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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 953155, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199455

Реферат

Increases in anti-Asian COVID-19 related discriminatory behaviors have been observed, many of which targeted older adults. Studies demonstrate that racial discrimination is associated with worse health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, and sleep difficulties. No previous studies have examined the impact of day-to-day experiences of discrimination before and during COVID-19 on both Asian and non-Asian older adults within the same sample. We examined whether everyday discrimination was associated with increased anxiety and depression symptoms, decreased levels of functioning, and increased sleep difficulties among Asian and non-Asian US older adults before and during the pandemic. Data came from the Positive Minds-Strong Bodies randomized clinical trial, an evidence-based mental health and disability prevention intervention for racially and ethnically diverse older adults with elevated depression or anxiety symptoms and minor to moderate disability. We conducted secondary data analyses in a cohort of 165 older adults (56 Asian and 109 non-Asian) assessed before COVID-19 (May 2015-May 2018) and during COVID-19 (March 2021-July 2022). Regression models examined whether everyday discrimination impacted health outcomes differently before and during COVID-19, and whether this effect was stronger among Asian compared to non-Asian older adults. Non-Asian older adults reported the same levels of everyday discrimination before and during COVID-19. Consistent with literature suggesting that social distancing has inadvertently kept US Asian populations from experiencing discrimination, Asian older adults reported marginally lower levels of everyday discrimination during the pandemic compared with pre-pandemic. We found that everyday discrimination was not associated with health outcomes before COVID-19. In contrast, during the pandemic, everyday discrimination was associated with worse anxiety and depression symptoms and worse levels of functioning, although only the impact on depression was significantly stronger compared with before the pandemic. This negative impact of everyday discrimination on health outcomes during the pandemic appeared to affect both Asian and non-Asian older adults similarly. Social support and social cohesion buffered against the negative effect of everyday discrimination on depression and level of functioning during the pandemic. Results suggest that public health interventions aimed at reducing everyday discrimination and emphasizing social support and cohesion can potentially improve health outcomes for all US older adult populations. Clinical trial registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier: NCT02317432.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/psychology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1884-1894, 2021 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194255

Реферат

BACKGROUND: We described the demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and outcomes of patients with a history of cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Second, we compared patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using eight routinely collected health care databases from Spain and the United States, standardized to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model. Three cohorts of patients with a history of cancer were included: (i) diagnosed with COVID-19, (ii) hospitalized with COVID-19, and (iii) hospitalized with influenza in 2017 to 2018. Patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We reported demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes. RESULTS: We included 366,050 and 119,597 patients diagnosed and hospitalized with COVID-19, respectively. Prostate and breast cancers were the most frequent cancers (range: 5%-18% and 1%-14% in the diagnosed cohort, respectively). Hematologic malignancies were also frequent, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma being among the five most common cancer subtypes in the diagnosed cohort. Overall, patients were aged above 65 years and had multiple comorbidities. Occurrence of death ranged from 2% to 14% and from 6% to 26% in the diagnosed and hospitalized COVID-19 cohorts, respectively. Patients hospitalized with influenza (n = 67,743) had a similar distribution of cancer subtypes, sex, age, and comorbidities but lower occurrence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of cancer and COVID-19 had multiple comorbidities and a high occurrence of COVID-19-related events. Hematologic malignancies were frequent. IMPACT: This study provides epidemiologic characteristics that can inform clinical care and etiologic studies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1023462, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154851
5.
Explore (NY) ; 18(6): 688-697, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122470

Реферат

CONTEXT: Whole Health is an emerging healthcare framework that emphasizes wellbeing in place of illness. Conflict Analysis (CA), an online self-guided assessment, leverages innovative diagnostic and therapeutic resources that shares Whole Health objectives, including helping users explore their identity and develop a personalized health plan and helping users develop resources to optimize their health. OBJECTIVES: Paper presents CA implementation-effectiveness study in a Veteran Affairs inpatient substance recovery care. DESIGN: Patients were randomized to CA or mindfulness control. Patients completed Whole Health outcomes measures at baseline, completion (post), and three-week follow-up. Interventions took 2.5 h. Attending psychologist assessed CA protocols and completed outcome evaluation. Due to Coronavirus, recruitment and follow-up were curtailed. SETTING: Study took place in a rural northern New England Veteran Affairs inpatient substance recovery unit. OUTCOME MEASURES: Measures include The Personal Growth Initiative Scale, The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, The Patient Health Questionnaire, Perceived Psychological Wellbeing, and Perceived Therapeutic and Diagnostic Benefit. RESULTS: 12 patients were randomized, 11 completed post measures (CA=5; Mindfulness = 6), and 7 completed follow-up measures (CA=3; Mindfulness=4). CA offered significant Whole Health benefits when compared to control. Additionally, participant and clinician evaluations indicated that CA can be personally relevant, meaningful, and motivate therapeutic growth. Implications include extending CA research and expanding Whole Health related interventions. Although initial results suggest implementation feasibility and Whole Health benefit, more research is necessary to establish CA's utility within inpatient substance recovery care in particular and psychiatric rehabilitation in general.


Тема - темы
Mindfulness , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Inpatients , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Self Care , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116117

Реферат

This study investigated caregiving responsibilities and associated mental health outcomes in young adult carers during the COVID-19 pandemic and had three aims: (1) to investigate differences in caregiving responsibilities across two groups of young adult carers (parental illness context vs. ill non-parent family member context) relative to non-carers, (2) to identify COVID-19/lockdown correlates of caregiving responsibilities, and (3) to examine the longitudinal associations between caregiving responsibilities and mental health outcomes. Of the 1048 Italians aged 18-29 (Mage = 24.48, SDage = 2.80; 74.33% female) who consented to complete online surveys at Time 1, 813 reported no ill family member (non-carers). Young adult carers included 162 with an ill parent and 73 with an ill non-parent family member. The study included 3 time points: 740 participants completed Time 2 assessment (Mage = 24.35, SDage = 2.81; 76.76% female), while 279 completed Time 3 assessment (Mage = 24.78, SDage = 2.72; 79.93% female). Key variables measured were 13 COVID-19/lockdown factors at Times 1 and 2, caregiving responsibilities at Time 2, and mental health outcomes at Time 3 (fear of COVID-19, anxiety, depression, wellbeing). Two COVID-19/lockdown factors were significantly correlated with higher caregiving responsibilities: insufficient home space, and greater time spent working and learning from home. As predicted, young adult carers reported higher caregiving responsibilities than non-carers, and this effect was greater in young adults caring for an ill parent compared to young adults caring for an ill non-parent family member. As expected, irrespective of family health status, caregiving responsibilities were longitudinally related to poorer mental health outcomes, operationalised as higher fear of COVID-19, anxiety, and depression, and lower wellbeing. Elevated young adult caregiving is an emerging significant public health issue that should be addressed through a multipronged approach that includes education about young adult carer needs for personnel across all relevant sectors and flexible care plans for ill family members that include a 'whole family' biopsychosocial approach.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Young Adult , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
7.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(3)2022 06 29.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110941

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: We introduce the iDARE methodology and present the results of iDARE implementation in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. IDARE METHODOLOGY: iDARE drives locally led solutions that address barriers to achieving improved health outcomes. WI-HER supported the governments of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania, to design and implement solutions to improve (1) HIV health outcomes, (2) gender-based violence identification and response, and (3) mass drug administration coverage, respectively. RESULTS: In Uganda, the iDARE team at Nagongera Health Center IV increased viral load suppression (VLS) among actively enrolled men in care from 65% to 95% and increased VLS among actively enrolled children in care from 60% to 96% in 12 months. In 11 months, the Mulanda Health Center IV iDARE team increased VLS among actively enrolled men in care from 85% to 93% and actively enrolled children in care from 73% to 96%. In Kenya, 8 facility iDARE teams improved identification, management, and response for gender-based violence survivors by a monthly average of 642% in 10 months. Additionally, the identification, management, and response for male survivors of gender-based violence increased from an average of 8 to 188 men per month and from an average of 81 to 364 women per month. In Tanzania, the government applied iDARE to improve mass drug administration (MDA) access and uptake among school-age children. Eighteen percent of the children (equal male and female) had missed or refused treatment during school-based MDA. After 1 month of application of iDARE, the 4 schools achieved 99% MDA uptake among registered children (enrolled and nonenrolled). DISCUSSION: Due to the various lockdowns, restrictions, and safety implications during the COVID-19 pandemic, iDARE was used to rapidly adjust from planned in-person to sometimes virtual engagements. Despite these challenges, iDARE demonstrated improvements in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Female , Male , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology , Tanzania/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 491-498, 2020.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100770

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Individuals with certain pre-existing chronic health conditions have been identified as a high-risk group for fatalities of COVID-19. Therefore, it is likely that individuals with chronic diseases may worry during this pandemic to the detriment of their mental health. This study compares the mental health of Bangladeshi adults affected by chronic disease to a healthy, matched control group during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A matched case-control analysis was performed with data collected from 395 respondents with chronic diseases and 395 controls matched for age, gender, and residence. Inclusion criteria for cases were respondents who self-reported having asthma, cardiovascular disease symptoms and/or diabetes. Respondents were recruited using an online survey, which included the DASS-21 measure to assess symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Chi-square test, t-test, Fisher's exact test and a conditional logistic regression were performed to examine associations among variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and depression symptoms and the level of stress were significantly higher among cases (59%; 71.6%; 73.7%, respectively) than among controls (25.6%; 31.1%; 43.3%, respectively). Chi-square and t-test showed significant associations and differences between having chronic diseases and mental health outcomes. A conditional logistic regression showed that respondents with asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease symptoms, or any combination of these diseases had higher odds of exhibiting symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression than healthy individuals. CONCLUSION: These results underscore a subpopulation vulnerable to mental health consequences during this pandemic and indicate the need for additional mental health resources to be available to those with chronic diseases.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Depression , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604553, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089970

Реферат

Objective: To characterize the evolution of healthcare workers' mental health status over the 1-year period following the initial COVID-19 pandemic outbreak and to examine baseline characteristics associated with resolution or persistence of mental health problems over time. Methods: We conducted an 8-month follow-up cohort study. Eligible participants were healthcare workers working in Spain. Baseline data were collected during the initial pandemic outbreak. Survey-based self-reported measures included COVID-19-related exposures, sociodemographic characteristics, and three mental health outcomes (psychological distress, depression symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms). We examined three longitudinal trajectories in mental health outcomes between baseline and follow-up assessments (namely asymptomatic/stable, recovering, and persistently symptomatic/worsening). Results: We recruited 1,807 participants. Between baseline and follow-up assessments, the proportion of respondents screening positive for psychological distress and probable depression decreased, respectively, from 74% to 56% and from 28% to 21%. Two-thirds remained asymptomatic/stable in terms of depression symptoms and 56% remained symptomatic or worsened over time in terms of psychological distress. Conclusion: Poor mental health outcomes among healthcare workers persisted over time. Occupational programs and mental health strategies should be put in place.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Exp Gerontol ; 170: 111998, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086199

Реферат

PURPOSE: While the definitive diagnosis of COVID-19 relies on PCR confirmation of the virus, the sensitivity of this technique is limited. The clinicians had to go on with the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 in selected cases. We aimed to compare PCR-positive and PCR-negative patients diagnosed as COVID-19 with a specific focus on older adults. METHODS: We studied 601 hospitalized adults. The demographics, co-morbidities, triage clinical, laboratory characteristics, and outcomes were noted. Differences between the PCR (+) and (-) cases were analyzed. An additional specific analysis focusing on older adults (≥65 years) (n = 184) was performed. RESULTS: The PCR confirmation was present in 359 (59.7 %). There was not any difference in terms of age, sex, travel/contact history, hospitalization duration, ICU need, the time between first symptom/hospitalization to ICU need, ICU days, or survival between PCR-positive and negative cases in the total study group and older adults subgroup. The only symptoms that were different in prevalence between PCR-confirmed and unconfirmed cases were fever (73.3 % vs. 64 %, p = 0.02) and fatigue/myalgia (91.1 % vs. 79.3 %, p = 0.001). Bilateral diffuse pneumonia was also more prevalent in PCR-confirmed cases (20 % vs. 13.3 %, p = 0.03). In older adults, the PCR (-) cases had more prevalent dyspnea (72.2 % vs. 51.4 %, p = 0.004), less prevalent fatigue/myalgia (70.9 % vs. 88.6 %, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The PCR (+) and (-) cases displayed very similar disease phenotypes, courses, and outcomes with few differences between each other. The presence of some worse laboratory findings may indicate a worse immune protective response in PCR (-) cases.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Myalgia , Hospitalization , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Fatigue
11.
Value Health ; 25(9): 1469-1479, 2022 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084454

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to review definitions of digital health and understand their relevance for health outcomes research. Four umbrella terms (digital health, electronic health, mobile health, and telehealth/telemedicine) were summarized in this article. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and EconLit were searched from January 2015 to May 2020 for systematic reviews containing key Medical Subject Headings terms for digital health (n = 38) and synonyms of "definition." Independent pairs of reviewers performed each stage of the review, with reconciliation by a third reviewer if required. A single reviewer consolidated each definition for consistency. We performed text analysis via word clouds and computed document frequency-and inverse corpus frequency scores. RESULTS: The search retrieved 2610 records with 545 articles (20.9%) taken forward for full-text review. Of these, 39.3% (214 of 545) were eligible for data extraction, of which 134 full-text articles were retained for this analysis containing 142 unique definitions of umbrella terms (digital health [n = 4], electronic health [n = 36], mobile health [n = 50], and telehealth/telemedicine [n = 52]). Seminal definitions exist but have increasingly been adapted over time and new definitions were created. Nevertheless, the most characteristic words extracted from the definitions via the text analyses still showed considerable overlap between the 4 umbrella terms. CONCLUSIONS: To focus evidence summaries for outcomes research purposes, umbrella terms should be accompanied by Medical Subject Headings terms reflecting population, intervention, comparator, outcome, timing, and setting. Ultimately a functional classification system is needed to create standardized terminology for digital health interventions denoting the domains of patient-level effects and outcomes.


Тема - темы
Telemedicine , Text Messaging , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Public Opinion , Systematic Reviews as Topic
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 24.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082146

Реферат

This paper aims to understand the impact of COVID-19 on three mental health outcomes-anxiety, depression, and mental health service use. Specifically, whether the associations between social and economic variables and these outcomes are exacerbated or buffered among equity-seeking groups in Saskatchewan. We analyzed secondary datasets of Saskatchewan adults from population-based national surveys conducted by Mental Health Research Canada (MHRC) on three occasions: cycle 2 (August 2020), cycle 5 (February 2021), and cycle 7 (June 2021). We examined temporal changes in the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and service utilization. Using the responses from 577 respondents in cycle 5 dataset (as it coincides with the peak of 2nd wave), we performed multinomial logistic regression. The policy implications of the findings were explored empirically through a World Café approach with 30 service providers, service users and policy makers in the province. The prevalence of anxiety and depression remained steady but high. Mental health services were not accessed by many who need it. Participants reporting moderate or severe anxiety were more likely to be 30-49 years old, women, and immigrants who earned less than $20,000 annually. Immigrants with either college or technical education presented with a lesser risk of severe anxiety. Factors associated with moderate or severe depression were younger age (<50 years), low household income, as well as immigrants with lower levels of education. Racialized groups had a lower risk of severe depression if they were under 30 years. Students and retirees also had a lower risk of severe depression. Canadian-born residents were more likely to require mental health supports but were not accessing them, compared to immigrants. Our analysis suggests mental health outcomes and service utilization remain a problem in Saskatchewan, especially among equity-seeking groups. This study should help drive mental health service redesign towards a client-centred, integrated, and equity-driven system in Saskatchewan.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Saskatchewan/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Depression/epidemiology
14.
JAMA ; 328(8): 772-773, 2022 08 23.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041181
15.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05041, 2022 Sep 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040349

Реферат

Background: Several laboratory data have been identified as predictors of disease severity or mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, the relative strength of laboratory data for the prediction of health outcomes in COVID-19 patients has not been fully explored. This meta-analytical study aimed to evaluate the prediction capabilities of laboratory data on the prognosis of COVID-19 patients during 2020 while mass vaccination has not started yet. Methods: Two electronic databases, MEDLINE and EMBASE, from inception to October 10, 2020 were searched. Observational studies of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with well-defined severity or survival status, and with the desired laboratory data at initial hospital administrations, were selected. Meta-regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations (GEE) method for clustered data was performed sequentially. Primary outcome measures were to compare the level of laboratory data and their impact on different health outcomes (severe vs non-severe, critically severe vs non-critically severe, and dead vs alive). Results: Meta-data of 13 clinical laboratory items at initial hospital presentations were extracted from 76 selected studies with a total of 26 627 COVID-19 patients in 16 countries. After adjusting for the effect of age, 1.03 0.87 (OR = 0.0576; 95% CI = 0.0043-0.4726; P = 0.0079) had a much lower risk of severity, critical severity, and mortality from COVID-19, respectively. Conclusions: Lymphocyte count was the most powerful predictor among the 13 common laboratory variables explored from COVID-19 patients to differentiate disease severity and to predict mortality. Lymphocyte count should be monitored for the prognoses of COVID-19 patients in clinical settings in particular for patients not fully vaccinated.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Mass Vaccination , Humans , Infant , Lymphocyte Count , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Severity of Illness Index
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2231790, 2022 09 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027281

Реферат

Importance: Relatively little is known about the persistence of symptoms in patients with COVID-19 for more than 1 year after their acute illness. Objective: To assess the health outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 survivors over 2 years and to identify factors associated with increased risk of persistent symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a longitudinal cohort study of patients who survived COVID-19 at 2 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 12 to April 10, 2020. All patients were interviewed via telephone at 1 year and 2 years after discharge. The 2-year follow-up study was conducted from March 1 to April 6, 2022. Statistical analysis was conducted from April 20 to May 5, 2022. The severity of disease was defined by World Health Organization guideline for COVID-19. Exposures: COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was symptom changes over 2 years after hospital discharge. All patients completed a symptom questionnaire for evaluation of symptoms, along with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test (CAT) at 1-year and 2-year follow-up visits. Results: Of 3988 COVID-19 survivors, a total of 1864 patients (median [IQR] age, 58.5 [49.0-68.0] years; 926 male patients [49.7%]) were available for both 1-year and 2-year follow-up visits. The median (IQR) time from discharge to follow-up at 2 years was 730 (719-743) days. At 2 years after hospital discharge, 370 patients (19.8%) still had symptoms, including 224 (12.0%) with persisting symptoms and 146 (7.8%) with new-onset or worsening of symptoms. The most common symptoms were fatigue, chest tightness, anxiety, dyspnea, and myalgia. Most symptoms resolved over time, but the incidence of dyspnea showed no significant change (1-year vs 2-year, 2.6% [49 patients] vs 2.0% [37 patients]). A total of 116 patients (6.2%) had CAT total scores of at least 10 at 2 years after discharge. Patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit had higher risks of persistent symptoms (odds ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.02-7.06; P = .04) and CAT scores of 10 or higher (odds ratio, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.21-6.66; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, 2 years after hospital discharge, COVID-19 survivors had a progressive decrease in their symptom burden, but those with severe disease during hospitalization, especially those who required intensive care unit admission, had higher risks of persistent symptoms. These results are related to the original strain of the virus, and their relevance to infections with the Omicron variant is not known.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 953743, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022977

Реферат

Delay discounting refers to the observation that the subjective value of an outcome decreases as the delay to its receipt increases. It is well-established that steep delay discounting is related to various maladaptive behaviors, including poorer health-related choices. One of the current challenges of public health policies that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic is to encourage preventive behaviors against infectious diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore possible underpinnings of adherence to COVID-19 related public health policy guidelines such as disinfection, distancing, and masks (DDM). Participants completed monetary and health discounting tasks across two outcome amounts in gain and loss conditions, and they provided self-report measures of adherence to the DDM policy. Contrary to the theoretically plausible prediction that higher discounting rates would be negatively associated with adherence to health-related public policy guidelines, we found no compelling evidence to support such statement. We discuss the potential weaknesses of declarative measurements of attitudes toward COVID-19 and consider using behavioral interventions for influencing discounting rates for complementing and enhancing current policy guidelines.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Delay Discounting , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Public Policy , Reward
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 710, 2022 08 27.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021245

Реферат

BACKGROUND: People living in care homes have experienced devastating impact from COVID-19. As interventions to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 are developed and evaluated, there is an urgent need for researchers to agree on the outcomes used when evaluating their effectiveness. Having an agreed set of outcomes that are used in all relevant trials can ensure that study results can be compared. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop a core outcome set (COS) for trials assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for preventing COVID-19 infection and transmission in care homes. METHODS: The study used established COS methodology. A list of candidate outcomes was identified by reviewing registered trials to evaluate interventions to prevent COVID-19 in care homes. Seventy key stakeholders participated in a Delphi survey, rating the candidate outcomes on a nine-point scale over two rounds, with the opportunity to propose additional outcomes. Stakeholders included care home representatives (n = 19), healthcare professionals (n = 20), people with personal experience of care homes (n = 7), researchers (n = 15) and others (n = 9). Outcomes were eligible for inclusion if they met an a priori threshold. A consensus meeting with stakeholders resulted in agreement of the final outcome set. RESULTS: Following the Delphi and consensus meeting, twenty-four outcomes were recommended for inclusion. These are grouped across four domains of infection, severity of illness, mortality, and 'other' (intervention specific or life impact). Due to the considerable heterogeneity between care homes, residents, and interventions, the relevance and importance of outcomes may differ between trial contexts. Intervention-specific outcomes would be included only where relevant to a given trial, thus reducing the measurement burden. CONCLUSION: Using a rapid response approach, a COS for COVID-19 prevention interventions in care homes has been developed. Future work should focus on identifying instruments for measuring these outcomes, and the interpretation and application of the COS across different trial contexts. Beyond COVID-19, the outcomes identified in this COS may have relevance to other infectious diseases in care homes, and the rapid response approach may be useful as preparation for future pandemics.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Delphi Technique , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Research Design , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 26(4): 328-338, 2022 Oct 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018304

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to identify a list of clinician-reported outcome measures (CROMs) and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) through a review of published studies reporting on any therapeutic interventions for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of published studies reporting on any therapeutic interventions for VIN was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database, PsychInfo, and CINAHL from inception to September 20, 2021, based on predetermined study selection criteria. Data were extracted and analyzed by 2 authors independently using Covidence software. RESULTS: Thirty two of 2386 studies identified met study selection criteria. None of the 32 studies provided an explicit definition of VIN treatment "success." The most common CROM was "clinical response to treatment." The most common scale used to measure this outcome was "complete response/partial response/no response"; however, 17 of 23 studies (73.9%) did not define these values. Laboratory CROMs were reported in 12/32 (37.5%) studies. Patient-reported outcome measures were reported in only 10 of 32 studies(31.3%) -the most common PROM was "symptoms." Only 2 of 32 studies measured PROMs related to "quality of life" domains. Adverse events/treatment-related adverse effects were reported in 24 of 32 studies (75%), although 71% of studies provided no details on how these data were collected. CONCLUSIONS: There is a large variation in outcome measures, instruments, and scales used for any clinician-reported treatment outcome such as "clinical response." Most studies do not include patient-reported outcome measures assessing quality of life domains. A Core Outcome Set for the treatment of VIN is needed to improve the quality of VIN research.


Тема - темы
Carcinoma in Situ , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions , Vulvar Neoplasms , Carcinoma in Situ/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Treatment Outcome , Vulvar Neoplasms/drug therapy
20.
Int J Health Geogr ; 21(1): 9, 2022 08 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002185

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Studies investigating associations between natural environments and health outcomes or health behaviors in children and adolescents yielded heterogenous results to date. This may be the result of different geospatial configurations of the natural environment and confounding characteristics of the study population. Thus, we investigated how the relationship between the natural environment and mental health, muscular fitness, and physical activity varies depending on the geospatial configuration of nature and children's and adolescents' characteristics. METHODS: Data were derived from the German Motorik-Modul (MoMo) cohort study (2018-2020) that investigates physical activity, muscular fitness, and health parameters in a national sample of children and adolescents (N = 2843) between four and 17 years (Mage = 10.46 ± 3.49 years; 48.3% girls). Mental health was assessed via questionnaire, muscular fitness via standing long jump, and physical activity with 7-day accelerometer measurement. Using geographic information systems, land cover, and land use data, three different nature definitions were applied. Both circular buffers (100-1000 m) and street-network buffers (1000-5000 m) were created for each of the nature definitions. Associations were explored with linear regression models, and interaction analysis was used to investigate how those relationships vary by gender, age, and socio-economic status. RESULTS: The relationship between the three outcomes and the natural environment varied considerably depending on the nature definition, buffer size, and buffer type, as well as socio-demographic characteristics. Specifically, when comparing youth with a high socio-economic status to those with a medium socio-economic status, smaller circular buffer distances were related to less physical activity, but larger street-network buffer distances were related to greater mental health problems. Distinct relationships also occurred for youth with low socio-economic status in those relationships, with the pattern being less clear. CONCLUSIONS: For future health research studies that investigate the role of the natural environment, we argue for the development of an a-priori model that integrates both geospatial considerations (nature definition, buffer type, and buffer size) and conceptual considerations (health outcome/behavior, sample characteristics) based on potentially underlying mechanisms that link the natural environment and the health outcome or behavior under investigation to theoretically underpin the geospatial configuration of the natural environment.


Тема - темы
Environment , Exercise , Adolescent , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
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