentally in the spike glycoprotein (S), is causing the emergence of new variants. Solely utilizing this antigen is a drawback that may reduce the efficacy of these vaccines. Herein we present a DNA vaccine candidate that contains the genes encoding the S and the nucleocapsid (N) proteins implemented into the non-replicative mammalian expression plasmid vector, pPAL. This plasmid lacks antibiotic resistance genes and contains an alternative selectable marker for production. The S gene sequence was modified to avoid furin cleavage (Sfs). Potent humoral and cellular immune responses were observed in C57BL/6J mice vaccinated with pPAL-Sfs + pPAL-N following a prime/boost regimen by the intramuscular route applying in vivo electroporation. The immunogen fully protected K18-hACE2 mice against a lethal dose (105 PFU) of SARS-CoV-2. Viral replication was completely controlled in the lungs, brain, and heart of vaccinated mice. Therefore, pPAL-Sfs + pPAL-N is a promising DNA vaccine candidate for protection from COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines , Mice , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , COVID-19/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Mammals
3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(2): 326-341, 2022 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141035

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Hereditary renal hypouricemia type 1 (RHUC1) is caused by URAT1/SLC22A12 dysfunction, resulting in urolithiasis and exercise-induced AKI (EIAKI). However, because there is no useful experimental RHUC1 animal model, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying EIAKI have yet to be elucidated. We established a high HPRT activity Urat1-Uox double knockout (DKO) mouse as a novel RHUC1 animal model for investigating the cause of EIAKI and the potential therapeutic effect of xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitors (XOIs). METHODS: The novel Urat1-Uox DKO mice were used in a forced swimming test as loading exercise to explore the onset mechanism of EIAKI and evaluate related purine metabolism and renal injury parameters. RESULTS: Urat1-Uox DKO mice had uricosuric effects and elevated levels of plasma creatinine and BUN as renal injury markers, and decreased creatinine clearance observed in a forced swimming test. In addition, Urat1-Uox DKO mice had increased NLRP3 inflammasome activity and downregulated levels of Na+-K+-ATPase protein in the kidney, as Western blot analysis showed. Finally, we demonstrated that topiroxostat and allopurinol, XOIs, improved renal injury and functional parameters of EIAKI. CONCLUSIONS: Urat1-Uox DKO mice are a useful experimental animal model for human RHUC1. The pathogenic mechanism of EIAKI was found to be due to increased levels of IL-1ß via NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and Na+-K+-ATPase dysfunction associated with excessive urinary urate excretion. In addition, XOIs appear to be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of EIAKI.


Тема - темы
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism , Organic Anion Transporters/deficiency , Urate Oxidase/deficiency , Xanthine Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Allopurinol/pharmacology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase/genetics , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Organic Anion Transporters/genetics , Physical Exertion , Pyridines/pharmacology , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/drug therapy , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/etiology , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/metabolism , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Urate Oxidase/genetics , Urinary Calculi/drug therapy , Urinary Calculi/etiology , Urinary Calculi/metabolism
4.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123864

Реферат

Animal models are used in preclinical trials to test vaccines, antivirals, monoclonal antibodies, and immunomodulatory drug therapies against SARS-CoV-2. However, these drugs often do not produce equivalent results in human clinical trials. Here, we show how different animal models infected with some of the most clinically relevant SARS-CoV-2 variants, WA1/2020, B.1.617.2/Delta, B.1.1.529/Omicron, and BA5.2/Omicron, have independent outcomes. We show that in K18-hACE2 mice, B.1.617.2 is more pathogenic, followed by WA1, while B.1.1.529 showed an absence of clinical signs. Only B.1.1.529 was able to infect C57BL/6J mice, which lack the human ACE2 receptor. B.1.1.529-infected C57BL/6J mice had different T cell profiles compared to infected K18-hACE2 mice, while viral shedding profiles and viral titers in lungs were similar between the K18-hACE2 and the C57BL/6J mice. These data suggest B.1.1.529 virus adaptation to a new host and shows that asymptomatic carriers can accumulate and shed virus. Next, we show how B.1.617.2, WA1 and BA5.2/Omicron have similar viral replication kinetics, pathogenicity, and viral shedding profiles in hamsters, demonstrating that the increased pathogenicity of B.1.617.2 observed in mice is host-dependent. Overall, these findings suggest that small animal models are useful to parallel human clinical data, but the experimental design places an important role in interpreting the data. Importance: There is a need to investigate SARS-CoV-2 variant phenotypes in different animal models due to the lack of reproducible outcomes when translating experiments to the human population. Our findings highlight the correlation of clinically relevant SARS-CoV-2 variants in animal models with human infections. Experimental design and understanding of correct animal models are essential to interpreting data to develop antivirals, vaccines, and other therapeutic compounds against COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Mice , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Virulence , Disease Models, Animal , Antiviral Agents
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 896310, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114267

Реферат

To prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections and generate long-lasting immunity, vaccines need to generate strong viral-specific B and T cell responses. Previous results from our lab and others have shown that immunizations in the presence of an OX40 agonist antibody lead to higher antibody titers and increased numbers of long-lived antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Using a similar strategy, we explored the effect of OX40 co-stimulation in a prime and boost vaccination scheme using an adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccine in C57BL/6 mice. Our results show that OX40 engagement during vaccination significantly increases long-lived antibody responses to the spike protein. In addition, after immunization spike protein-specific proliferation was greatly increased for both CD4 and CD8 T cells, with enhanced, spike-specific secretion of IFN-γ and IL-2. Booster (3rd injection) immunizations combined with an OX40 agonist (7 months post-prime) further increased vaccine-specific antibody and T cell responses. Initial experiments assessing a self-amplifying mRNA (saRNA) vaccine encoding the spike protein antigen show a robust antigen-specific CD8 T cell response. The saRNA spike-specific CD8 T cells express high levels of GrzmB, IFN-γ and TNF-α which was not observed with protein immunization and this response was further increased by the OX40 agonist. Similar to protein immunizations the OX40 agonist also increased vaccine-specific CD4 T cell responses. In summary, this study compares and contrasts the effects and benefits of both protein and saRNA vaccination and the extent to which an OX40 agonist enhances and sustains the immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
6.
Immunity ; 55(11): 2103-2117.e10, 2022 Nov 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095502

Реферат

The surface of the central nervous system (CNS) is protected by the meninges, which contain a dense network of meningeal macrophages (MMs). Here, we examined the role of tissue-resident MM in viral infection. MHC-II- MM were abundant neonatally, whereas MHC-II+ MM appeared over time. These barrier macrophages differentially responded to in vivo peripheral challenges such as LPS, SARS-CoV-2, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Peripheral LCMV infection, which was asymptomatic, led to a transient infection and activation of the meninges. Mice lacking macrophages but conserving brain microglia, or mice bearing macrophage-specific deletion of Stat1 or Ifnar, exhibited extensive viral spread into the CNS. Transcranial pharmacological depletion strategies targeting MM locally resulted in several areas of the meninges becoming infected and fatal meningitis. Low numbers of MHC-II+ MM, which is seen upon LPS challenge or in neonates, corelated with higher viral load upon infection. Thus, MMs protect against viral infection and may present targets for therapeutic manipulation.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis , Animals , Mice , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2 , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/physiology , Macrophages , Meninges
7.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 456: 116284, 2022 Dec 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086745

Реферат

Genetic and environmental factors impact on the interindividual variability of susceptibility to communicable and non-communicable diseases. A class of ubiquitous chemicals, Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been linked in epidemiological studies to immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to viral infections, but possible mechanisms are not well elucidated. To begin to gain insight into the role of PFAS in susceptibility to one such viral infection, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), male and female C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to control water or a mixture of 5 PFAS (PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, Genx) for 12 weeks and lungs were isolated for examination of expression of SARS-CoV-2-related receptors Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and others. Secondary analyses included circulating hormones and cytokines which have been shown to directly or indirectly impact on ACE2 expression and severity of viral infections. Changes in mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blotting and circulating hormones and cytokines were determined by ELISA and MESO QuickPlex. The PFAS mixture decreased Ace2 mRNA 2.5-fold in male mice (p < 0.0001), with no significant change observed in females. In addition, TMPRSS2, ANPEP, ENPEP and DPP4 (other genes implicated in COVID-19 infection) were modulated due to PFAS. Plasma testosterone, but not estrogen were strikingly decreased due to PFAS which corresponded to PFAS-mediated repression of 4 representative pulmonary AR target genes; hemoglobin, beta adult major chain (Hbb-b1), Ferrochelatase (Fech), Collagen Type XIV Alpha 1 Chain (Col14a1), 5'-Aminolevulinate Synthase 2 (Alas2). Finally, PFAS modulated circulating pro and anti-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ (downregulated 3.0-fold in females; p = 0.0301, 2.1-fold in males; p = 0.0418) and IL-6 (upregulated 5.6-fold in males; p = 0.030, no change in females). In conclusion, our data indicate long term exposure to a PFAS mixture impacts mechanisms related to expression of ACE2 in the lung. This work provides a mechanistic rationale for important future studies of PFAS exposure and subsequent viral infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Fluorocarbons , Male , Female , Mice , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Fluorocarbons/toxicity , Cytokines , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Lung , Hormones , RNA, Messenger
8.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274829, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079738

Реферат

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a global threat. To forestall the pandemic, developing safe and effective vaccines is necessary. Because of the rapid production and little effect on the host genome, mRNA vaccines are attractive, but they have a relatively low immune response after a single dose. Replicon RNA (repRNA) is a promising vaccine platform for safety and efficacy. RepRNA vaccine encodes not only antigen genes but also the genes necessary for RNA replication. Thus, repRNA is self-replicative and can play the role of an adjuvant by itself, which elicits robust immunity. This study constructed and evaluated a repRNA vaccine in which the gene encoding the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 was inserted into a replicon of yellow fever virus 17D strain. Upon electroporation of this repRNA into baby hamster kidney cells, the S protein and yellow fever virus protein were co-expressed. Additionally, the self-replication ability of repRNA vaccine was confirmed using qRT-PCR, demonstrating its potency as a vaccine. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with 1 µg of the repRNA vaccine induced specific T-cell responses but not antibody responses. Notably, the T-cell response induced by the repRNA vaccine was significantly higher than that induced by the nonreplicative RNA vaccine in our experimental model. In the future, it is of the essence to optimize vaccine administration methods and improve S protein expression, like protection of repRNA by nanoparticles and evasion of innate immunity of the host to enhance the immune-inducing ability of the repRNA vaccine.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Mice , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Yellow fever virus , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Replicon , RNA/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066142

Реферат

The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the regulation of energy homeostasis remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a transgenic fat-1 mouse model, which can produce n-3 PUFAs endogenously, to investigate how n-3 PUFAs regulate the morphology and function of brown adipose tissue (BAT). We found that high-fat diet (HFD) induced a remarkable morphological change in BAT, characterized by "whitening" due to large lipid droplet accumulation within BAT cells, associated with obesity in wild-type (WT) mice, whereas the changes in body fat mass and BAT morphology were significantly alleviated in fat-1 mice. The expression of thermogenic markers and lypolytic enzymes was significantly higher in fat-1 mice than that in WT mice fed with HFD. In addition, fat-1 mice had significantly lower levels of inflammatory markers in BAT and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in plasma compared with WT mice. Furthermore, fat-1 mice were resistant to LPS-induced suppression of UCP1 and PGC-1 expression and lipid deposits in BAT. Our data has demonstrated that high-fat diet-induced obesity is associated with impairments of BAT morphology (whitening) and function, which can be ameliorated by elevated tissue status of n-3 PUFAs, possibly through suppressing the effects of LPS on inflammation and thermogenesis.


Тема - темы
Adipose Tissue, Brown , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , Animals , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/metabolism , Thermogenesis
10.
ACS Nano ; 16(10): 16757-16775, 2022 Oct 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062153

Реферат

Current parenteral coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines inadequately protect against infection of the upper respiratory tract. Additionally, antibodies generated by wild type (WT) spike-based vaccines poorly neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants. To address the need for a second-generation vaccine, we have initiated a preclinical program to produce and evaluate a potential candidate. Our vaccine consists of recombinant Beta spike protein coadministered with synthetic CpG adjuvant. Both components are encapsulated within artificial cell membrane (ACM) polymersomes, synthetic nanovesicles efficiently internalized by antigen presenting cells, including dendritic cells, enabling targeted delivery of cargo for enhanced immune responses. ACM vaccine is immunogenic in C57BL/6 mice and Golden Syrian hamsters, evoking high serum IgG and neutralizing responses. Compared to an ACM-WT spike vaccine that generates predominantly WT-neutralizing antibodies, the ACM-Beta spike vaccine induces antibodies that neutralize WT and Beta viruses equally. Intramuscular (IM)-immunized hamsters are strongly protected from weight loss and other clinical symptoms after the Beta challenge but show delayed viral clearance in the upper airway. With intranasal (IN) immunization, however, neutralizing antibodies are generated in the upper airway concomitant with rapid and potent reduction of viral load. Moreover, antibodies are cross-neutralizing and show good activity against Omicron. Safety is evaluated in New Zealand white rabbits in a repeated dose toxicological study under Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) conditions. Three doses, IM or IN, at two-week intervals do not induce an adverse effect or systemic toxicity. Cumulatively, these results support the application for a Phase 1 clinical trial of ACM-polymersome-based Covid-19 vaccine (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05385991).


Тема - темы
Artificial Cells , COVID-19 , Mice , Cricetinae , Humans , Rabbits , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Membranes, Artificial , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 995235, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043451

Реферат

Current coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccines are administered by the intramuscular route, but this vaccine administration failed to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus infection in the upper respiratory tract, mainly due to the absence of virus-specific mucosal immune responses. It is hypothesized that intranasal (IN) vaccination could induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses that blocked SARS-CoV-2 transmission and COVID-19 progression. Here, we evaluated in mice IN administration of three modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine candidates expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, either the full-length native S or a prefusion-stabilized [S(3P)] protein; SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses and efficacy were determined after a single IN vaccine application. Results showed that in C57BL/6 mice, MVA-based vaccine candidates elicited S-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and bronchoalveolar lavages, respectively, and neutralizing antibodies against parental and SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC), with MVA-S(3P) being the most immunogenic vaccine candidate. IN vaccine administration also induced polyfunctional S-specific Th1-skewed CD4+ and cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell immune responses locally (in lungs and bronchoalveolar lymph nodes) or systemically (in spleen). Remarkably, a single IN vaccine dose protected susceptible K18-hACE2 transgenic mice from morbidity and mortality caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, with MVA-S(3P) being the most effective candidate. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 viruses were undetectable in lungs and nasal washes, correlating with high titers of S-specific IgGs and neutralizing antibodies against parental SARS-CoV-2 and several VoC. Moreover, low histopathological lung lesions and low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lungs and nasal washes were detected in vaccinated animals. These results demonstrated that a single IN inoculation of our MVA-based vaccine candidates induced potent immune responses, either locally or systemically, and protected animal models from COVID-19. These results also identified an effective vaccine administration route to induce mucosal immunity that should prevent SARS-CoV-2 host-to-host transmission.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccinia virus/genetics
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039873

Реферат

Obesity is increasing at epidemic rates across the US and worldwide, as are its co-morbidities, including type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Thus, targeted interventions to reduce the prevalence of obesity are of the utmost importance. The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) and sigma-2 receptor (S2R; encoded by Tmem97) belong to the same class of drug-binding sites, yet they are genetically distinct. There are multiple ongoing clinical trials focused on sigma receptors, targeting diseases ranging from Alzheimer's disease through chronic pain to COVID-19. However, little is known regarding their gene-specific role in obesity. In this study, we measured body composition, used a comprehensive laboratory-animal monitoring system, and determined the glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Compared to Sigmar1+/+ mice of the same sex, the male and female Sigmar1-/- mice had lower fat mass (17% and 12% lower, respectively), and elevated lean mass (16% and 10% higher, respectively), but S1R ablation had no effect on their metabolism. The male Tmem97-/- mice exhibited 7% lower fat mass, 8% higher lean mass, increased volumes of O2 and CO2, a decreased respiratory exchange ratio indicating elevated fatty-acid oxidation, and improved insulin tolerance, compared to the male Tmem97+/+ mice. There were no changes in any of these parameters in the female Tmem97-/- mice. Together, these data indicate that the S1R ablation in male and female mice or the S2R ablation in male mice protects against diet-induced adiposity, and that S2R ablation, but not S1R deletion, improves insulin tolerance and enhances fatty-acid oxidation in male mice. Further mechanistic investigations may lead to translational strategies to target differential S1R/S2R regulations and sexual dimorphism for precision treatments of obesity.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Insulins , Receptors, sigma/metabolism , Adiposity , Animals , Carbon Dioxide/pharmacology , Diet, High-Fat , Female , Glucose/pharmacology , Insulins/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/genetics , Receptors, sigma/genetics , Sex Characteristics
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 241: 114659, 2022 Nov 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035972

Реферат

Cytokine storm is a key feature of sepsis and severe stage of COVID-19, and the immunosuppression after excessive immune activation is a substantial hazard to human life. Both pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are recognized by various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which lead to the immune response. A number of neolignan analogues were synthesized in this work and showed powerful anti-inflammation properties linked to the response to innate and adaptive immunity, as well as NP-7 showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity at 100 nM. On the sepsis model caused by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57BL/6J mice, NP-7 displayed a strong regulatory influence on cytokine release. Then a photo-affinity probe of NP-7 was synthesized and chemoproteomics based on stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell cultures (SILAC) identified Immunity-related GTPase M (IRGM) as a target suppressing cytokine storm, which was verified by competitive pull-down, cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) and molecular dynamics simulations.


Тема - темы
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Cytokine Release Syndrome , GTP-Binding Proteins , Sepsis , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Proteomics
14.
Cells ; 11(14)2022 07 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032863

Реферат

Aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare and serious disorder of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that results in the loss of blood cells due to the failure of the bone marrow (BM). Although BM transplantation is used to treat AA, its use is limited by donor availability. In this sense, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can offer a novel therapeutic approach for AA. This is because the MSCs contribute to the hematopoietic niche organization through their repopulating. In our study, we used the human immature dental pulp stem cell (hIDPSC), an MSC-like cell, to explore an alternative therapeutic approach for AA. For this, isogenic C57BL/6 mice were exposed to total body irradiation (TBI) to induce the AA. After 48 h of TBI, the mice were intraperitoneally treated with hIDPSC. The immunohistochemistry analyses confirmed that the hIDPSCs migrated and grafted in the mouse bone marrow (BM) and spleen, providing rapid support to hematopoiesis recovery compared to the group exposed to radiation, but not to those treated with the cells as well as the hematological parameters. Six months after the last hIDPSC transplantation, the BM showed long-term stable hematopoiesis. Our data highlight the therapeutic plasticity and hematoprotective role of hIDPSC for AA and potentially for other hematopoietic failures.


Тема - темы
Anemia, Aplastic , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Anemia, Aplastic/etiology , Anemia, Aplastic/therapy , Animals , Dental Pulp , Hematopoiesis , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023746

Реферат

Although interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a life-threatening pathological condition that causes respiratory failure, the efficiency of current therapies is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of human MIKO-1 (hMIKO-1), a hybrid protein that suppresses the abnormal activation of macrophages, on murine macrophage function and its therapeutic effect in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced ILD (BLM-ILD). To this end, the phenotype of thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages co-cultured with hMIKO-1 was examined. The mice were assigned to normal, BLM-alone, or BLM + hMIKO-1 groups, and hMIKO-1 (0.1 mg/mouse) was administered intraperitoneally from day 0 to 14. The mice were sacrificed on day 28, and their lungs were evaluated by histological examination, collagen content, and gene expression levels. hMIKO-1 suppressed the polarization of murine macrophages to M2 predominance in vitro. The fibrosis score of lung pathology and lung collagen content of the BLM + hMIKO-1 group were significantly lower than those in the BLM-alone group. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, F4/80, and TIMP-1 in the lungs of the BLM + hMIKO-1 group were significantly lower than those in the BLM-alone group. These findings indicate that hMIKO-1 reduces lung fibrosis and may be a future therapeutic candidate for ILD treatment.


Тема - темы
Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Animals , Bleomycin/toxicity , Collagen/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism
16.
Mol Pharm ; 19(11): 4264-4274, 2022 Nov 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016525

Реферат

Tracking the pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in live subjects may help estimate the spatiotemporal distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. This study developed a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer of the S2 subunit of spike (S) protein for imaging SARS-CoV-2. A pan-coronavirus inhibitor, EK1 peptide, was synthesized and radiolabeled with copper-64 after being conjugated with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triyl-triacetic acid (NOTA). The in vitro stability tests indicated that [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-EK1 was stable up to 24 h both in saline and in human serum. The binding assay showed that [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-EK1 has a nanomolar affinity (Ki = 3.94 ± 0.51 nM) with the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2. The cell uptake evaluation used HEK293T/S+ and HEK293T/S- cell lines that showed that the tracer has a high affinity with the S-protein on the cellular level. For the in vivo study, we tested [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-EK1 in HEK293T/S+ cell xenograft-bearing mice (n = 3) and pseudovirus of SARS-CoV-2-infected HEK293T/ACE2 cell bearing mice (n = 3). The best radioactive xenograft-to-muscle ratio (X/Nxenograft 8.04 ± 0.99, X/Npseudovirus 6.47 ± 0.71) was most evident 4 h postinjection. Finally, PET imaging in the surrogate mouse model of beta-coronavirus, mouse hepatic virus-A59 infection in C57BL/6 J mice showed significantly enhanced accumulation in the liver than in the uninfected mice (1.626 ± 0.136 vs 0.871 ± 0.086 %ID/g, n = 3, P < 0.05) at 4 h postinjection. In conclusion, our experimental results demonstrate that [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-EK1 is a potential molecular imaging probe for tracking SARS-CoV-2 in extrapulmonary infections in living subjects.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , HEK293 Cells , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Copper Radioisotopes/chemistry , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Molecular Probes , Cell Line, Tumor
17.
Nanomedicine ; 45: 102595, 2022 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004369

Реферат

The development of safe and effective vaccine formulations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a hallmark in the history of vaccines. Here we report a COVID-19 subunit vaccine based on a SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) incorporated into nano-multilamellar vesicles (NMV) associated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA). The results based on immunization of C57BL/6 mice demonstrated that recombinant antigen incorporation into NMVs improved antibody and T-cell responses without inducing toxic effects under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Administration of RBD-NMV-MPLA formulations modulated antigen avidity and IgG subclass responses, whereas MPLA incorporation improved the activation of CD4+/CD8+ T-cell responses. In addition, immunization with the complete vaccine formulation reduced the number of doses required to achieve enhanced serum virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Overall, this study highlights NMV/MPLA technology, displaying the performance improvement of subunit vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, as well as other infectious diseases.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , Lipids , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Subunit
18.
J Immunol ; 209(7): 1323-1334, 2022 10 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002569

Реферат

Obesity is considered an important comorbidity for a range of noninfectious and infectious disease states including those that originate in the lung, yet the mechanisms that contribute to this susceptibility are not well defined. In this study, we used the diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model and two models of acute pulmonary infection, Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis strain SchuS4 and SARS-CoV-2, to uncover the contribution of obesity in bacterial and viral disease. Whereas DIO mice were more resistant to infection with SchuS4, DIO animals were more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with regular weight mice. In both models, neither survival nor morbidity correlated with differences in pathogen load, overall cellularity, or influx of inflammatory cells in target organs of DIO and regular weight animals. Increased susceptibility was also not associated with exacerbated production of cytokines and chemokines in either model. Rather, we observed pathogen-specific dysregulation of the host lipidome that was associated with vulnerability to infection. Inhibition of specific pathways required for generation of lipid mediators reversed resistance to both bacterial and viral infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate disparity among obese individuals for control of lethal bacterial and viral infection and suggest that dysregulation of the host lipidome contributes to increased susceptibility to viral infection in the obese host.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Francisella tularensis , Tularemia , Virus Diseases , Animals , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Lipids , Lung/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/metabolism
19.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0006522, 2022 09 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001768

Реферат

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a recently emerging bat-borne coronavirus responsible for high mortality rates in piglets. In vitro studies have indicated that SADS-CoV has a wide tissue tropism in different hosts, including humans. However, whether this virus potentially threatens other animals remains unclear. Here, we report the experimental infection of wild-type BALB/c and C57BL/6J suckling mice with SADS-CoV. We found that mice less than 7 days old are susceptible to the virus, which caused notable multitissue infections and damage. The mortality rate was the highest in 2-day-old mice and decreased in older mice. Moreover, a preliminary neuroinflammatory response was observed in 7-day-old SADS-CoV-infected mice. Thus, our results indicate that SADS-CoV has potential pathogenicity in young hosts. IMPORTANCE SADS-CoV, which likely has originated from bat coronaviruses, is highly pathogenic to piglets and poses a threat to the swine industry. Little is known about its potential to disseminate to other animals. No efficient treatment is available, and the quarantine strategy is the only preventive measure. In this study, we demonstrated that SADS-CoV can efficiently replicate in suckling mice younger than 7 days. In contrast to infected piglets, in which intestinal tropism is shown, SADS-CoV caused infection and damage in all murine tissues evaluated in this study. In addition, neuroinflammatory responses were detected in some of the infected mice. Our work provides a preliminary cost-effective model for the screening of antiviral drugs against SADS-CoV infection.


Тема - темы
Alphacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Diarrhea , Mice , Swine Diseases , Alphacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diarrhea/complications , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Humans , Mice/virology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/complications , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/veterinary , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/virology , Swine/virology , Swine Diseases/virology
20.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987992

Реферат

A transduced mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection was established using Balb/c mice. This was achieved through the adenovirus-vectored delivery of the hACE2 gene, to render the mice transiently susceptible to the virus. The model was characterised in terms of the dissemination of hACE2 receptor expression, the dissemination of three SARS-CoV-2 virus variants in vivo up to 10 days following challenge, the resulting histopathology and the clinical signs induced in the mice. In transduced mice, the infection was short-term, with a rapid loss in body weight starting at day 2 with maximum weight loss at day 4, followed by subsequent recovery until day 10. The induced expression of the hACE2 receptor was evident in the lungs, but, upon challenge, the SARS-CoV-2 virus disseminated beyond the lungs to spleen, liver and kidney, peaking at day 2 post infection. However, by day 10 post infection, the virus was undetectable. The lung histopathology was characterised by bronchial and alveolar inflammation, which was still present at day 10 post infection. Transduced mice had differential responses to viral variants ranking CVR-Glasgow 1 > Victoria-1 > England-2 isolates in terms of body weight loss. The transduced mouse model provides a consistent and manipulatable model of SARS-CoV-2 infection to screen viral variants for their relative virulence and possible interventions.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Lung , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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