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1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 280, 2022 Oct 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089189

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Bersama abyssinica is a common herb in Africa, with diverse medical uses in different areas. The plant is well-known in Tanzania for treating respiratory disorders such as TB, tonsillitis, bronchitis, and asthma, and it has lately been utilized to treat COVID-19 symptoms. Water extract of leaf and stem bark has been registered as an herbal medication known as 'Coviba Dawa' in Tanzania for the relief of bacterial respiratory infections. The extracts, however, have not been scientifically tested for their anti-viral activities. The aim of this work was to test for the cytotoxicity and antiviral effects of bioactive ingredients from B. abyssinica extracts against the Delta variant of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. METHODS: B. abyssinica leaves and stem bark were dried under shade in room temperature and then pulverized to obtain small pieces before soaking into different solvents. One hundred grams of each, leaves and stem bark, were extracted in petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Water extract was obtained by decoction of stem bark and leaves into water. Phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and antioxidants were confirmed as components of the extracts. Analysis of polar extracts of bark stem bark and leaves was done. Antiviral screening and cytotoxicity experiments were conducted in a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) Laboratory facility according to International Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). RESULTS: By the use of LC-MS/MS analysis, this study confirmed the existence of four phenolic compounds in B. abyssinica water extract; 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 4-formyl-2-methoxyphenyl propionate, 7,8-Dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, and 2,3, 6-trimethoxyflavone with antioxidant activity. This study showed that, while the water extracts of B. abyssinica had significant antiviral activity against SARS Cov2 virus, it showed no cytotoxicity effect on Vero E6 cells. In particular, the water extract (Coviba dawa) showed 75% while ethylacetate fraction of B. abyssinica leaves showed a 50% in vitro viral inhibition, indicating that these substances may be useful for the development of future anti-viral agents. CONCLUSION: We therefore recommend isolation of compounds for further profiling and development with a broader concentration range. We further recommend studies that determine the antiviral activity of extracts of B.abyssinica on other viral pathogens of clinical concern.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Magnoliopsida , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Water , SARS-CoV-2 , Methylene Chloride/analysis , Methanol , Chromatography, Liquid , Propionates , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phenols/pharmacology , Flavonoids/analysis , Tannins , Solvents/analysis , Tanzania
2.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e937094, 2022 Sep 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056387

Реферат

BACKGROUND Cognitive symptoms persisting longer than 3 months after infection, such as memory loss, or difficulties concentrating, have been reported in up to one-third of patients after COVID-19. Evidence-based therapeutic interventions to treat post-COVID-19 symptoms (also called "Long-COVID symptoms") have not yet been established, and the treating physicians must rely on conjecture to help patients. Based on its mechanism of action and its efficacy in treating cognitive impairment, as well as its good tolerability, the Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 has been suggested as a remedy to alleviate cognitive post-COVID-19 symptoms. In many studies, EGb 761 has been demonstrated to protect endothelial cells, to have potent anti-inflammatory effects, and to enhance neuroplasticity. CASE REPORT Here, we report for the first time the application of EGb 761 in the therapy of post-COVID-19-related cognitive deficits. Three women and 2 men, aged 26 to 59 years (average age 34.6 years), presented with concentration and attention deficits, cognitive deficiencies, and/or fatigue 9-35 weeks after infection. A daily dose of 2×80 mg of EGb 761 did not cause any detectable adverse effects, and it substantially improved or completely restored cognitive deficits and, when initially present, also other symptoms, such as fatigue and hyposmia, within an observation period of up to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS Our observations support the hypothesis that EGb 761 might be a low-risk treatment option for post-COVID-19 patients with cognitive symptoms. Moreover, we derive recommendations for randomized controlled clinical trials to confirm efficacy in that indication.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Endothelial Cells , Fatigue , Female , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Male , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 933824, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022656

Реферат

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has killed huge populations throughout the world and acts as a high-risk factor for elderly and young immune-suppressed patients. There is a critical need to build up secure, reliable, and efficient drugs against to the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Bioactive compounds of Ashwagandha [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal] may implicate as herbal medicine for the management and treatment of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of the current work is to update the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infection and information about the implication of various compounds of medicinal plant Withania somnifera with minimum side effects on the patients' organs. The herbal medicine Withania somnifera has an excellent antiviral activity that could be implicated in the management and treatment of flu and flu-like diseases connected with SARS-CoV-2. The analysis was performed by systematically re-evaluating the published articles related to the infection of SARS-CoV-2 and the herbal medicine Withania somnifera. In the current review, we have provided the important information and data of various bioactive compounds of Withania somnifera such as Withanoside V, Withanone, Somniferine, and some other compounds, which can possibly help in the management and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Withania somnifera has proved its potential for maintaining immune homeostasis of the body, inflammation regulation, pro-inflammatory cytokines suppression, protection of multiple organs, anti-viral, anti-stress, and anti-hypertensive properties. Withanoside V has the potential to inhibit the main proteases (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. At present, synthetic adjuvant vaccines are used against COVID-19. Available information showed the antiviral activity in Withanoside V of Withania somnifera, which may explore as herbal medicine against to SARS-CoV-2 infection after standardization of parameters of drug development and formulation in near future.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Withania , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Integr Complement Med ; 28(9): 757-767, 2022 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017651

Реферат

Objectives: Prediabetes is a major public health concern. Different plant extracts are used in homeopathy as mother tinctures (MTs) for the treatment of prediabetes as an adjunct to individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs); however, their effectiveness remains under-researched. Design: Open-label, randomized (1:1), active-controlled, pragmatic, exploratory trial. Setting: Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Howrah, West Bengal, India. Subjects: Eighty-nine patients with prediabetes. Interventions: Group 1 (n = 45; IHMs plus any one of the following MTs: Cephalandra indica, Gymnema sylvestre, and Syzygium jambolanum; experimental/verum) versus Group 2 (n = 44; IHMs only; control). Outcome measures: Blood parameters, including-the fasting blood sugar (FBS) level, blood sugar level 2 h after ingestion of 75 g of glucose (oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT] result), and glycosylated hemoglobin percentage (HbA1c%), and symptoms, including the Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R) score; all of them were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Results: Although recruitment of 140 patients was initially planned, the target sample size could not be achieved because of coronavirus disease pandemic-related restrictions. Only 89 patients could be enrolled, and the trial had to be terminated prematurely owing to the time constraints of the project. The data of 82 patients (Group 1, n = 40; Group 2, n = 42) were analyzed using a modified intention-to-treat approach. Improvements in all outcomes were greater in Group 1 than in Group 2, but without a significant difference: FBS level (F1, 80 = 4.095, p = 0.046), OGTT result (F1, 80 = 2.399, p = 0.125), HbA1c% (F1, 80 = 1.612, p = 0.208), and DSC-R score (F1, 80 = 0.023, p = 0.880). Conclusions: A promising but nonsignificant trend favored the combination of MTs and IHMs compared with IHMs alone among the patients with prediabetes, especially in FBS. Therefore, further studies are required. Clinical Trial Registration Number: CTRI/2018/08/015319; secondary identifier (UTN): U1111-1218-6016.


Тема - темы
Homeopathy , Prediabetic State , Blood Glucose/analysis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Prediabetic State/blood , Prediabetic State/drug therapy
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30073, 2022 Sep 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008661

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The respiratory system is the first line of defense against outside pollutants. Recently, respiratory health has been receiving increasing attention due to the increase in fine dust, which reduces respiratory function and increases incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in coronavirus pandemic, which can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome. METHODS: This clinical pilot trial was designed to secure evidence for a main clinical trial and to confirm the efficacy and safety of Liriope platyphylla (LP) extract for improving respiratory function. We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial with 22 participants from June 30, 2021, to August 25, 2021. The primary outcome was Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale score. Secondary outcomes included forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume at 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio, cough assessment test score, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test score, peripheral blood mononuclear cell counts (white blood cells, eosinophils, T cells, and B cells), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cytokine (interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interferon-γ, and immunoglobulin E) levels, antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) levels, and nitric oxide level. RESULTS: A total of 22 participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the LP group (n = 11), who took 1000 mg of LP extract per day, and the placebo group, who took 1000 mg of dextrin per day. Participants took 1 capsule twice a day for 4 weeks. For the Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale, the interaction between group and visit was statistically significant in a blend of analyses of variance. interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ levels decreased more in the LP group than in the placebo group. The sample size required for large-scale clinical trials in the future was 50. There were no side effects. CONCLUSION: LP extract can enhance respiratory function. The detailed data we obtained support conducting the future main large-scale clinical trial.


Тема - темы
Interleukin-8 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein , Cough/etiology , Dextrins/therapeutic use , Dust , Dyspnea/complications , Glutathione Peroxidase , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Nitric Oxide , Pilot Projects , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use
6.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 27.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994114

Реферат

Medicinal and food homologous adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) plays an important role in natural products promoting human health. We demonstrated the systematic actional mechanism of functional ingredients in adlay to promote human health, based on the PubMed, CNKI, Google, and ISI Web of Science databases from 1988 to 2022. Adlay and its extracts are rich in 30 ingredients with more than 20 health effects based on human and animal or cell cultures: they are anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-obesity, liver protective, anti-virus, gastroprotective, cardiovascular protective, anti-hypertension, heart disease preventive, melanogenesis inhibiting, anti-allergy, endocrine regulating, anti-diabetes, anti-cachexia, osteoporosis preventive, analgesic, neuroprotecting, suitable for the treatment of gout arthritis, life extending, anti-fungi, and detoxifying effects. Function components with anti-oxidants are rich in adlay. These results support the notion that adlay seeds may be one of the best functional foods and further reveal the action mechanism of six major functional ingredients (oils, polysaccharides, phenols, phytosterols, coixol, and resistant starch) for combating diseases. This review paper not only reveals the action mechanisms of adding adlay to the diet to overcome 17 human diseases, but also provides a scientific basis for the development of functional foods and drugs for the treatment of human diseases.


Тема - темы
Anti-Allergic Agents , Coix , Animals , Functional Food , Humans , Phenols , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
7.
Curr Drug Metab ; 23(5): 374-393, 2022 08 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963214

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The representative anti-COVID-19 herbs, i.e., Poriacocos, Pogostemon, Prunus, and Glycyrrhiza plants, are commonly used in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, a pandemic caused by SARSCoV- 2. Diverse medicinal compounds with favorable anti-COVID-19 activities are abundant in these plants, and their unique pharmacological/pharmacokinetic properties have been revealed. However, the current trends in Drug Metabolism/Pharmacokinetic (DMPK) investigations of anti-COVID-19 herbs have not been systematically summarized. METHODS: In this study, the latest awareness, as well as the perception gaps regarding DMPK attributes, in the anti- COVID-19 drug development and clinical usage was critically examined and discussed. RESULTS: The extracts and compounds of P.cocos, Pogostemon, Prunus, and Glycyrrhiza plants show distinct and diverse absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/T) properties. The complicated herbherb interactions (HHIs) and herb-drug interactions (HDIs) of anti-COVID-19 Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herb pair/formula dramatically influence the PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) performance of compounds thereof, which may inspire researchers to design innovative herbal/compound formulas for optimizing the therapeutic outcome of COVID-19 and related epidemic diseases. The ADME/T of some abundant compounds in anti-COVID-19 plants have been elucidated, but DMPK studies should be extended to more compounds of different medicinal parts, species, and formulations and would be facilitated by various omics platforms and computational analyses. CONCLUSION: In the framework of pharmacology and pharmacophylogeny, the DMPK knowledge base would promote the translation of bench findings into the clinical practice of anti-COVID-19 and speed up the anti-COVID-19 drug discovery and development.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhiza , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Herb-Drug Interactions , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
8.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(20): 1797-1809, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957003

Реферат

This review presents information from several studies that have demonstrated the antiviral activity of extracts (Andrographis paniculata, Artemisia annua, Artemisia afra, Cannabis sativa, Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Olea europaea, Piper nigrum, and Punica granatum) and phytocompounds derived from medicinal plants (artemisinins, glycyrrhizin, and phenolic compounds) against SARS-CoV-2. A brief background of the plant products studied, the methodology used to evaluate the antiviral activity, the main findings from the research, and the possible mechanisms of action are presented. These plant products have been shown to impede the adsorption of SARS-CoV-2 to the host cell, and prevent multiplication of the virus post its entry into the host cell. In addition to antiviral activity, the plant products have also been demonstrated to exert an immunomodulatory effect by controlling the excessive release of cytokines, which is commonly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Тема - темы
Artemisinins , COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
9.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4677-4689, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954700

Реферат

In the current climate, many countries are in dire need of effective preventive methods to curb the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The purpose of this research is to screen and explore natural plant extracts that have the potential to against SARS-CoV-2 and provide alternative options for SARS-CoV-2 prevention and hand sanitizer or spray-like disinfectants. We first used Spike-ACE2 ELISA and TMPRSS2 fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays to screen extracts from agricultural by-products from Taiwan with the potential to impede SARS-CoV-2 infection. Next, the SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-particles (Vpp) infection assay was tested to validate the effectiveness. We identified an extract from coffee leaf (Coffea Arabica), a natural plant that effectively inhibited wild-type SARS-CoV-2, and five Variants of Concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron strain) from entering host cells. In an attempt to apply coffee leaf extract for hand sanitizer or spray-like disinfectants, we designed a skin-like gelatin membrane experiment. We showed that the high concentration of coffee leaf extract on the skin surface could block SARS-CoV-2 into cells more potently than 75% Ethanol, a standard disinfectant to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Finally, LC-HRMS analysis was used to identify compounds such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid (CGA), quinic acid, and mangiferin that are associated with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Our results demonstrated that coffee leaf extract, an agricultural by-product effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Vpp infection through an ACE2-dependent mechanism and may be utilized to develop products against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coffea , Hand Sanitizers , Plant Extracts , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Coffea/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113256, 2022 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936093

Реферат

Punica granatum L (pomegranate) is one of the Mediterranean medicinal plants that has been used for generations in treating ulcers, diarrhea, and male infertility. Increasing evidence has revealed that pomegranate possesses myriads of pharmacological activities such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-malaria, anti-fibrotic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and other effects. Consumption of pomegranate could be used to improve gut microbiota, and therefore prevent obesity and diabetes. The mechanisms of actions of pomegranate, mainly involve nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. In recent times, in silico molecular docking studies demonstrated that pomegranate extract and or its phytochemicals are potential inhibitors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor contact. Also, some clinical trials have indicated that pomegranate can be consumed for alleviation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, dental infections, and menopausal symptoms. To date, active compounds, viz. alkaloids, anthocyanidins, tannins, flavonoids, phenolics, proanthocyanidins, sterols, terpenes, terpenoids, xanthonoids, fatty acids, organic acids, lignans, saccharides, and vitamin C have been isolated from pomegranate. Therefore, the current review article aimed to gather and presents an update on the ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological activities, phytochemistry, and molecular mechanisms of Punica granatum L. This knowledge is of paramount importance in the future in drug discovery for the development of novel natural drugs for the treatment of various ailments.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Lythraceae , Pomegranate , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lythraceae/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938911

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic has intensively disrupted global health, economics, and well-being. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has been used as a complementary treatment for COVID-19 in several Asian countries. This review aimed to summarize the information available regarding A. paniculata and its constituents, to provide critical points relating to its pharmacological properties, safety, and efficacy, revealing its potential to serve as a source of lead compounds for COVID-19 drug discovery. A. paniculata and its active compounds possess favorable antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antipyretic activities that could be beneficial for COVID-19 treatment. Interestingly, recent in silico and in vitro studies have revealed that the active ingredients in A. paniculata showed promising activities against 3CLpro and its virus-specific target protein, human hACE2 protein; they also inhibit infectious virion production. Moreover, existing publications regarding randomized controlled trials demonstrated that the use of A. paniculata alone or in combination was superior to the placebo in reducing the severity of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) manifestations, especially as part of early treatment, without serious side effects. Taken together, its chemical and biological properties, especially its antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2, clinical trials on URTI, and the safety of A. paniculata, as discussed in this review, support the argument that A. paniculata is a promising natural source for drug discovery regarding COVID-19 post-infectious treatment, rather than prophylaxis.


Тема - темы
Andrographis , COVID-19 , Andrographis/chemistry , Andrographis paniculata , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Humans , Lead , Pandemics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 875546, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933655

Реферат

Cytokine storm refers to the dysregulated production of inflammatory mediators leading to hyperinflammation. They are often detrimental, and worsen the severity of COVID-19 and other infectious or inflammatory diseases. Cannabinoids are known to have anti-inflammatory effects but their possible therapeutic value on cytokine storms has not been fully elucidated. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out to investigate the effects of high-THC and high-CBD extracts on cytokine production in immune cells. Significant differences between the extracts were observed. Subsequent experiments focusing on a specific high CBD extract (CBD-X) showed significant reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokines in human-derived PBMCs, neutrophils and T cells. In vivo mouse studies, using a systemically inflamed mouse model, showed reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1ß and a concurrent increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to CBD-X extract treatment. Lung inflammation, as in severe COVID-19 disease, is characterized by increased T-cell homing to the lungs. Our investigation revealed that CBD-X extract impaired T-cell migration induced by the chemoattractant SDF1. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling proteins Lck and Zap70 were significantly reduced, demonstrating an inhibitory effect on the early events downstream to TCR activation. In a lung inflamed mouse model, we observed a reduction in leukocytes including neutrophil migration to the lungs and decreased levels of IL-1ß, MCP-1, IL-6 and TNFα, in response to the administration of the high-CBD extract. The results presented in this work offer that certain high-CBD extract has a high potential in the management of pathological conditions, in which the secretion of cytokines is dysregulated, as it is in severe COVID-19 disease or other infectious or inflammatory diseases.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
13.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911482

Реферат

As the world desperately searches for ways to treat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a growing number of people are turning to herbal remedies. The Artemisia species, such as A. annua and A. afra, in particular, exhibit positive effects against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and COVID-19 related symptoms. A. annua is a source of artemisinin, which is active against malaria, and also exhibits potential for other diseases. This has increased interest in artemisinin's potential for drug repurposing. Artemisinin-based combination therapies, so-called ACTs, have already been recognized as first-line treatments against malaria. Artemisia extract, as well as ACTs, have demonstrated inhibition of SARS-CoV-2. Artemisinin and its derivatives have also shown anti-inflammatory effects, including inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that plays a key role in the development of severe COVID-19. There is now sufficient evidence in the literature to suggest the effectiveness of Artemisia, its constituents and/or artemisinin derivatives, to fight against the SARS-CoV-2 infection by inhibiting its invasion, and replication, as well as reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and mitigating lung damage.


Тема - темы
Antimalarials , Artemisia annua , Artemisia , Artemisinins , COVID-19 , Malaria , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/pharmacology , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed) ; 14(2): 12, 2022 05 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904165

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic has provided an opportunity for repurposing of drugs, including complex, natural drugs, to meet the global need for safe and effective antiviral medicines which do not promote multidrug resistance nor inflate medical costs. The author herein describes his own repurposing of herbal tinctures, previously prepared for oncology, into a possibly synergistic, anti-COVID 41 "herb" formula of extracts derived from 36 different plants and medicinal mushrooms. A method of multi-sample in vitro testing in green monkey kidney vero cells is proposed for testing the Hypothesis that even in such a large combination, antiviral potency may be preserved, along with therapeutic synergy, smoothness, and complexity. The possibility that the formula's potency may improve with age is considered, along with a suitable method for testing it. Collaborative research inquiries are welcome.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Peganum , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Pandemics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Seeds , Vero Cells
15.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 May 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892924

Реферат

Excessive corticosterone (CORT), resulting from a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is associated with cognitive impairment and behavioral changes, including depression. In Korean oriental medicine, Pedicularis resupinata is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, the antidepressant properties of P. resupinata have not been well characterized. Here, the antidepressant-like effects of P. resupinata extract (PRE) were evaluated in terms of CORT-induced depression using in vivo models. HPLC confirmed that acteoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside, was the main compound from PRE. Male ICR mice (8 weeks old) were injected with CORT (40 mg/kg, i.p.) and orally administered PRE daily (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) for 21 consecutive days. Depressive-like behaviors were evaluated using the open-field test, sucrose preference test, passive avoidance test, tail suspension test, and forced swim test. Treatment with a high dose of PRE significantly alleviated CORT-induced, depressive-like behaviors in mice. Additionally, repeated CORT injection markedly reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, whereas total glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and GR phosphorylation at serine 211 were significantly increased in the mice hippocampus but improved by PRE treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that PRE has potential antidepressant-like effects in CORT-induced, depressive-like behavior in mice.


Тема - темы
Corticosterone , Pedicularis , Animals , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Behavior, Animal , Corticosterone/adverse effects , Depression/chemically induced , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/psychology , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Receptors, Glucocorticoid
16.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 355(10): e2200188, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877557

Реферат

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is linked with inflammatory disorders and the development of oxidative stress in extreme cases. Therefore, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drugs may alleviate these complications. Ginkgo biloba L. folium extract (EGb) is a herbal medicine containing various active constituents. This review aims to provide a critical discussion on the potential role of EGb in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The antiviral effect of EGb is mediated by different mechanisms, including blocking SARS-CoV-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease that provides trans-variant effectiveness. Moreover, EGb impedes the development of pulmonary inflammatory disorders through the diminution of neutrophil elastase activity, the release of proinflammatory cytokines, platelet aggregation, and thrombosis. Thus, EGb can attenuate the acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19. In conclusion, EGb offers the potential of being used as adjuvant antiviral and symptomatic therapy. Nanosystems enabling targeted delivery, personalization, and booster of effects provide the opportunity for the use of EGb in modern phytotherapy.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Ginkgo biloba , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chymases , Cytokines , Humans , Leukocyte Elastase , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship
17.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 52(2): 336-338, 2022 Mar.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787134

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Ashwagandha, an Indian Ayurvedic medicine is indicated to prevent COVID-19 infection. Because IL-6 and C-reactive protein are widely measured to determine risk of cytokine storm in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we studied potential interference of ashwagandha on these two assays. Previous studies indicated that ashwagandha may interfere with digoxin assay, so we also studied potential interference with digoxin assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained one ashwagandha product from India (liquid extract) and one product from US (Herb Pharma; liquid extract). We prepared two serum pool each for IL-6, C-reactive protein and digoxin by combining appropriate left-over specimens submitted to our hospital laboratory for such tests. Then aliquots of each pools were supplemented with 10, 25 or 50 µL of ashwagandha extract followed by re-analysis for appropriate analyte and comparing values with original pool. RESULTS: We observed negative interference of ashwagandha with IL-6 assay only (Indian product showed more negative interference) but C-reactive protein assay and digoxin assay were not affected. Negative interference of ashwagandha in IL-6 assay has not been reported before. CONCLUSION: We conclude ashwagandha caused negative interference in IL-6 assay.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Withania , C-Reactive Protein , Digoxin , Humans , Immunoassay , Interleukin-6 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
18.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 24.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780062

Реферат

Diseases caused by viruses are a global threat, resulting in serious medical and social problems for humanity. They are the main contributors to many minor and major outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics worldwide. Over the years, medicinal plants have been used as a complementary treatment in a range of diseases. In this sense, this review addresses promising antiviral plants from Marajó island, a part of the Amazon region, which is known to present a very wide biodiversity of medicinal plants. The present review has been limited to articles and abstracts available in Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scielo, PubMed, and Google Scholar, as well as the patent offices in Brazil (INPI), United States (USPTO), Europe (EPO) and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). As a result, some plants from Marajó island were reported to have actions against HIV-1,2, HSV-1,2, SARS-CoV-2, HAV and HBV, Poliovirus, and influenza. Our major conclusion is that plants of the Marajó region show promising perspectives regarding pharmacological potential in combatting future viral diseases.


Тема - темы
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , Hepatitis A virus/drug effects , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(4): 485-493, 2022 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758550

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Discordance between real-world prescribing patterns and global treatment guidelines for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with inhaled single or dual long-acting bronchodilator maintenance therapy is increasingly being reported in the literature, particularly with regard to addition of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Patient-related factors, e.g. inhalation technique and inspiratory flow, are key to disease control in COPD. Treatment discordance and patient-related factors can lead to high-cost side effects and sub-optimal treatment benefit; furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to new challenges in COPD management. AREAS COVERED: This article summarizes a series of presentations sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim and delivered at the annual CHEST congress 2021 (October 17-20, 2021) that explored new insights into the optimal management of COPD. EXPERT OPINION/COMMENTARY: There is a concerning high degree of discordance with GOLD recommendations. Dual therapy without addition of ICS does not increase exacerbation risk and could reduce pneumonia risk, and unnecessary prescription of triple therapy has financial implications. Clinic-based spirometry may not reflect the home setting, and training is required; inhalers that operate independently of users' inhalation profiles should be considered. Integration of digital healthcare solutions into clinical studies is suggested in the post-COVID setting, although further evaluation is required.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Muscarinic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology
20.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(3): 883-894, 2022 Jun.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756834

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Molecular diagnostics using RT-PCR has now emerged as the new diagnostic method for clinicians with the dawn of SARS-CoV-2. In India, the popularity and awareness of RT-PCR and particularly the increased availability of testing machines across hospitals has now opened up possibilities of diagnostic tests with RT-PCR. In view of the cytokine storm which is the significant reason for morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients, we proposed to test the usefulness of a multiplex RT-PCR test kit that simultaneously measured inflammatory markers namely, IL-6, TNF- α and IL-10 (IFM) all in one tube. The study included a group of patients who were equally allotted to two treatment arms one of which received standard of care along with a food supplement capsule as a natural anti-inflammatory (RECOVEREEZ FORTE™), and the other group received standard of care that included oral Prednisolone tablets in tapered dosage. RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ consists of potent biomolecules from cardamom extract. A natural product with substantial anti-inflammatory action when consumed early at the onset of symptoms is hereby proven by comparing gene expression profile of inflammatory markers with routinely tested inflammatory parameters such as serum IL-6, CRP and LDH. In addition to predicting worse disease outcomes beforehand, RT-PCR assay tests provides an opportunity for identifying therapeutic window aiding in practicing effective treatment strategy for COVID-19. RT-PCR analysis of IFM together being used in a single multiplex kit is being first reported and such a test as a prognosticator for disease progression does seem promising and worthy of clinicians adopting novel testing modalities in clinical practice. AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the anti-inflammatory response of RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ using RT-PCR based multiplex gene profiling of inflammatory markers in disease prognosis and show its predictability of worsening outcomes and its role in identifying therapeutic window for RECOVEREEZ FORTE™. To show the potentiality of RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ in reducing COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Ct values of the treatment group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a short study of a 10-day period where the end point was the negativity of COVID-19 on RT-PCR test or the decline in cycle threshold (Ct) values of the test performed on day 10 when compared to day 0. During the course of the study, patients were given standard treatment and an oral dose of 500 mg of RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ thrice daily, or standard of care and oral Prednisolone in tapered dosage (control group). All essential interventions were included in the standard of care as decided by the attending physician. The RT-PCR results of inflammatory markers were compared to routinely tested parameters such as IL-6, CRP and LDH. Time to clinical improvement was in terms of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test negativity or recovery of COVID-19 symptoms. We enrolled 64 patients, of which 32 were allocated to RECOVEREEZ FORTE ™ group and 32 to the control group. RESULTS: The RT-PCR analysis of elevated IFM on day 0 corresponded to above normal protein levels of routinely tested parameters such as serum IL-6, CRP and LDH on day 5. Similarly, elevated IFM on day 5 corresponded to above normal protein levels on day 10. Such an association was equally prevalent in both the control group and RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ group, stipulating that RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ may be used as an alternative to steroids. The obtained results indicate that the RT-PCR assessment predicts worse outcomes 5 days earlier. But, the RT-PCR analysis of elevated IFM on day 0 did not correspond to the above normal protein levels of other parameters on day 10. Hence, indicating that the IFM RT-PCR test cannot predict worse outcomes 10 days earlier. Also, RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ when consumed for a period of 10 days normalized LDH values, compared to the control group. Moreover, IFM RT-PCR test identified a 5-day therapeutic window for RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ against inflammation experienced by patients. In addition to the above findings, the authors also observed that majority of the patients belonging to the treatment group showed recovery from symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat and breathlessness compared to control group by day 5. 12 (37.5%) out of 32 patients and 6 (18.75%) out of 32 patients belonging to the treatment group and control group, respectively, became SARS-CoV-2 negative by day 5, indicating a probable anti-viral action of RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ against SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: The IFM RT-PCR test possess 5-day early prediction ability and lacks 10-day prediction ability. Treatment with RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ indicates good anti-inflammatory action which is equivalent to steroids. Intake of RECOVEREEZ FORTE ™ for a period of 5 days depicts persistent anti-inflammatory action, recovery of COVID-19 symptoms and a probable anti-viral action. Moreover, an effective normalization of LDH may be rendered by RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ when consumed for a period of 10 days.


Тема - темы
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , COVID-19 , Elettaria , Plant Extracts , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Elettaria/chemistry , Humans , Interleukin-6/analysis , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Prednisolone , SARS-CoV-2
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