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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110077

Реферат

Studies suggest that persistent symptoms after COVID-19 (long COVID) influence functioning and activities of daily living (ADL). However, it is still uncertain how and to what extent. This study aimed to describe patient-reported mental fatigue, ADL problems, ADL ability, sick leave and functional status among patients with long COVID. In this cross-sectional study, 448 patients, ≥18 years old and referred to occupational therapy at a Danish Post-COVID-19 Clinic, were included. Mental fatigue was measured by the Mental Fatigue Scale, ADL problems and ability were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, sick leave was self-reported and functional status was evaluated by the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status Scale. Mean age was 46.8 years, 73% of the patients were female, and 75% suffered from moderate to severe mental fatigue. The majority reported difficulties performing productive and leisure activities. The median performance and satisfaction scores were 4.8 and 3, respectively. In total, 56% of the patients were on sick leave, and 94% were referred to rehabilitation. A decrease in functional status was found between pre-COVID-19 and assessment. Conclusively, the patients were highly affected in their everyday life and had distinct rehabilitation needs. Future research is needed to address causalities and rehabilitation for this patient group.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Sick Leave , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Male , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Functional Status , Canada , Mental Fatigue/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110065

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic has made evident the exclusion to which older people may be subjected for reasons of age. This study delves into the cultural image of older adults during the pandemic from the perspective of people between 60 and 81 years of age. Through a qualitative methodology, the voices of 37 people have been collected through in-depth interviews. Two main themes are derived from the inductive analysis: on the one hand, the devaluation of older people, and on the other hand, the positive image of the older population as older and valid. We conclude that people over 60 years of age in the Basque Country denounce the stigma of low capacity attributed to the older population during the pandemic. They reject the signs of age-based overprotection manifested during the pandemic and highlight the vital experience by which older people could be considered referents in situations of social crisis. They reflect on the initiatives necessary to improve the cultural image of the older population and point out the opportunities for active ageing, education based on values and intergenerational relationships.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Voice , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Stigma , Educational Status
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 966606, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109877

Реферат

With the rapid development of digital technology, mobile Internet use is increasing in popularity in China. Previous studies have shown that mobile Internet use has a positive or negative effect on mental distress. Using CFPS2020 data, this paper finds that mobile Internet use significantly alleviates mental distress in Chinese adults. Heterogeneity analysis indicates that mobile Internet use can significantly alleviate mental distress among adults between the ages of 30 and 70, without a bachelor's degree or residing outside the province of Hubei. Furthermore, mobile Internet use significantly reduces mental distress through two mediators: trust and happiness. It also shows that watching short videos or learning online is associated with reduced mental distress, as opposed to online shopping, chatting, or playing games. However, the mental distress of new mobile Internet users in 2020 has not been alleviated. This paper enriches the relevant theoretical research and provides a practical reference for using the mobile Internet to ease mental distress during epidemics.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Internet Use , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 950532, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109875

Реферат

Background: We aimed to comprehensively analyze awareness, knowledge and attitude toward influenza vaccine and the factors associated to vaccine acceptance among the young and middle-aged general population, healthcare workers, and health-related administrators in China. The factors influencing the promotion of influenza vaccination were also evaluated among healthcare workers and administrators. Methods: This is a multicenter, cross-sectional study. General population adults, healthcare workers (HCWs), and health administrators were enrolled in seven regions across China during the 2020-2021 flu season. Data were collected via an online questionnaire, which included information request as to awareness, knowledge, and attitude toward influenza vaccination. Statistical significance set at p-values < 0.05. Results: A total of 3,239 individuals were included in our analyses. There were gaps in consciousness to action, especially between awareness (87.1%) and knowledge (57.7%), and between willingness (57.3%) and vaccination (22.3%). The downward trends were similar in all three groups. HCW group and the health administrator group showed more positive propensity to accept influenza vaccines than the general population group. For the general population group, those with a lower educational level (lower than a bachelor's degree) were less likely to be vaccinated (aOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.96). For the HCW group, practitioners older than 45 years were more reluctant to be vaccinated than those under 25 years (aOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.86). For the health administrator group, personnel aged 26 years and above were less inclined to be vaccinated (aORs = 0.17-0.20). In all groups, people who had received influenza vaccines in the past 5 years (aOR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.31-2.26 in general population group, 13.05, 95% CI: 7.71-22.10 in HCW group, and 19.30, 95% CI: 9.66-42.63 in health administrator group) were more likely to be vaccinated in future seasons. People who were not covered by the free program or those without awareness of the related programs were less likely to be vaccinated (aORs < 0.63). Most (70.8%) of HCWs showed intention to recommend the influenza vaccine. Clinical doctors, those who had flu shots themselves, and those who had more knowledge, were more like to make recommendations. Health administrators stated that insufficient budget resources and workforce, and low public awareness are main difficulties in the promotion of influenza vaccine. Conclusion: The influencing factors of the attitude toward influenza vaccination vary across populations. Governments need to carry out focused vaccination promotion programs, especially for healthcare workers, to improve the coverage of influenza vaccination.


Тема - темы
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Middle Aged , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Population Groups , Vaccination , China
5.
Euro Surveill ; 27(44)2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109635

Реферат

BackgroundSince the roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines in late 2020 and throughout 2021, European governments have relied on mathematical modelling to inform policy decisions about COVID-19 vaccination.AimWe present a scenario-based modelling analysis in the Netherlands during summer 2021, to inform whether to extend vaccination to adolescents (12-17-year-olds) and children (5-11-year-olds).MethodsWe developed a deterministic, age-structured susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model and compared modelled incidences of infections, hospital and intensive care admissions, and deaths per 100,000 people across vaccination scenarios, before the emergence of the Omicron variant.ResultsOur model projections showed that, on average, upon the release of all non-pharmaceutical control measures on 1 November 2021, a large COVID-19 wave may occur in winter 2021/22, followed by a smaller, second wave in spring 2022, regardless of the vaccination scenario. The model projected reductions in infections/severe disease outcomes when vaccination was extended to adolescents and further reductions when vaccination was extended to all people over 5 years-old. When examining projected disease outcomes by age group, individuals benefitting most from extending vaccination were adolescents and children themselves. We also observed reductions in disease outcomes in older age groups, particularly of parent age (30-49 years), when children and adolescents were vaccinated, suggesting some prevention of onward transmission from younger to older age groups.ConclusionsWhile our scenarios could not anticipate the emergence/consequences of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, we illustrate how our approach can assist decision making. This could be useful when considering to provide booster doses or intervening against future infection waves.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Child, Preschool , Netherlands/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e38604, 2022 10 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109557

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Virtual care use increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of that shift on patient and provider experiences is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patient and provider experiences with virtual visits across an academic, ambulatory hospital in Toronto, Canada and assessed predictors of positive experience with virtual care. METHODS: Survey data were analyzed from consenting patients who attended at least one virtual visit (video or telephone) and from consenting providers who delivered at least one virtual visit. Distributions for demographic variables and responses to survey questions are reported, with statistical significance assessed using chi-square tests and t tests. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to identify any patient predictors of responses. RESULTS: During the study period, 253 patients (mean age 45.1, SD 15.6 years) completed 517 video visit surveys, and 147 patients (mean age 41.6, SD 16.4 years) completed 209 telephone visit surveys. A total of 75 and 94 providers completed the survey in June 2020 and June 2021, respectively. On a scale from 1 to 10 regarding likelihood to recommend virtual care to others, fewer providers rated a score of 8 or above compared with patients (providers: 62/94, 66% for video and 49/94, 52% for telephone; patients: 415/517, 80% for video and 150/209, 72% for telephone). Patients of non-White ethnicity had lower odds of rating a high score of 9 or 10 compared with White patients (odds ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Patient experiences with virtual care were generally positive, but provider experiences were less so. Findings suggest potential differences in patient experience by ethnicity, warranting further investigation into equity concerns with virtual care.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ontario/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care , Hospitals
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(11): e36424, 2022 Nov 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109550

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The distribution of population-level real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values as a proxy of viral load may be a useful indicator for predicting COVID-19 dynamics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the daily trend of average Ct values and COVID-19 dynamics, calculated as the daily number of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, daily number of new positive tests, daily number of COVID-19 deaths, and number of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 by age. We further sought to determine the lag between these data series. METHODS: The samples included in this study were collected from March 21, 2021, to December 1, 2021. Daily Ct values of all patients who were referred to the Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory of Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran, for RT-PCR tests were recorded. The daily number of positive tests and the number of hospitalized patients by age group were extracted from the COVID-19 patient information registration system in Tehran province, Iran. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was constructed for the time series of variables. Cross-correlation analysis was then performed to determine the best lag and correlations between the average daily Ct value and other COVID-19 dynamics-related variables. Finally, the best-selected lag of Ct identified through cross-correlation was incorporated as a covariate into the autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) model to calculate the coefficients. RESULTS: Daily average Ct values showed a significant negative correlation (23-day time delay) with the daily number of newly hospitalized patients (P=.02), 30-day time delay with the daily number of new positive tests (P=.02), and daily number of COVID-19 deaths (P=.02). The daily average Ct value with a 30-day delay could impact the daily number of positive tests for COVID-19 (ß=-16.87, P<.001) and the daily number of deaths from COVID-19 (ß=-1.52, P=.03). There was a significant association between Ct lag (23 days) and the number of COVID-19 hospitalizations (ß=-24.12, P=.005). Cross-correlation analysis showed significant time delays in the average Ct values and daily hospitalized patients between 18-59 years (23-day time delay, P=.02) and in patients over 60 years old (23-day time delay, P<.001). No statistically significant relation was detected in the number of daily hospitalized patients under 5 years old (9-day time delay, P=.27) and aged 5-17 years (13-day time delay, P=.39). CONCLUSIONS: It is important for surveillance of COVID-19 to find a good indicator that can predict epidemic surges in the community. Our results suggest that the average daily Ct value with a 30-day delay can predict increases in the number of positive confirmed COVID-19 cases, which may be a useful indicator for the health system.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Middle Aged , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Hospitalization
8.
Intern Med ; 61(21): 3197-3204, 2022 Nov 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109498

Реферат

Objective Among treatment options for coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), well-studied oral medications are limited. We conducted a multicenter non-randomized, uncontrolled single-arm prospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of favipiravir for patients with COVID-19. Methods One hundred participants were sequentially recruited to 2 cohorts: cohort 1 (Day 1: 1,600 mg/day, Day 2 to 14: 600 mg/day, n=50) and cohort 2 (Day 1: 1,800 mg/day, Day 2 to 14: 800 mg/day, n=50). The efficacy endpoint was the negative conversion rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the odds ratio (OR) of cohort 2 to cohort 1 for negative conversion on Day 10 was calculated. Characteristics of all participants and profiles of adverse events (AEs) were collected and analyzed. Results The mean age of participants was 62.8±17.6 years old. Thirty-four patients (34.0%) experienced worsening pneumonia, 7 (7.0%) were intubated, and 4 (4.0%) died during the observation period. Cohort 2 showed a higher negative conversion rate than cohort 1 [adjusted OR 3.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17 to 9.38), p=0.024], and this association was maintained after adjusting for the age, sex, body mass index, and baseline C-reactive protein level. Regarding adverse events, hyperuricemia was most frequently observed followed by an elevation of the liver enzyme levels (all-grade: 49.0%, Grade ≥3: 12.0%), and cohort 2 tended to have a higher incidence than cohort 1. However, no remarkable association of adverse events was observed between patients <65 and ≥65 years old. Conclusion The antiviral efficacy of favipiravir was difficult to interpret due to the limitation of the study design. However, no remarkable issues with safety or tolerability associated with favipiravir were observed, even in elderly patients with COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects
9.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 64: e62, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109457

Реферат

This study aimed to evaluate the COVID-19 hospitalizations in a tertiary hospital by age group and month, considering the introduction and the advance of the vaccination against the disease. The laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among people aged 20 years or older, that occurred between March 2020 and June 2021, were distributed by month of symptom onset and age group. The proportion of hospitalizations by age group was calculated for the year 2021. The proportions were compared using the chi-square test for trends. The marks of vaccination advances among different age groups were taken from the official website LocalizaSUS. In 2020, hospitalizations among people aged 60-80 years old were the most frequent (39.1%). From January-June 2021, when the vaccination commenced, while hospitalizations of patients aged 20 to < 40 and 40 to 60 years old showed an increasing trend, the older age groups and those with vaccination recommendations (from 60 to < 80 and from 80 or over) showed a downward trend. As of June 2021, with widespread vaccination, a drop in hospitalizations was observed in > 60 years old. At 20 to <40 and 40 to < 60, an increase in hospitalizations was observed. It demonstrates the important role of vaccination in combating the COVID-19 pandemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination
10.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277301, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109330

Реферат

PURPOSE: To assess hospitalized COVID-19 inpatients for the prevalence of retinopathy and tear film SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and associated risk factors for their detection. METHODS: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients underwent dilated ophthalmic examination and fundus photography. Conjunctival swabs were assessed for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR via a triple target assay. We assessed the relationships of retinopathy with clinical outcomes, systemic risk factors and laboratory data. RESULTS: The median age was 59.5 years and 29 (48%) were female. Retinopathy associated with COVID-19 was observed in 12 of 60 patients (20%). The median age of patients with COVID-19 retinopathy was 51.5 compared to 62.5 years in individuals without retinopathy (p = 0.01). Median BMI was 34.3 in patients with retinopathy versus 30.9 in those without retinopathy (p = 0.04). Fifteen of 60 patients (25%) tested SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive in their tear film without a relationship with timing of illness and hospitalization. The N2 gene was particularly sensitive with 18 of 19 eyes (94.7%) showing N2-positivity, including 2 patients with alpha variant-positivity (B.1.1.7). CONCLUSION: Retinopathy was observed in 20% of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Patients with retinopathy were more likely to be younger and have higher BMI than hospitalized patients without retinopathy. Tear film SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 25% of patients. The relationship of obesity and age with retinopathy requires further investigation.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Retinal Diseases , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275832, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109322

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Studies from Asia, Europe and the USA indicate that widely available haematological parameters could be used to determine the clinical severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and predict management outcome. There is limited data from Africa on their usefulness in patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). We performed an evaluation of baseline haematological parameters as prognostic biomarkers in ICU COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively on patients with confirmed COVID-19, admitted to the adult ICU in a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, between March 2020 and February 2021. Robust Poisson regression methods and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to explore the association of haematological parameters with COVID-19 severity and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 490 patients (median age 54.1 years) were included, of whom 237 (48%) were female. The median duration of ICU stay was 6 days and 309/490 (63%) patients died. Raised neutrophil count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were associated with worse outcome. Independent risk factors associated with mortality were age (ARR 1.01, 95%CI 1.0-1.02; p = 0.002); female sex (ARR 1.23, 95%CI 1.05-1.42; p = 0.008) and D-dimer levels (ARR 1.01, 95%CI 1.002-1.03; p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that raised neutrophil count, NLR and D-dimer at the time of ICU admission were associated with higher mortality. Contrary to what has previously been reported, our study revealed females admitted to the ICU had a higher risk of mortality.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , South Africa/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Hospitalization , Retrospective Studies
12.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 8: e2200289, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109211

Реферат

PURPOSE: A nationwide lockdown was enforced in Brazil starting in March 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic when cancer screening activities were reduced. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. METHODS: We extracted data from the medical records of patients age older than 18 years who were diagnosed with BC and started treatment or follow-up in private oncology institutions in Brazil between 2018 and 2021. The primary objective was to compare the stage distribution during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021) with a historical prepandemic control cohort (2018-2019). Early BC was defined as stage I-II and advanced disease as stage IV. RESULTS: We collected data for 11,753 patients with an initial diagnosis of BC, with 6,493 patients in the pandemic (2020-2021) and 5,260 patients in the prepandemic period (2018-2019). We observed a lower prevalence of early-stage BC (63.6% v 68.4%) and a higher prevalence of advanced-stage BC (16.9 v 12.7%), after the onset of the pandemic (both P < .01). This pattern was similar for both estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive tumors: significantly decreased in the early stage from 69% to 67% and 68% to 58%, respectively, and a considerable increase in advanced-stage disease from 13% to 15% and 13% to 20%, respectively. For triple-negative BC, there was a significantly higher percentage of patients with advanced-stage disease during the pandemic (17% v 11%). Overall, age 50 years or older and postmenopausal status were associated with a greater risk of advanced stage at diagnosis during the pandemic period. CONCLUSION: We observed a substantial increase in the number of cases of advanced-stage BC in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Тема - темы
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Female , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
13.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 84, 2022 09 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109076

Реферат

The widespread use of face masks in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic has promoted research on their effect on the perception and recognition of faces. There is growing evidence that masks hinder the recognition of identity and expression, as well as the interpretation of speech from facial cues. It is less clear whether and in what manner masks affect the perception of age from facial cues. Recent research has emphasized the role of the upper region of the face, a part not covered by a mask, in the evaluation of age. For example, smile-related wrinkles in the region of the eyes make smiling faces appear older than neutral faces of the same individuals (the aging effect of smiling, AES). In two experiments, we tested the effect of face masks on age evaluations of neutral and smiling faces in a range of different age groups from 20 to 80 years. The results showed that smiling faces were perceived as older than neutral faces even when individuals were wearing a face mask-and there was no effect of masks on bias in age evaluations. Additional analyses showed reduced accuracy in age evaluations for smiling compared to neutral faces and for masked compared to unmasked faces. The results converge on previous studies emphasizing the importance of the upper region of the face in evaluations of age.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Smiling , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , Young Adult
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2017, 2022 11 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108757

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to generate an unprecedented impact on all aspects of everyday life across the world. However, those with historically and currently marginalized identities (i.e., gender or ethnicity) who already experience a wide range of structural inequities have been disproportionally impacted. LTNB are a particularly at-risk population as they lie at the intersection of race/ethnicity, gender identity, language, migration status, geographical location, among others, which could further increase their COVID-19 and other health-related risks and disparities. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of key social determinants of health (i.e., gender identity, country, health insurance, employment) among a sample of LTNB individuals. METHODS: The team implemented a cross-sectional exploratory design with an online survey technique using the secure web platforms REDcap and SurveyMonkey. A total of 133 participants completed the online survey. Most of the sample self-identified as transwomen (38.8%), transmen (26.3%), and non-binary (21.8%) between the ages of 21 to 72. All participants were Latinx living in either Puerto Rico (47.7%) or mainland United States (52.3%). Descriptive statistics, reliability tests, Mann-Whitney and rapid thematic analysis test were conducted. RESULTS: Findings show that most participants were always (38.1%) or almost always (33.3%) worried about contracting COVID-19. Individuals living in Puerto Rico reported more difficulties than those residing in the mainland US regarding COVID-19 impact on psychosocial, emotional, and COVID-related thinking. Most participants' answers for the COVID-19 open-ended questions focused on three main domains: income, access to trans-affirmative health care, and coping strategies. DISCUSSION: Findings evidence that although most of LTNB participants were negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in multiple aspects of their lives, those living in Puerto Rico experienced these differently when compared to those in mainland US. More research is needed to understand better the mechanisms and pathways through which this context specifically impacts LTNB health and wellbeing, particularly in Puerto Rico. This study could help shape the public health response taking into account the geographical location and other intersectional identities that play critical roles in the production and reproduction of inequities.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Transgender Persons , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Female , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Puerto Rico/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Gender Identity
15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 473, 2022 11 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108742

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has emerged as an increasingly diagnosed cause of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which is easily missed or delayed. The effective use of coronary angiography (CAG) and advanced intracoronary imaging examinations in STEMI patients has led to increased detection of SCAD. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old woman with acute angina pectoris was diagnosed with STEMI detected by electrocardiography combined with measurement of myocardial enzymes. Due to the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, she was first given thrombolytic therapy after excluding contraindications according to the requirements of the current consensus statement; however, subsequently, both the symptoms of ongoing chest pain and the electrocardiographic results indicated the failure of thrombolytic therapy, so the intervention team administered rescue percutaneous coronary intervention treatment under third-grade protection. CAG confirmed total occlusion in the distal left anterior descending (LAD) artery, with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 0 flow, whereas the left circumflex and right coronary arteries appeared normal, with TIMI 3 flow. Intravenous ultrasound (IVUS) was further performed to investigate the causes of occlusion, which verified the absence of atherosclerosis but detected SCAD with intramural haematoma. During the operation, the guidewire reached the distal end of the LAD artery smoothly, the balloon was dilated slightly, and the reflow of TIMI blood could be seen by repeated CAG. During the follow-up period of one and a half years, the patient complained of occasional, slight chest tightness. The repeated CAG showed that the spontaneous dissection in the LAD artery had healed well, with TIMI 3 flow. The repeated IVUS confirmed that the SCAD and intramural haematoma had been mostly resorbed and repaired. CONCLUSION: This was a case of failed STEMI thrombolysis in our hospital during the outbreak of COVID-19. This case indicates that doctors need to consider the cause of the disease when treating STEMI patients, especially patients without traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, CAG and intracoronary imaging examinations should be actively performed to identify the aetiology and improve the treatment success rate.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Coronary Angiography/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Hematoma/complications
16.
Mol Med ; 28(1): 131, 2022 11 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108708

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a severe inflammatory response. Acetylcholine (ACh) reduces systemic inflammation in experimental bacterial and viral infections. Pyridostigmine increases the half-life of endogenous ACh, potentially reducing systemic inflammation. We aimed to determine if pyridostigmine decreases a composite outcome of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death in adult patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 2/3 randomized controlled trial of oral pyridostigmine (60 mg/day) or placebo as add-on therapy in adult patients admitted due to confirmed severe COVID-19 not requiring IMV at enrollment. The primary outcome was a composite of IMV or death by day 28. Secondary outcomes included reduction of inflammatory markers and circulating cytokines, and 90-day mortality. Adverse events (AEs) related to study treatment were documented and described. RESULTS: We recruited 188 participants (94 per group); 112 (59.6%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 52 (44-64) years. The study was terminated early due to a significant reduction in the primary outcome in the treatment arm and increased difficulty with recruitment. The primary outcome occurred in 22 (23.4%) participants in the placebo group vs. 11 (11.7%) in the pyridostigmine group (hazard ratio, 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.9; P = 0.03). This effect was driven by a reduction in mortality (19 vs. 8 deaths, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that adding pyridostigmine to standard care reduces mortality among patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adult , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyridostigmine Bromide/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiration, Artificial , Inflammation , Treatment Outcome
17.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(10): e008942, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108428

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) is perceived as a risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. We sought to determine whether CVD is associated with in-hospital death and cardiovascular events in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This study used data from a multicenter cohort of adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units at 68 centers across the United States from March 1 to July 1, 2020. The primary exposure was CVD, defined as preexisting coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or atrial fibrillation/flutter. Myocardial injury on intensive care unit admission defined as a troponin I or T level above the 99th percentile upper reference limit of normal was a secondary exposure. The primary outcome was 28-day in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included cardiovascular events (cardiac arrest, new-onset arrhythmias, new-onset heart failure, myocarditis, pericarditis, or stroke) within 14 days. RESULTS: Among 5133 patients (3231 male [62.9%]; mean age 61 years [SD, 15]), 1174 (22.9%) had preexisting CVD. A total of 1178 (34.6%) died, and 920 (17.9%) had a cardiovascular event. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, history of smoking, and comorbidities, preexisting CVD was associated with a 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98-1.34) higher odds of death. No independent association was observed between preexisting CVD and cardiovascular events. Myocardial injury on intensive care unit admission was associated with higher odds of death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.61-2.31]) and cardiovascular events (adjusted odds ratio, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.47-2.24]), regardless of the presence of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: CVD risk factors, rather than CVD itself, were the major contributors to outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19. The occurrence of myocardial injury, regardless of CVD, and its association with outcomes suggests it is likely due to multiorgan injury related to acute inflammation rather than exacerbation of preexisting CVD. REGISTRATION: NCT04343898; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04343898.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Troponin I , Hospital Mortality , Risk Factors
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e065148, 2022 11 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108285

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: During COVID-19 pandemic, complete lockdown of cities was one of the measures implemented by governments worldwide. Lockdown had a significant impact on people's lifestyles and access and utilisation of health services. This study aimed to assess the impact of the lockdown on glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a retrospective study, electronic medical records at a leading University Hospital in Northern Jordan were used to extract study data. PARTICIPANTS: All outpatients with T2DM. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose and lipid profile for patients with T2DM, 6 months before and 6 months after the full COVID-19 lockdown. RESULTS: A total of 639 patients (289 (45.2%) males and 350 (54.8%) females) were included in this study. Their age ranged from 18 to 91 years, with a mean (SD) of 59.9 (13.8) years. The overall means of HbA1c (8.41 vs 8.20, <0.001), high-density lipoprotein (1.16 vs 1.12, <0.001), low-density lipoprotein (2.81 vs 2.49, <0.001) and total cholesterol (4.45 vs 4.25, p<0.001) levels were significantly higher in the period before lockdown compared with the period after the lockdown. However, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were not affected significantly after the lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The glycaemic control and lipid profile had significantly improved after COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. The availability of medication and medical advice delivery systems (monthly medicine deliveries) during the lockdown in Jordan might have positive impact on patients with diabetes.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Jordan/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Lipids
19.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 39(7): 583-591, 2022 Nov 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107709

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 patients hospitalized in intensive care units develop neuromuscular manifestations. However, to our knowledge, a study describing the neurophysiological findings in these patients has not been reported. The objective of this study was to diagnose the cause of neuromuscular deficit in severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients, through neurophysiological examination. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational case series. Data were collected from April 13, 2020, to May 31, 2020. Twenty-two coronavirus disease 2019 patients with generalized neuromuscular deficit during intensive care unit hospitalization were studied. Neurophysiological examinations included motor and sensory peripheral nerve conductions, needle electromyography, F waves, and repetitive nerve stimulation. RESULTS: The subjects were 14 men (63.6%) and eight women, ranged from 35 to 74 years old (58.0, interquartile ranges 50.7-66.2). Intensive care unit hospitalization time ranged from 14 to 82 days (median 37.5, interquartile ranges 22.7-55.0). Through neurophysiological examination, myopathy was diagnosed in 17 patients (77.3%) and polyneuropathy in four (18.2%). Focal neuropathies were diagnosed in 12 patients (54.6%), with a total of 19 affected nerves. Common peroneal nerve lesions at the fibular head (68.4%) and ulnar nerve lesions at the elbow level (21.1%) were the most frequent locations. No significant differences were established between neurophysiological findings and clinical or analytical data. CONCLUSIONS: In critical coronavirus disease 2019 patients with neuromuscular complaints, neurophysiological examination provides an accurate diagnosis-useful to select treatment measures and establish the prognosis of recovery. Neurophysiological findings are similar to those described for critical illness neuromuscular disease, with myopathy being the most frequent diagnosis.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Neuromuscular Diseases , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neuromuscular Diseases/etiology , Electromyography/adverse effects , Critical Illness , Peroneal Nerve
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(37): e30637, 2022 Sep 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107666

Реферат

To determine the prevalence of sleep disturbance during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among US adults who are more vulnerable to complications because of age and co-morbid conditions, and to identify associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional survey linked to 3 active clinical trials and 2 cohort studies, conducted between 11/30/2020 and 3/3/2021. Five academic internal medicine practices and 2 federally qualified health centers. A total of 715 adults ages 23 to 91 years living with one or more chronic conditions. A fifth (20%) of participants reported poor sleep. Black adults were twice as likely to report poor sleep compared to Whites. Self-reported poor physical function (51%), stress (42%), depression (28%), and anxiety (36%) were also common and all significantly associated with poor sleep. Age ≥70 years and having been vaccinated for COVID-19 were protective against poor sleep. Sex, education, income, alcohol use, and employment status were not significantly associated with sleep quality. In this diverse sample of adults with chronic conditions, by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, disparities in sleep health amid the ongoing pandemic were apparent. Worse physical function and mental health were associated with poor sleep and should be considered targets for health system interventions to prevent the many subsequent consequences of disturbed sleep on health outcomes. Measurements: self-reported sleep quality, physical function, stress, depression, and anxiety.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Young Adult
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