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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 350-366, set-dez. 2022.
Статья в португальский | WHO COVID, LILACS - Страны Америки - | ID: covidwho-2205388

Реферат

Introdução: No final do ano de 2019 surgiu na China uma doença infectocontagiosa de característica respiratória e alto grau de disseminação até então desconhecida. No Brasil o primeiro caso de Covid-19 foi confirmado no final de fevereiro de 2020 e a primeira morte em meados de março. Segundo dados da plataforma Coronavírus Brasil, em 17 de março de 2021, houve registro de 11.603.535 casos confirmados e 282.127 óbitos. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil de pessoas que morreram tendo como causa básica do óbito a Covid-19, em um município do Sudoeste do Paraná, entre os anos de 2020 e 2021. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo, documental de caráter quantitativo que foi realizado na prefeitura municipal de Francisco Beltrão. Resultados: Houve prevalência de óbitos em pacientes do sexo masculino, idosos, com presença de alguma comorbidade associada, sendo hipertensão a mais citada (50,8%). Os sintomas mais prevalentes foram tosse (74,4%), dispneia (56,3%) e saturação < 95% (48,3%), necessitando ainda de hospitalização em algum período da doença (94,1%), sendo os leitos de Sistema Único de Saúde os mais procurados (74,4%). Quanto à taxa de ocupação 49,6% dos casos necessitou apenas de leitos de enfermaria e 42% unidades de terapia intensiva. Discussão: Diversas pesquisas apontam que o sexo masculino é o mais acometido por condições graves de saúde, devido à demora na busca de assistência médica. No que se refere à idade, neste estudo, a prevalência de óbitos se deu entre 71 e 75 anos (15,1%) o que justifica que o envelhecimento é um fator de risco elevado para complicações da doença. Durante a análise dos dados, notou- se que grande parte dos pacientes que tiveram como desfecho o óbito, possuíam algum fator associado, dentre os mais citados, verificou-se a Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica (50,8%) Diabetes Mellitus (24,8%), doenças cardiovasculares (23,9%) e obesidade (14,7%). No que diz respeito à hospitalização, nesse estudo notou-se que 74,4% da amostra foram hospitalizadas em leitos de SUS, 18,5% em hospitais particulares e 7,1% não possuíam essa informação. Conclusão: É possível observar a importância do estudo epidemiológico para identificar o perfil da população em risco, podendo auxiliar no planejamento do atendimento, rastreamento e controle da doença, além de conhecer a evolução da patologia, a fim de buscar ações adequadas para seu enfrentamento.


Introduction: At the end of 2019, a previously unknown infectious disease with respiratory characteristics and a high degree of dissemination emerged in China. In Brazil the first case of Covid-19 was confirmed in late February 2020 and the first death in mid-March. According to data from the Coronavirus Brazil platform, as of March 17, 2021, 11,603,535 confirmed cases and 282,127 deaths were recorded. Objective: To describe the profile of people who died with Covid-19 as the underlying cause of death in a city in southwestern Paraná between the years 2020 and 2021. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, documental, quantitative study carried out at the Francisco Beltrão City Hall. Results: There was a prevalence of deaths in male patients, elderly, with the presence of some associated comorbidity, hypertension being the most cited (50.8%). The most prevalent symptoms were cough (74.4%), dyspnea (56.3%) and saturation < 95% (48.3%), requiring hospitalization in some period of the disease (94.1%), and the Unified Health System beds were the most sought (74.4%). As for the occupancy rate, 49.6% of the cases required only ward beds and 42% intensive care units. Discussion: Several studies show that men are the most affected by serious health conditions, due to the delay in seeking medical assistance. Regarding age, in this study, the prevalence of deaths was between 71 and 75 years (15.1%), which justifies that aging is a high risk factor for disease complications. During data analysis, it was noted that most patients who died had some associated factor, among the most cited were systemic arterial hypertension (50.8%), diabetes mellitus (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (23.9%) and obesity (14.7%). Regarding hospitalization, in this study it was noted that 74.4% of the sample were hospitalized in SUS beds, 18.5% in private hospitals, and 7.1% did not have this information. Conclusion: It is possible to observe the importance of the epidemiological study to identify the profile of the population at risk, which can help in planning care, tracking and control of the disease, besides knowing the evolution of the pathology in order to seek appropriate actions for its confrontation


Introducción: A finales del año 2019 apareció en China una enfermedad infecto- contagiosa de característica respiratoria y alto grado de diseminación desconocida hasta entonces. En Brasil se confirmó el primer caso de Covid-19 a finales de febrero de 2020 y la primera muerte a mediados de marzo. Según los datos de la plataforma Coronavirus Brasil, hasta el 17 de marzo de 2021, había 11.603.535 casos confirmados y 282.127 muertes. Objetivo: Describir el perfil de las personas fallecidas con Covid-19 como causa subyacente de muerte en una ciudad del sudoeste de Paraná entre los años 2020 y 2021. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio transversal, descriptivo, documental de carácter cuantitativo que se realizó en la prefectura municipal de Francisco Beltrão. Resultados: Hubo una prevalencia de muertes en pacientes masculinos, de edad avanzada, con presencia de alguna comorbilidad asociada, siendo la hipertensión la más citada (50,8%). Los síntomas más prevalentes fueron la tos (74,4%), la disnea (56,3%) y la saturación < 95% (48,3%), requiriendo hospitalización en algún periodo de la enfermedad (94,1%), siendo las camas del Sistema Único de Salud las más solicitadas (74,4%). En cuanto a la tasa de ocupación, el 49,6% de los casos sólo necesitaban camas de sala y el 42% unidades de cuidados intensivos. Discusión: Varias investigaciones señalan que el género masculino es el más afectado por las condiciones de salud graves, debido al retraso en la búsqueda de asistencia médica. En cuanto a la edad, en este estudio, la prevalencia de muertes se produjo entre los 71 y los 75 años (15,1%), lo que justifica que el envejecimiento sea un factor de riesgo elevado para las complicaciones de la enfermedad. Durante el análisis de los datos, se observó que la mayoría de los pacientes que fallecieron tenían algún factor asociado, entre los más citados estaban la Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica (50,8%), la Diabetes Mellitus (24,8%), las enfermedades cardiovasculares (23,9%) y la obesidad (14,7%). En lo que respecta a la hospitalización, en este estudio se observó que el 74,4% de la muestra estaba hospitalizada en camas del SUS, el 18,5% en hospitales privados y el 7,1% no tenía esta información. Conclusión: Es posible observar la importancia del estudio epidemiológico para identificar el perfil de la población en riesgo, pudiendo ayudar en la planificación de la atención, el rastreo y el control de la enfermedad, además de conocer la evolución de la patología, con el fin de buscar las acciones adecuadas para su enfrentamiento.


Тема - темы
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death , Unified Health System , Aged , Aging/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cough , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyspnea , Oxygen Saturation , Hospitalization , Hypertension , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Obesity
2.
Curr Pharm Des ; 28(22): 1833-1842, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197773

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Genetically modified micro-organisms like bacteria, viruses, algae and fungi are novel approaches used in the field of healthcare due to better efficacy and targeted delivery in comparison to conventional approaches. OBJECTIVES: This review article focuses on the applications of genetically modified micro-organisms in the treatment of cancer, obesity and HIV infection. The gut microbiome causes metabolic disorders, however, the use of genetically modified bacteria alters the gut microbiota and delivers therapeutically effective drugs in the treatment of obesity. METHODS: Enhancement of the therapeutic activity of different micro-organisms is required for multiple treatments in cancer, diabetes, etc., by incorporating their fragments into the microbial filaments with the help of genetic modification approaches. Various methods like amelioration of NAPE synthesis, silica immobilization, polyadenylation and electrochemical are used to integrate the strain into the bacteria and engineer a live virus with a peptide. RESULTS: The development of novel microbial strains using genetic modifications over core strains offers higher precision, greater molecular multiplicity, better prevention from the degradation of microbes in atmospheric temperature and significant reduction of side effects for therapeutic applications. Moreover, genetically modified micro-organisms are used in multidisciplinary sectors like generation of electricity, purification of water, bioremediation process, etc., indicating the versatility and scope of genetically engineered microbes. CONCLUSION: The bioengineered micro-organisms with genetic modifications proved to be advantageous in various conditions like cancer, diabetes, malaria, organ regeneration, inflammatory bowel disease, etc. This article provides insight into various applications of genetically modified microbes in different sectors with their implementation for regulatory approval.


Тема - темы
Diabetes Mellitus , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , HIV Infections , Bacteria , Biotechnology , Humans , Obesity
3.
N Engl J Med ; 387(15): 1433, 2022 10 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186486
5.
Lancet ; 400(10350): 441-451, 2022 08 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184590

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is an endolumenal, organ-sparing therapy for obesity, with wide global adoption. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of ESG with lifestyle modifications compared with lifestyle modifications alone. METHODS: We conducted a randomised clinical trial at nine US centres, enrolling individuals aged 21-65 years with class 1 or class 2 obesity and who agreed to comply with lifelong dietary restrictions. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1·5; with stratified permuted blocks) to ESG with lifestyle modifications (ESG group) or lifestyle modifications alone (control group), with potential retightening or crossover to ESG, respectively, at 52 weeks. Lifestyle modifications included a low-calorie diet and physical activity. Participants in the primary ESG group were followed up for 104 weeks. The primary endpoint at 52 weeks was the percentage of excess weight loss (EWL), with excess weight being that over the ideal weight for a BMI of 25 kg/m2. Secondary endpoints included change in metabolic comorbidities between the groups. We used multiple imputed intention-to-treat analyses with mixed-effects models. Our analyses were done on a per-protocol basis and a modified intention-to-treat basis. The safety population was defined as all participants who underwent ESG (both primary and crossover ESG) up to 52 weeks. FINDINGS: Between Dec 20, 2017, and June 14, 2019, 209 participants were randomly assigned to ESG (n=85) or to control (n=124). At 52 weeks, the primary endpoint of mean percentage of EWL was 49·2% (SD 32·0) for the ESG group and 3·2% (18·6) for the control group (p<0·0001). Mean percentage of total bodyweight loss was 13·6% (8·0) for the ESG group and 0·8% (5·0) for the control group (p<0·0001), and 59 (77%) of 77 participants in the ESG group reached 25% or more of EWL at 52 weeks compared with 13 (12%) of 110 in the control group (p<0·0001). At 52 weeks, 41 (80%) of 51 participants in the ESG group had an improvement in one or more metabolic comorbidities, whereas six (12%) worsened, compared with the control group in which 28 (45%) of 62 participants had similar improvement, whereas 31 (50%) worsened. At 104 weeks, 41 (68%) of 60 participants in the ESG group maintained 25% or more of EWL. ESG-related serious adverse events occurred in three (2%) of 131 participants, without mortality or need for intensive care or surgery. INTERPRETATION: ESG is a safe intervention that resulted in significant weight loss, maintained at 104 weeks, with important improvements in metabolic comorbidities. ESG should be considered as a synergistic weight loss intervention for patients with class 1 or class 2 obesity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03406975. FUNDING: Apollo Endosurgery, Mayo Clinic.


Тема - темы
Gastroplasty , Gastroplasty/adverse effects , Gastroplasty/methods , Humans , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/surgery , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss
6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(7): 488, 2022 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150876
7.
Patient Educ Couns ; 105(7): 2371-2381, 2022 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150394

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To report on patients' satisfaction and experience of care across three different modes of weight loss counseling. METHODS: 1407 patients with obesity in the rural Midwest were enrolled to a 2-year weight management trial through their primary care practice and assigned to one of three treatment conditions: in-clinic individual, in-clinic group, phone group counseling. Patients completed surveys assessing seven domains of satisfaction and experience of care at 6 and 24-months. Post-treatment interviews were conducted to add context to survey responses. RESULTS: 1295 (92.0%) and 1230 (87.4%) completed surveys at 6 and 24-months, respectively. Patients in phone group counseling reported lower satisfaction than patients who received in-clinic group or in-clinic individual counseling across all domains at 6-months and five out of seven domains at 24-months. Interviews revealed that patients were more satisfied when they received face-to-face counseling and had meaningful interactions with their primary care provider (PCP) about their weight. CONCLUSION: Rural patients with obesity have higher satisfaction and experience of care when weight loss counseling is delivered in a face-to-face environment and when their PCP is involved with their treatment. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Primary care practices looking to offer weight loss treatment should consider incorporating some level of face-to-face treatment plans that involves meaningful interaction with the PCP.


Тема - темы
Obesity , Weight Loss , Counseling/methods , Humans , Obesity/psychology , Obesity/therapy , Primary Health Care/methods , Rural Population , Weight Loss/physiology
8.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(3-4): 57-60, 2022 Oct 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146583

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Polyserositis is described as inflammation with effusion of more than one serous membrane. There is very little published literature linking it to COVID-19 as a late complication. OBJECTIVE: Present and describe a case of post-COVID-19 polyserositis. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical record of a female patient admitted for fainting spells and marked weakness. The patient underwent a clinical evaluation, additional hematology, imaging and histopathology tests, and a surgical procedure. The new index, called the abdominal adipose deposit index, was obtained by multiplying the subcutaneous fat thickness by visceral fat thickness, both measured by ultrasound. A cutoff point was established that facilitated discernment of an unhealthy phenotype: normal weight but metabolically obese, a cardiometabolic risk factor. RESULTS: We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient admitted to hospital for fainting spells and marked weakness, four months after COVID-19 infection. She also had a history of obesity, asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus and a cholecystectomy in December 1992 for gallstones. Clinical assessment revealed pericardial effusion and bilateral pleural effusion, in addition to a tumor-like lesion outside the pericardium, proximal to the right ventricular wall. A surgical procedure and findings from additional tests led to diagnoses of thymic remnants and polyserositis. CONCLUSIONS: This is a case of polyserositis in a post-COVID-19 patient. After other causes of polyserositis were ruled out, and since there is a likely physiological and pathogenic mechanism operating between the two diseases, the polyserositis was determined to be a late complication of COVID-19. To date, it is the second case reported in the world and the first reported in Cuba.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Cuba , Inflammation , Obesity/complications , Chronic Disease , Syncope
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 962090, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141735

Реферат

Introduction: Obesity affects a rising proportion of the population and is an important risk factor for unfavorable outcomes in viral disease including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2- associated diseases. Torque Teno virus (TTV) is a ubiquitous and apathogenic virus which reflects the immune function of its host. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and TTV load - an indirect marker of compromised viral immune response. Methods: TTV was quantified by TTV R-GENE® PCR in a total of 89 participants of which 30 were lean (BMI <25 kg/m2) and 59 were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). For 38 subjects, follow-up was available after bariatric surgery. Results: TTV load was higher in individuals with obesity (median 2.39, IQR: 1.69-3.33 vs. 1.88, IQR 1.08-2.43 log10 copies/mL; p = 0.027). Multivariable linear modeling revealed an independent association between TTV load and obesity. TTV was positively correlated with waist-to-hip ratio and inversely with 25OH vitamin D levels. Interleukin 6 and fasting insulin resistance were confounders of the association between TTV and obesity, while age was an effect modifier. TTV load increased by 87% (95% CI 2-243%) in the year following bariatric surgery. Discussion: A higher TTV load in obese individuals may reflect compromised immune function and thus might serve for risk stratification of unfavorable outcomes during infectious disease, including coronavirus disease 2019, in this population. Our data warrant further analysis of TTV-based risk assessment in obese individuals in the context of infectious disease-associated outcomes.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , DNA Virus Infections , Torque teno virus , DNA Virus Infections/complications , DNA Virus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Obesity , Thinness , Vitamin D
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 223, 2022 Jun 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139243

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Post-COVID-19 syndrome is characterized by diverse symptoms and abnormalities that persist beyond 12 weeks from the onset of acute COVID-19. Severity disease has been associated with more musculoskeletal alterations such as muscle weakness, dyspnea, and distance walking. The aim was to evaluate the impact of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) on body composition and investigate risk factors associated with sarcopenia in post-COVID-19 patients three months after moderate or severe COVID-19 infections. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. 530 patients with PCR-confirmed diagnoses of moderate to severe COVID-19, > 18 years old, oxygen saturation ≤ 93%, PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300, who required hospitalization and were discharged were included. We excluded those who died before the follow-up visit, declined to participate, or could not be contacted. RESULTS: The mean age was 53.79 ± 12.90 years. IMV subjects had lower phase angle and handgrip strength and higher impedance index, frequency of low muscle mass, and low muscle strength than those without IMV. The risk factors of sarcopenia were > 60 years of age, diabetes, obesity, IMV, and prolonged hospital stay. The multivariate model showed that age > 60 years (OR: 4.91, 95% CI: 2.26-10.63), obesity (OR: 3.73, 95% CI: 1.21-11.54), and interaction between prolonged length of hospital stay and IMV (OR: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.21-7.02) were related to a higher risk of sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: Obesity and the interaction between prolonged length of hospital stay and IMV are associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia at 3 months after severe or moderate COVID-19 infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Body Composition , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Strength , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
11.
J Telemed Telecare ; 28(10): 764-770, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138416

Реферат

Long-term weight loss can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes for people living with obesity and reduce complications for patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether a telehealth lifestyle-coaching program (Liva) leads to long-term (24 months) weight loss compared to usual care. In a randomized controlled trial, n = 340 participants living with obesity with or without type 2 diabetes were enrolled and randomized via an automated computer algorithm to an intervention group (n = 200) or to a control group (n = 140). The telehealth lifestyle-coaching program comprised of an initial one-hour face-to-face motivational interview followed by asynchronous telehealth coaching. The behavioural change techniques used were enabled by individual live monitoring. The primary outcome was a change in body weight from baseline to 24 months. Data were assessed for n = 136 participants (40%), n = 81 from the intervention group and n = 55 from the control group, who completed the 24-month follow-up. After 24 months mean body weight and body mass index were reduced significantly for completers in both groups, but almost twice as much was registered for those in the intervention group which was not significant between groups -4.4 (CI -6.1; -2.8) kg versus -2.5 (CI -3.9; -1.1) kg, P = 0.101. Haemoglobin A1c was significantly reduced in the intervention group -3.1 (CI -5.0; -1.2) mmol/mol, but not in the control group -0.2 (CI -2.4; -2.0) mmol/mol without a significant between group difference (P = 0.223). Low completion was partly due to coronavirus disease 2019. Telehealth lifestyle coaching improve long-term weight loss (> 24 months) for obese people with and without type 2 diabetes compared to usual care.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Mentoring , Telemedicine , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Weight Loss , Telemedicine/methods , Life Style , Obesity/therapy , Primary Health Care
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e060994, 2022 11 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137707

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To estimate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) length of treatment effect on survival of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in a medium-sized UK Hospital, and how this effect changes according to the patient's comorbidity and COVID-19 route of acquisition (community or nosocomial) during the two waves in 2020. SETTING: The acute inpatient unit in Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh Teaching Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust (WWL), a medium-sized NHS Trust in north-west of England. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort of all confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted in WWL during 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 1830 patients (568 first wave, 1262 s wave) with antigen confirmed COVID-19 disease and severe acute respiratory syndrome admitted between 17 March 2020 (first confirmed COVID-19 case) and 31 December 2020. OUTCOME MEASURE: COVID-19 survival rate in all patients and survival rate in potentially hospital-acquired COVID-19 (PHA) patients were modelled using a predictor set which include comorbidities (eg, obesity, diabetes, chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)), wave, age, sex and care home residency, and interventions (remdesivir, dexamethasone, CPAP, intensive care unit (ICU), intubation). Secondary outcome measure was CPAP length, which was modelled using the same predictors of the survival rate. RESULTS: Mortality rate in the second wave was significantly lower than in the first wave (43.4% vs 28.1%, p<0.001), although for PHA COVID-19 patients mortality did not reduce, remaining at very high levels independently of wave and CPAP length. For all cohort, statistical modelling identified CPAP length (HR 95% CI 0.86 to 0.96) and women (HR 95% CI 0.71 to 0.81) were associated with improved survival, while being older age (HR 95% CI 1.02 to 1.03) admitted from care homes (HR 95% CI 2.22 to 2.39), IHD (HR 95% CI 1.13 to 1.24), CKD (HR 95% CI 1.14 to 1.25), obesity (HR 95% CI 1.18 to 1.28) and COPD-emphysema (HR 95% CI 1.18 to 1.57) were associated with reduced survival. Despite the detrimental effect of comorbidities, patients with CKD (95% CI 16% to 30% improvement in survival), IHD (95% CI 1% to 10% improvement in survival) and asthma (95% CI 8% to 30% improvement in survival) benefitted most from CPAP length, while no significant survival difference was found for obese and patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The experience of an Acute Trust during the COVID-19 outbreak of 2020 is documented and indicates the importance of care home and hospitals in disease acquisition. Death rates fell between the first and second wave only for community-acquired COVID-19 patients. The fall was associated to CPAP length, especially for some comorbidities. While uncovering some risk and protective factors of mortality in COVID-19 studies, the study also unravels how little is known about PHA COVID-19 and the interaction between CPAP and some comorbidities.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Female , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , State Medicine , Comorbidity , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Hospitals , Obesity , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(1 Suppl 1): S1-S5, 2022 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129800
14.
Surg Endosc ; 36(12): 9123-9128, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128651

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The introduction of new technologies in endoscopy has been met with uncertainty, skepticism, and lack of standardization or training parameters, particularly when disruptive devices or techniques are involved. The widespread availability of a novel endoscopic suturing device (OverStitch™) for tissue apposition has enabled the development of applications of endoscopic suturing. METHODS: The American Gastroenterological Association partnered with Apollo Endosurgery to develop a registry to capture in a pragmatic non-randomized study the safety, effectiveness, and durability of endoscopic suturing in approximating tissue in the setting of bariatric revision and fixation of endoprosthetic devices. RESULTS: We highlight the challenges of the adoption of novel techniques by examining the process of developing and executing this multicenter registry to assess real-world use of this endoscopic suturing device. We also present our preliminary data on the safety and effectiveness of the novel device as it is applied in the treatment of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The Prospective Registry for Trans-Orifice Endoscopic Suturing Applications (ES Registry) was an effective Phase 4, postmarketing registry aimed at capturing pragmatic, real-world use of a novel device. These findings serve to solidify the role of endoscopic suturing in clinical practice.


Тема - темы
Suture Techniques , Sutures , Humans , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Obesity , Registries
15.
Metabolism ; 133: 155236, 2022 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131881

Реферат

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can cause multiple organ damages as well as metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and new onset of diabetes. The insulin/IGF signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating energy metabolism and cell survival, but little is known about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this work was to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs the insulin/IGF signaling pathway in the host cell/tissue, and if so, the potential mechanism and association with COVID-19 pathology. METHODS: To determine the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on insulin/IGF signaling pathway, we utilized transcriptome datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and tissues from public repositories for a wide range of high-throughput gene expression data: autopsy lungs from COVID-19 patients compared to the control from non-COVID-19 patients; lungs from a human ACE2 transgenic mouse infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared to the control infected with mock; human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived liver organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2; adipose tissues from a mouse model of COVID-19 overexpressing human ACE2 via adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) compared to the control GFP after SARS-CoV-2 infection; iPS-derived human pancreatic cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared to the mock control. Gain and loss of IRF1 function models were established in HEK293T and/or Calu3 cells to evaluate the impact on insulin signaling. To understand the mechanistic regulation and relevance with COVID-19 risk factors, such as older age, male sex, obesity, and diabetes, several transcriptomes of human respiratory, metabolic, and endocrine cells and tissue were analyzed. To estimate the association with COVID-19 severity, whole blood transcriptomes of critical patients with COVID-19 compared to those of hospitalized noncritical patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection impaired insulin/IGF signaling pathway genes, such as IRS, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and MAPK, in the host lung, liver, adipose tissue, and pancreatic cells. The impairments were attributed to interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), and its gene expression was highly relevant to risk factors for severe COVID-19; increased with aging in the lung, specifically in men; augmented by obese and diabetic conditions in liver, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets. IRF1 activation was significantly associated with the impaired insulin signaling in human cells. IRF1 intron variant rs17622656-A, which was previously reported to be associated with COVID-19 prevalence, increased the IRF1 gene expression in human tissue and was frequently found in American and European population. Critical patients with COVID-19 exhibited higher IRF1 and lower insulin/IGF signaling pathway genes in the whole blood compared to hospitalized noncritical patients. Hormonal interventions, such as dihydrotestosterone and dexamethasone, ameliorated the pathological traits in SARS-CoV-2 infectable cells and tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first scientific evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs the insulin/IGF signaling pathway in respiratory, metabolic, and endocrine cells and tissues. This feature likely contributes to COVID-19 severity with cell/tissue damage and metabolic abnormalities, which may be exacerbated in older, male, obese, or diabetic patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Insulin , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
16.
Lancet ; 399(10341): 2099, 2022 06 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114054
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18934, 2022 Nov 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113253

Реферат

Body mass index (BMI) distribution and its impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) vary between Asian and western populations. The study aimed to reveal time-related trends in the prevalence of obesity and underweight and safe ranges of BMI in Japanese patients with CVD. We analyzed 5,020,464 records from the national Japanese Registry of All Cardiac and Vascular Diseases-Diagnosis Procedure Combination dataset over time (2012-2019) and evaluated BMI trends and the impact on in-hospital mortality for six acute CVDs: acute heart failure (AHF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), acute aortic dissection (AAD), ischemic stroke (IS), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Patients were categorized into five groups using the WHO Asian-BMI criteria: underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), overweight at risk (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), obese I (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese II (≥ 30.0 kg/m2). Age was significantly and inversely related to high BMI for all diseases (P < 0.001). The proportion of BMI categories significantly altered over time; annual BMI trends showed a significant and gradual increase, except AAD. In adjusted mixed models, underweight was significantly associated with a high risk of in-hospital mortality in all CVD patients (AHF, OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.35-1.48, P < 0.001; AMI, OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20-1.35, P < 0.001; AAD, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16-1.32, P < 0.001; IS, OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.41-1.50, P < 0.001; ICH, OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.22, P < 0.001; SAH, OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.26, P < 0.001). Moreover, obese I and II groups were significantly associated with a higher incidence of in-hospital mortality, except AHF and IS. Age was associated with in-hospital mortality for all BMI categories in six CVD patients. BMI increased annually in patients with six types of CVDs. Although underweight BMI was associated with high mortality rates, the impact of obesity on in-hospital mortality differs among CVD types.


Тема - темы
Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Body Mass Index , Thinness/complications , Thinness/epidemiology , Thinness/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Heart Failure/epidemiology
18.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 9652940, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113176

Реферат

Introduction: New onset of diabetes mellitus was noted as the commonest comorbidity in the COVID-19 pandemic, which contributed to a worse prognosis. Existing evidence showed that new-onset diabetes is associated with increased mortality compared to nondiabetic and known diabetic patients in the COVID-19 era. SARS-CoV-2 virus can worsen existing diabetes; at the same time, it can trigger new-onset diabetes that eventually worsens patient outcomes. Thus, this study is aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with new onset of diabetes mellitus among COVID-19 patients. Methods: Institution-based retrospective cross-sectional study design was conducted by reviewing 244 patient's records in the Addis Ababa COVID-19 care center. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used. During bivariate analysis, variables with p ≤ 0.25 were transferred into multivariate analysis. Adjusted odds ratios to determine the strength and presence of the association with a 95% confidence interval and p value ≤ 0.05 were considered, respectively. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 53.2 years with (SD = 13.35). The study findings showed that 31.1% (CI: 25.4-37.4) of COVID-19 patients had new onset of diabetes mellitus; of those, 11.8% had type 1 and 88.2% had type 2 diabetes. Being male (aOR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 7.1), family history of hypertension (aOR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 10.5), obesity (aOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.01, 8.9), having pulmonary embolism (aOR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.04), and hyperkalemia (aOR = 9.3; 95% CI: 1.8, 47.3) showed statistically significant association with new onset of diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: A significant proportion of COVID-19 patients had been diagnosed with new onset of diabetes mellitus, and new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common diabetes mellitus type. Being male, obesity, having a pulmonary embolism, family history of hypertension, and hyperkalemia were independently associated with new onset of diabetes mellitus among COVID-19 patients. Therefore, focused interventions need to be strengthened towards the identified factors.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperkalemia , Hypertension , Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hyperkalemia/complications , Hyperkalemia/epidemiology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology
19.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277014, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119257

Реферат

Screening, prevention, and management of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, including obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes) is the core function of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO), a digital strategy developed by the Carlos Slim Foundation in Mexico. An extension of this strategy, MIDO COVID, was developed to address the need for an integrated plan in primary health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. MIDO COVID facilitates planning, surveillance, testing, and clinical management of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the major NCDs and their pre-disease states, to streamline the continuum of care. MIDO COVID screening was applied in 1063 Carso Group workplaces in 190 municipalities of the 32 Mexican states. Staff were trained to screen healthy workers for NCDs using a questionnaire, anthropomorphic measurements, and blood work; healthy individuals returning to work also received a SARS-CoV-2 antibody test. Between June 26 and December 31, 2020, 58,277 asymptomatic individuals underwent screening. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes was 32.1%, 25.7%, and 9.7% respectively. Only 2.2%, 8.8%, and 4.5% of individuals, respectively, were previously aware of their condition. Pre-obesity was identified in 38.6%, pre-hypertension in 17.4%, and prediabetes in 7.5% of the population. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was highest for individuals with multiple NCDs. Many Mexicans are unaware of their health status and potentially increased risk of COVID-19 and serious complications. As a universal strategy implemented regardless of social factors, MIDO COVID promotes equity in access to health care prevention and early stage detection of NCDs; the information gained may help inform decisionmakers regarding prioritising vulnerable populations for immunisation.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension , Humans , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Chronic Disease , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Obesity/epidemiology
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(11): 2109-2110, 2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118856

Тема - темы
Obesity , Humans
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