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1.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(9): 3113-3123, 2022 Sep 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205791

Реферат

BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to synthesize a new complex of Fe(II) with isoleucine dithiocarbamate ligand and to determine its potential as an anticancer and antiviral agent for SARSCOV-2. METHODS: The synthesized complexes were then characterized by UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopy and their melting points. The value of the conductivity of the complex compound is also determined. Anti-cancer activity was tested in vitro and molecular docking. Its potential as an antiviral against SARSCOV-2 was also carried out by molecular docking. Pharmacokinetics/ADMET properties were also carried out on the complex. RESULT: Spectral results showed the successful synthesis of Fe(II) isoleucine dithiocarbamate complex. The complex produced UV-vis spectra at 268 and 575 nm, and the IR data at 399-599 cm-1 showed the coordination between the Fe(II) atoms with sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen of the isoleucine dithiocarbamate ligand. Fe(II) isoleucine dithiocarbamate had a cytotoxicity effect on the MCF-7 cell line (IC50 =613 µg/mL). The complex significantly caused morphological changes in the breast cancer cell line, finally leading to cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Cytotoxic test of Fe(II) isoleucine dithiocarbamate showed moderate anticancer activity on MCF-7 cancer cells and showed antiviral activity against SARSCOV-2 by interfering with spike glycoprotein -ACE2 receptors, and inhibiting major proteases and 3Clpro.


Тема - темы
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Coordination Complexes , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Ferrous Compounds , Humans , Isoleucine , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitrogen , Oxygen , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Sulfur
2.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 136-147, 2022 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201741

Реферат

Background & objectives: The COVID-19 disease profile in Indian patients has been found to be different from the Western world. Changes in lymphocyte compartment have been correlated with disease course, illness severity and clinical outcome. This study was aimed to assess the peripheral lymphocyte phenotype and subset distribution in patients with COVID-19 disease from India with differential clinical manifestations. Methods: Percentages of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry in hospitalized asymptomatic (n=53), mild symptomatic (n=36), moderate and severe (n=30) patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, recovered individuals (n=40) and uninfected controls (n=56) from Pune, Maharashtra, India. Results: Percentages of CD4+Th cells were significantly high in asymptomatic, mild symptomatic, moderate and severe patients and recovered individuals compared to controls. Percentages of Th memory (CD3+CD4+CD45RO+), Tc memory (CD3+CD8+CD45RO+) and B memory (CD19+CD27+) cells were significantly higher in the recovered group compared to both asymptomatic, mild symptomatic patient and uninfected control groups. NK cell (CD56+CD3-) percentages were comparable among moderate +severe patient and uninfected control groups. Interpretation & conclusions: The observed lower CD4+Th cells in moderate+severe group requiring oxygen support compared to asymptomatic+mild symptomatic group not requiring oxygen support could be indicative of poor prognosis. Higher Th memory, Tc memory and B memory cells in the recovered group compared to mild symptomatic patient groups might be markers of recovery from mild infection; however, it remains to be established if the persistence of any of these cells could be considered as a correlate of protection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , India/epidemiology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 985472, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198862

Реферат

Introduction: Neuroendocrine cells release Catestatin (CST) from Chromogranin A (CgA) to regulate stress responses. As regards COVID-19 patients (COVID+) requiring oxygen supply, to date nobody has studied CST as a potential mediator in the regulation of immunity. Patients & Methods: Admission plasma CST and CgA - its precursor - concentrations were measured (ELISA test) in 73 COVID+ and 27 controls. Relationships with demographics, comorbidities, disease severity and outcomes were analysed (Mann-Whitney, Spearman correlation tests, ROC curves). Results: Among COVID+, 49 required ICU-admission (COVID+ICU+) and 24 standard hospitalization (COVID+ICU-). Controls were either healthy staff (COVID-ICU-, n=11) or COVID-ICU+ patients (n=16). Median plasma CST were higher in COVID+ than in controls (1.6 [1.02; 3.79] vs 0.87 [0.59; 2.21] ng/mL, p<0.03), with no difference between COVID+ and COVID-ICU+. There was no difference between groups in either CgA or CST/CgA ratios, but these parameters were lower in healthy controls (p<0.01). CST did not correlate with either hypoxia- or usual inflammation-related parameters. In-hospital mortality was similar whether COVID+ or not, but COVID+ had longer oxygen support and more complications (p<0.03). CST concentrations and the CST/CgA ratio were associated with in-hospital mortality (p<0.01) in COVID+, whereas CgA was not. CgA correlated with care-related infections (p<0.001). Conclusion: Respiratory COVID patients release significant amounts of CST in the plasma making this protein widely available for the neural regulation of immunity. If confirmed prospectively, plasma CST will reliably help in predicting in-hospital mortality, whereas CgA will facilitate the detection of patients prone to care-related infections.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Chromogranin A , Humans , Morbidity , Oxygen , Peptide Fragments
4.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 6: e2100177, 2022 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196620

Реферат

PURPOSE: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease, but have heterogeneous presentations and outcomes. Decision-making tools for hospital admission, severity prediction, and increased monitoring for early intervention are critical. We sought to identify features of COVID-19 disease in patients with cancer predicting severe disease and build a decision support online tool, COVID-19 Risk in Oncology Evaluation Tool (CORONET). METHODS: Patients with active cancer (stage I-IV) and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 disease presenting to hospitals worldwide were included. Discharge (within 24 hours), admission (≥ 24 hours inpatient), oxygen (O2) requirement, and death were combined in a 0-3 point severity scale. Association of features with outcomes were investigated using Lasso regression and Random Forest combined with Shapley Additive Explanations. The CORONET model was then examined in the entire cohort to build an online CORONET decision support tool. Admission and severe disease thresholds were established through pragmatically defined cost functions. Finally, the CORONET model was validated on an external cohort. RESULTS: The model development data set comprised 920 patients, with median age 70 (range 5-99) years, 56% males, 44% females, and 81% solid versus 19% hematologic cancers. In derivation, Random Forest demonstrated superior performance over Lasso with lower mean squared error (0.801 v 0.807) and was selected for development. During validation (n = 282 patients), the performance of CORONET varied depending on the country cohort. CORONET cutoffs for admission and mortality of 1.0 and 2.3 were established. The CORONET decision support tool recommended admission for 95% of patients eventually requiring oxygen and 97% of those who died (94% and 98% in validation, respectively). The specificity for mortality prediction was 92% and 83% in derivation and validation, respectively. Shapley Additive Explanations revealed that National Early Warning Score 2, C-reactive protein, and albumin were the most important features contributing to COVID-19 severity prediction in patients with cancer at time of hospital presentation. CONCLUSION: CORONET, a decision support tool validated in health care systems worldwide, can aid admission decisions and predict COVID-19 severity in patients with cancer.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD015209, 2022 06 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172307

Реферат

BACKGROUND: With potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors represent a potential treatment for symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. They may modulate the exuberant immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, a direct antiviral effect has been described. An understanding of the current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of JAK inhibitors as a treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is required. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of systemic JAK inhibitors plus standard of care compared to standard of care alone (plus/minus placebo) on clinical outcomes in individuals (outpatient or in-hospital) with any severity of COVID-19, and to maintain the currency of the evidence using a living systematic review approach. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register (comprising MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, medRxiv, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Web of Science, WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease, and the US Department of Veterans Affairs Evidence Synthesis Program (VA ESP) Covid-19 Evidence Reviews to identify studies up to February 2022. We monitor newly published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) weekly using the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, and have incorporated all new trials from this source until the first week of April 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs that compared systemic JAK inhibitors plus standard of care to standard of care alone (plus/minus placebo) for the treatment of individuals with COVID-19. We used the WHO definitions of illness severity for COVID-19. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We assessed risk of bias of primary outcomes using Cochrane's Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. We used GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence for the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality (up to day 28), all-cause mortality (up to day 60), improvement in clinical status: alive and without need for in-hospital medical care (up to day 28), worsening of clinical status: new need for invasive mechanical ventilation or death (up to day 28), adverse events (any grade), serious adverse events, secondary infections. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs with 11,145 participants investigating systemic JAK inhibitors plus standard of care compared to standard of care alone (plus/minus placebo). Standard of care followed local protocols and included the application of glucocorticoids (five studies reported their use in a range of 70% to 95% of their participants; one study restricted glucocorticoid use to non-COVID-19 specific indications), antibiotic agents, anticoagulants, and antiviral agents, as well as non-pharmaceutical procedures. At study entry, about 65% of participants required low-flow oxygen, about 23% required high-flow oxygen or non-invasive ventilation, about 8% did not need any respiratory support, and only about 4% were intubated. We also identified 13 ongoing studies, and 9 studies that are completed or terminated and where classification is pending. Individuals with moderate to severe disease Four studies investigated the single agent baricitinib (10,815 participants), one tofacitinib (289 participants), and one ruxolitinib (41 participants). Systemic JAK inhibitors probably decrease all-cause mortality at up to day 28 (95 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 131 of 1000 participants in the control group; risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.91; 6 studies, 11,145 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and decrease all-cause mortality at up to day 60 (125 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 181 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.86; 2 studies, 1626 participants; high-certainty evidence). Systemic JAK inhibitors probably make little or no difference in improvement in clinical status (discharged alive or hospitalised, but no longer requiring ongoing medical care) (801 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 778 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06; 4 studies, 10,802 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). They probably decrease the risk of worsening of clinical status (new need for invasive mechanical ventilation or death at day 28) (154 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 172 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98; 2 studies, 9417 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Systemic JAK inhibitors probably make little or no difference in the rate of adverse events (any grade) (427 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 441 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.08; 3 studies, 1885 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and probably decrease the occurrence of serious adverse events (160 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 202 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92; 4 studies, 2901 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). JAK inhibitors may make little or no difference to the rate of secondary infection (111 of 1000 participants in the intervention group versus 113 of 1000 participants in the control group; RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.09; 4 studies, 10,041 participants; low-certainty evidence). Subgroup analysis by severity of COVID-19 disease or type of JAK inhibitor did not identify specific subgroups which benefit more or less from systemic JAK inhibitors. Individuals with asymptomatic or mild disease We did not identify any trial for this population. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised individuals with moderate to severe COVID-19, moderate-certainty evidence shows that systemic JAK inhibitors probably decrease all-cause mortality. Baricitinib was the most often evaluated JAK inhibitor. Moderate-certainty evidence suggests that they probably make little or no difference in improvement in clinical status. Moderate-certainty evidence indicates that systemic JAK inhibitors probably decrease the risk of worsening of clinical status and make little or no difference in the rate of adverse events of any grade, whilst they probably decrease the occurrence of serious adverse events. Based on low-certainty evidence, JAK inhibitors may make little or no difference in the rate of secondary infection. Subgroup analysis by severity of COVID-19 or type of agent failed to identify specific subgroups which benefit more or less from systemic JAK inhibitors. Currently, there is no evidence on the efficacy and safety of systemic JAK inhibitors for individuals with asymptomatic or mild disease (non-hospitalised individuals).


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
6.
Lancet ; 399(10339): 1941-1953, 2022 05 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159958

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The Solidarity trial among COVID-19 inpatients has previously reported interim mortality analyses for four repurposed antiviral drugs. Lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, and interferon (IFN)-ß1a were discontinued for futility but randomisation to remdesivir continued. Here, we report the final results of Solidarity and meta-analyses of mortality in all relevant trials to date. METHODS: Solidarity enrolled consenting adults (aged ≥18 years) recently hospitalised with, in the view of their doctor, definite COVID-19 and no contraindication to any of the study drugs, regardless of any other patient characteristics. Participants were randomly allocated, in equal proportions between the locally available options, to receive whichever of the four study drugs (lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, IFN-ß1a, or remdesivir) were locally available at that time or no study drug (controls). All patients also received the local standard of care. No placebos were given. The protocol-specified primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, subdivided by disease severity. Secondary endpoints were progression to ventilation if not already ventilated, and time-to-discharge from hospital. Final log-rank and Kaplan-Meier analyses are presented for remdesivir, and are appended for all four study drugs. Meta-analyses give weighted averages of the mortality findings in this and all other randomised trials of these drugs among hospital inpatients. Solidarity is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN83971151, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04315948. FINDINGS: Between March 22, 2020, and Jan 29, 2021, 14 304 potentially eligible patients were recruited from 454 hospitals in 35 countries in all six WHO regions. After the exclusion of 83 (0·6%) patients with a refuted COVID-19 diagnosis or encrypted consent not entered into the database, Solidarity enrolled 14 221 patients, including 8275 randomly allocated (1:1) either to remdesivir (ten daily infusions, unless discharged earlier) or to its control (allocated no study drug although remdesivir was locally available). Compliance was high in both groups. Overall, 602 (14·5%) of 4146 patients assigned to remdesivir died versus 643 (15·6%) of 4129 assigned to control (mortality rate ratio [RR] 0·91 [95% CI 0·82-1·02], p=0·12). Of those already ventilated, 151 (42·1%) of 359 assigned to remdesivir died versus 134 (38·6%) of 347 assigned to control (RR 1·13 [0·89-1·42], p=0·32). Of those not ventilated but on oxygen, 14·6% assigned to remdesivir died versus 16·3% assigned to control (RR 0·87 [0·76-0·99], p=0·03). Of 1730 not on oxygen initially, 2·9% assigned to remdesivir died versus 3·8% assigned to control (RR 0·76 [0·46-1·28], p=0·30). Combining all those not ventilated initially, 11·9% assigned to remdesivir died versus 13·5% assigned to control (RR 0·86 [0·76-0·98], p=0·02) and 14·1% versus 15·7% progressed to ventilation (RR 0·88 [0·77-1·00], p=0·04). The non-prespecified composite outcome of death or progression to ventilation occurred in 19·6% assigned to remdesivir versus 22·5% assigned to control (RR 0·84 [0·75-0·93], p=0·001). Allocation to daily remdesivir infusions (vs open-label control) delayed discharge by about 1 day during the 10-day treatment period. A meta-analysis of mortality in all randomised trials of remdesivir versus no remdesivir yielded similar findings. INTERPRETATION: Remdesivir has no significant effect on patients with COVID-19 who are already being ventilated. Among other hospitalised patients, it has a small effect against death or progression to ventilation (or both). FUNDING: WHO.


Тема - темы
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
7.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 660-666, 2022 Dec 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152245

Реферат

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the clinical problem and noninvasive treatments of hypoxemia in critically-ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and describe recent advances in evidence supporting bedside decision making. RECENT FINDINGS: High-flow nasal oxygen and noninvasive ventilation, along with awake prone positioning are potentially helpful therapies for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. High-flow nasal oxygen therapy has been widely implemented as a form of oxygen support supported by prepandemic randomized controlled trials showing possible benefit over noninvasive ventilation. Given the sheer volume of patients, noninvasive ventilation was often required, and based on a well conducted randomized controlled trial there was a developing role for helmet-interface noninvasive. Coupled with noninvasive supports, the use of awake prone positioning demonstrated physiological benefits, but randomized controlled trial data did not demonstrate clear outcome superiority. SUMMARY: The use of noninvasive oxygen strategies and our understanding of the proposed mechanisms are evolving. Variability in patient severity and physiology may dictate a personalized approach to care. High-flow nasal oxygen may be paired with awake and spontaneously breathing prone-positioning to optimize oxygen and lung mechanics but requires further insight before widely applying to clinical practice.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Critical Care , Lung , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278213, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140694

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the epidemiology and risk factors surrounding COVID-19 contributes to developing better health strategies to combat the disease. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish a survival analysis and identify the risk factors for patients with COVID-19 in an upper middle-income city in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 280 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The eCOVID platform provided data to monitor COVID-19 cases and help the communication between professionals. RESULTS: Age ≥ 65 years was associated with decreased survival (54.8%), and females had a lower survival rate than males (p = 0.01). Regarding risk factors, urea concentration (p<0.001), hospital length of stay (p = 0.002), oxygen concentration (p = 0.005), and age (p = 0.02) were associated with death. CONCLUSION: Age, hospital length of stay, high blood urea concentration, and low oxygen concentration were associated with death by COVID-19 in the studied population. These findings corroborate with studies conducted in research centers worldwide.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Female , Male , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Oxygen
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278145, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140687

Реферат

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly contagious pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly and remains a challenge to global public health. COVID-19 patients manifest various symptoms from mild to severe cases with poor clinical outcomes. Prognostic values of novel markers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and C-reactive protein to lymphocyte ratio (CLR) calculated from routine laboratory parameters have recently been reported to predict severe cases; however, whether this investigation can guide oxygen therapy in COVID-19 patients remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the ability of these markers in screening and predicting types of oxygen therapy in COVID-19 patients. The retrospective data of 474 COVID-19 patients were categorized into mild and severe cases and grouped according to the types of oxygen therapy requirement, including noninvasive oxygen support, high-flow nasal cannula and invasive mechanical ventilator. Among the novel markers, the ROC curve analysis indicated a screening cutoff of CRP ≥ 30.0 mg/L, NLR ≥ 3.0 and CLR ≥ 25 in predicting the requirement of any type of oxygen support. The NLR and CLR with increasing cut-off values have discriminative power with high accuracy and specificity for more effective oxygen therapy with a high-flow nasal cannula (NLR ≥ 6.0 and CLR ≥ 60) and mechanical ventilator (NLR ≥ 8.0 and CLR ≥ 80). Our study thus identifies potential markers to differentiate the suitable management of oxygen therapy in COVID-19 patients at an earlier time for improving disease outcomes with limited respiratory support resources.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 384, 2022 Apr 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139166

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Research on the association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with prognosis in COVID-19 has been limited. We investigated the association between the fatty liver index (FLI), a non-invasive and simple marker of NAFLD, and the severe complications of COVID-19 patients in South Korea. METHODS: We included 3122 COVID-19-positive patients from the nationwide COVID-19 cohort dataset in South Korea between January and June 2020. The FLI was calculated using triglyceride, body mass index, glutamyl transpeptidase, and waist circumference, which were obtained from the national health screening program data. Severe complications related to COVID-19 were defined as the composite of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit treatment, high-oxygen flow therapy, and death within 2 months after a COVID-19 infection. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis for the development of severe complications in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of FLI were 25.01 ± 22.64. Severe complications from COVID-19 occurred in 223 (7.14%) patients, including mechanical ventilation in 82 (2.63%) patients, ICU admission in 126 (4.04%), high-flow oxygen therapy in 75 (2.40%), and death in 94 (3.01%) patients, respectively. The multivariate analysis indicated that the highest tertile (T3) of FLI was positively associated with severe complications from COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.11-2.82), P = 0.017) compared with the lowest tertile (T1). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that FLI, which represents NAFLD, was positively associated with an increased risk of severe complications from COVID-19. FLI might be used as a prognostic marker for the severity of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062724, 2022 11 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137739

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical severity and outcome of hospitalised patients during the two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in India. SETTING: A tertiary care referral hospital in South India. PARTICIPANTS: Symptomatic SARS CoV-2 reverse transcriptase PCR positive patients presenting to the emergency department during the two waves were recruited. The first wave spanned between April and December 2020 and the second wave between April and May 2021. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome of interest was mortality. Secondary outcomes included illness severity at presentation, need for oxygen therapy, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and hospital or intensive care unit admission. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of the 4971 hospitalised patients in the first wave was similar to the 2293 patients in the second wave (52.5±15.4 vs 52.1±15.1 years, p=0.37). When compared with the first wave, during the second wave, a higher proportion of patients presented with critical illness (11% vs 1.1%, p<0.001) and needed supplemental oxygen therapy (n=2092: 42.1% vs n=1459: 63.6%; p<0.001), NIV (n=643; 12.9% vs n=709; 30.9%; p<0.001) or inotropes/vasoactive drugs (n=108; 2.2% vs n=77: 3.4%; p=0.004). Mortality was higher during the second wave (19.2% vs 9.3%; p<0.001). On multivariable regression analysis, age >60 years (risk ratio, RR 2.80; 95% CI 2.12 to 3.70), D-dimer >1000 ng/mL (RR 1.34; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.55), treatment with supplemental oxygen (RR 14.6; 95% CI 8.98 to 23.6) and presentation during the second wave (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.62) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India appeared to be associated with more severe presentation and higher mortality when compared with the first wave. Increasing age, elevated D-dimer levels and treatment with supplemental oxygen were independent predictors of mortality.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Oxygen
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(11): e1551-e1552, 2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132833

Тема - темы
Global Health , Oxygen , Humans
13.
Pulmonology ; 28(6): 484-486, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132182
14.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (11): 73-76, 2022.
Статья в Русский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145656

Реферат

The authors present a patient with COVID-19 and spontaneous idiopathic pneumoperitoneum. A 77-year-old man suffering from coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and cognitive disorders was diagnosed with bilateral pneumonia and COVID-19. Oxygen support through a face mask was prescribed. After 21 days, oxygen saturation decrease and mild abdominal symptoms required CT-based examination. Pneumoperitoneum without pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum was revealed. Explorative laparotomy found no abdominal diseases. According to the literature, spontaneous pneumoperitoneum in patients with COVID-19 is usually associated with high pressure oxygen therapy, but not always associated with intrathoracic complications. Conservative treatment may be appropriate in patients with spontaneous pneumoperitoneum, but any unclear findings can require surgery.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pneumoperitoneum , Humans , Male , Aged , Pneumoperitoneum/diagnosis , Pneumoperitoneum/etiology , Pneumoperitoneum/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Abdomen/surgery , Laparotomy/adverse effects , Oxygen
15.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 20(10): 908-916, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144914

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: Evidence on living donor kidney transplant procedures when both the donor and recipient have had a history of COVID-19 infection is scarce. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively explored the protocol, outcomes, and follow-up of 64 donors and recipients of living donor kidney transplant who had recovered from COVID-19. This was a multicenter (n = 12) study from India that included transplants between October 29, 2020, and December 1, 2021. Induction and immunosuppression regimens forthose with different severities of COVID-19 were similar to standard practice. RESULTS: COVID-19 clinical severity ranged from asymptomatic/mild (not requiring oxygen therapy) in 49 recipients (77%) and 63 donors (95.4%) and moderate/severe (requiring oxygen therapy) in 15 recipients (23%) and 1 donor (4.6%). Mean wait time±SEM (SD)from firstdocumentednegative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testto surgery for recipients and donors was 90.9 ± 9.27 (74.1) and 47 ± 4.5 (29.2) days, respectively. Six episodes (9.3%) of biopsy-proven acute rejection were reported at follow-up of 214 ± 14.8 (119) days and median of 227 (interquartile range, 109-309) days. The locally weighted scatter plot smoothing curve for creatinine during follow-up in donor-recipients pairs showed no trends of increased creatinine in the context of wait time from COVID-19 to transplant surgery. No graft loss, death, reactivation/reinfection, and complications related to surgery or COVID-19 were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Our report showed excellent outcomes and follow-up data of living donor kidney transplant in recovered donor-recipient pairs with the standard immunosuppression protocol. To our knowledge, this is the first and the largest study of donor-recipient living donor kidney transplant pairs when both donors and recipients had prior COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Living Donors , Graft Survival , Retrospective Studies , Creatinine , Treatment Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Oxygen
16.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(7): 865-875, 2022 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117574

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible and escapes vaccine-induced immunity. We aimed to describe outcomes due to COVID-19 during the omicron outbreak compared with the prevaccination period and alpha (B.1.1.7) and delta (B.1.617.2) waves in patients with cancer in Europe. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of the multicentre OnCovid Registry study, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, who had a history of solid or haematological malignancy that was either active or in remission. Patient were recruited from 37 oncology centres from UK, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, and Germany. Participants were followed up from COVID-19 diagnosis until death or loss to follow-up, while being treated as per standard of care. For this analysis, we excluded data from centres that did not actively enter new data after March 1, 2021 (in France, Germany, and Belgium). We compared measures of COVID-19 morbidity, which were complications from COVID-19, hospitalisation due to COVID-19, and requirement of supplemental oxygen and COVID-19-specific therapies, and COVID-19 mortality across three time periods designated as the prevaccination (Feb 27 to Nov 30, 2020), alpha-delta (Dec 1, 2020, to Dec 14, 2021), and omicron (Dec 15, 2021, to Jan 31, 2022) phases. We assessed all-cause case-fatality rates at 14 days and 28 days after diagnosis of COVID-19 overall and in unvaccinated and fully vaccinated patients and in those who received a booster dose, after adjusting for country of origin, sex, age, comorbidities, tumour type, stage, and status, and receipt of systemic anti-cancer therapy. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04393974, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: As of Feb 4, 2022 (database lock), the registry included 3820 patients who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 between Feb 27, 2020, and Jan 31, 2022. 3473 patients were eligible for inclusion (1640 [47·4%] were women and 1822 [52·6%] were men, with a median age of 68 years [IQR 57-77]). 2033 (58·5%) of 3473 were diagnosed during the prevaccination phase, 1075 (31·0%) during the alpha-delta phase, and 365 (10·5%) during the omicron phase. Among patients diagnosed during the omicron phase, 113 (33·3%) of 339 were fully vaccinated and 165 (48·7%) were boosted, whereas among those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase, 152 (16·6%) of 915 were fully vaccinated and 21 (2·3%) were boosted. Compared with patients diagnosed during the prevaccination period, those who were diagnosed during the omicron phase had lower case-fatality rates at 14 days (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·32 [95% CI 0·19-0·61) and 28 days (0·34 [0·16-0·79]), complications due to COVID-19 (0·26 [0·17-0·46]), and hospitalisation due to COVID-19 (0·17 [0·09-0·32]), and had less requirements for COVID-19-specific therapy (0·22 [0·15-0·34]) and oxygen therapy (0·24 [0·14-0·43]) than did those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase. Unvaccinated patients diagnosed during the omicron phase had similar crude case-fatality rates at 14 days (ten [25%] of 40 patients vs 114 [17%] of 656) and at 28 days (11 [27%] of 40 vs 184 [28%] of 656) and similar rates of hospitalisation due to COVID-19 (18 [43%] of 42 vs 266 [41%] of 652) and complications from COVID-19 (13 [31%] of 42 vs 237 [36%] of 659) as those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase. INTERPRETATION: Despite time-dependent improvements in outcomes reported in the omicron phase compared with the earlier phases of the pandemic, patients with cancer remain highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 if they are not vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support universal vaccination of patients with cancer as a protective measure against morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health and Care Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre and the Cancer Treatment and Research Trust.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Outbreaks , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Oxygen , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Kardiologiia ; 62(10): 26-34, 2022 Oct 30.
Статья в Русский, английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117503

Реферат

Aim      To evaluate the prevalence of residual symptoms in patients hospitalized for novel coronavirus infection at 8 months after discharge and the severity of such symptoms depending on demographic characteristics, concurrent diseases, and specific features of the acute period of COVID-19.Material and methods  This study included the patients who were managed for novel coronavirus infection in a COVID-19 hospital and provided their consent to participate in the study (98 patients). At 8 months after discharge from the hospital, a structured telephone interview was performed.Results Only 40 % of patients treated for COVID-19 did not have any complaints at 8 months after discharge from the hospital. The most frequent complaints in the long term were fatigue (30.5 %), weakness (28.4 %), shortness of breath (23.2 %), arthralgia (22.1 %), myalgia (17.9 %), and anosmia (15.8 %). The background of chronic diseases and obesity, percentage of lung damage according to CT data, and the requirement for oxygen support during the acute period in our sample were not related with the presence of symptoms in the long term. The presence and severity of symptoms during the long term were not determined by the clinical condition, volume of lung damage, or requirement for oxygen support but were related with the gender and severity of inflammation upon admission.Conclusion      Independent predictors for persistence of symptoms in the patient sample with severe novel coronavirus infection during the long term included chest and joint pain during the stay in the hospital, female gender, and increased levels of C-reactive protein upon admission.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Patient Discharge , Hospitalization , Oxygen
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19267, 2022 Nov 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116889

Реферат

The COVID-19 global pandemic has caused unprecedented worldwide changes in healthcare delivery. While containment and mitigation approaches have been intensified, the progressive increase in the number of cases has overwhelmed health systems globally, highlighting the need for anticipation and prediction to be the basis of an efficient response system. This study demonstrates the role of population health metrics as early warning signs of future health crises. We retrospectively collected data from the emergency department of a large academic hospital in the northeastern United States from 01/01/2019 to 08/07/2021. A total of 377,694 patient records and 303 features were included for analysis. Departing from a multivariate artificial intelligence (AI) model initially developed to predict the risk of high-flow oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation requirement during the COVID-19 pandemic, a total of 19 original variables and eight engineered features showing to be most predictive of the outcome were selected for further analysis. The temporal trends of the selected variables before and during the pandemic were characterized to determine their potential roles as early warning signs of future health crises. Temporal analysis of the individual variables included in the high-flow oxygen model showed that at a population level, the respiratory rate, temperature, low oxygen saturation, number of diagnoses during the first encounter, heart rate, BMI, age, sex, and neutrophil percentage demonstrated observable and traceable changes eight weeks before the first COVID-19 public health emergency declaration. Additionally, the engineered rule-based features built from the original variables also exhibited a pre-pandemic surge that preceded the first pandemic wave in spring 2020. Our findings suggest that the changes in routine population health metrics may serve as early warnings of future crises. This justifies the development of patient health surveillance systems, that can continuously monitor population health features, and alarm of new approaching public health crises before they become devastating.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Infant , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Artificial Intelligence , Retrospective Studies , Medical Records , Oxygen
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 776, 2022 Nov 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116378

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Respiratory problems are among the most challenging situations in emergency care services. Different oxygen therapy methods are usually used to deal with these problems. In recent years, oxygen therapy has been recognized as one of the most widely used therapeutic processes in emergency departments (ED) mainly due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an e-learning course in oxygen therapy for the ED clinicians. METHODS: This was a pre-post study conducted in three phases in 2021. Initially, the educational requirements of clinicians (n = 181) were investigated using a questionnaire, and in the second phase, an interactive e-learning course was developed. In the third phase, the course was assessed in terms of maintaining the principles of developing an e-learning course, affecting participants' knowledge, and supporting usability requirements. RESULTS: The findings revealed that training in oxygen therapy was essential for the ED clinicians. Therefore, an e-learning course was developed. The content production experts and the participants evaluated the content and usability of the online course at a good level. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the nurses' (p < 0.001) and general practitioners' (p < 0.002) pre- and post-test scores suggesting that the course improved their knowledge. CONCLUSION: It seems that the e-learning course developed in the current study can improve health care professionals' knowledge and quality of care. However, more evaluation studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of the course for other clinicians, such as nurses who work in intensive care units.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Computer-Assisted Instruction , General Practitioners , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116249

Реферат

The infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) generated many challenges to find an effective drug combination for hospitalized patients with severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study, including 182 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia hospitalized between March and October 2021 in a Pneumology Hospital from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Among patients treated with standard of care, 100 patients received remdesivir (R group) and 82 patients received the combination of remdesivir plus tocilizumab (RT group). We compared the clinical outcomes, the inflammatory markers, superinfections, oxygen requirement, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality rate before drug administration and 7 days after in R group and RT group. Borg score and oxygen support showed an improvement in the R group (p < 0.005). Neutrophiles, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum ferritin levels decreased significantly in RT group but with a higher rate of superinfection in this group. ICU admission and death did not differ significantly between groups. The combination of remdesivir plus tocilizumab led to a significantly improvement in the inflammatory markers and a decrease in the oxygen requirement. Although the superinfection rate was higher in RT group than in R group, no significant difference was found in the ICU admission and mortality rate between the groups.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Superinfection , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Oxygen
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