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2.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(163)2022 Mar 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214521

Реферат

Chronic lung diseases are the third leading cause of death worldwide and are increasing in prevalence over time. Although much of our traditional understanding of health and disease is derived from study of the male of the species - be it animal or human - there is increasing evidence that sex and gender contribute to differences in disease risk, prevalence, presentation, severity, treatment approach, response and outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and bronchiectasis represent the most prevalent and studied chronic lung diseases and have key sex- and gender-based differences which are critical to consider and incorporate into clinical and research approaches. Mechanistic differences present opportunities for therapeutic development whereas behavioural and clinical differences on the part of patients and providers present opportunities for greater education and understanding at multiple levels. In this review, we seek to summarise the sex- and gender-based differences in key chronic lung diseases and outline the clinical and research implications for stakeholders.


Тема - темы
Asthma , Bronchiectasis , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
3.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(4, jul-ago): 341-342, 2022 Jul 08.
Статья в испанский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204871

Реферат

No disponible.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders , Humans , Mexico , Pandemics , Prevalence
4.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30229, 2022 09 12.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202464

Реферат

AIMS OF THE STUDY: To estimate the prevalence of occupational burnout among the Swiss working population. METHODS: We interrogated three international databases (Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, and PsycINFO) and the databases of 15 Swiss universities to identify studies reporting the prevalence of occupational burnout in Swiss workers over the last 10 years, before the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were summarised descriptively and quantitatively using random-effects meta-analysis. We investigated between-study heterogeneity by stratifying results according to the type of burnout measurement tool, by occupation and by cut-off values. Three outcomes were considered: clinical/severe burnout, overall burnout and emotional exhaustion. RESULTS: We identified 23 studies about workers in Switzerland and estimated the prevalence of clinical or severe burnout at 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2-6%). The average prevalence estimates for overall burnout and emotional exhaustion were similar at 18% (95% CI 12-25%) and 18% (95% CI 15-22%), respectively. When stratified by occupation, the clinical or severe burnout rates were higher among the healthcare workers than the general working population. CONCLUSIONS: These estimates of prepandemic (baseline) prevalence of occupational burnout are comparable with those available in the other countries where it is recognised and treated as a disease. They may prove useful in planning and assessing the effectiveness of interventions for prevention of occupational burnout and in minimising its negative consequences on individuals and on societies during and after the pandemic.


Тема - темы
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Switzerland/epidemiology
5.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(6): 385-401A, 2022 Jun 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198270

Реферат

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of burnout among primary health-care professionals in low- and middle-income countries and to identify factors associated with burnout. Methods: We systematically searched nine databases up to February 2022 to identify studies investigating burnout in primary health-care professionals in low- and middle-income countries. There were no language limitations and we included observational studies. Two independent reviewers completed screening, study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate overall burnout prevalence as assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. We narratively report factors associated with burnout. Findings: The search returned 1568 articles. After selection, 60 studies from 20 countries were included in the narrative review and 31 were included in the meta-analysis. Three studies collected data during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic but provided limited evidence on the impact of the disease on burnout. The overall single-point prevalence of burnout ranged from 2.5% to 87.9% (43 studies). In the meta-analysis (31 studies), the pooled prevalence of a high level of emotional exhaustion was 28.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 21.5-33.5), a high level of depersonalization was 16.4% (95% CI: 10.1-22.9) and a high level of reduced personal accomplishment was 31.9% (95% CI: 21.7-39.1). Conclusion: The substantial prevalence of burnout among primary health-care professionals in low- and middle-income countries has implications for patient safety, care quality and workforce planning. Further cross-sectional studies are needed to help identify evidence-based solutions, particularly in Africa and South-East Asia.


Тема - темы
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Burnout, Psychological , Developing Countries , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Prevalence
6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1884-1894, 2021 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194255

Реферат

BACKGROUND: We described the demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and outcomes of patients with a history of cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Second, we compared patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using eight routinely collected health care databases from Spain and the United States, standardized to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model. Three cohorts of patients with a history of cancer were included: (i) diagnosed with COVID-19, (ii) hospitalized with COVID-19, and (iii) hospitalized with influenza in 2017 to 2018. Patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We reported demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes. RESULTS: We included 366,050 and 119,597 patients diagnosed and hospitalized with COVID-19, respectively. Prostate and breast cancers were the most frequent cancers (range: 5%-18% and 1%-14% in the diagnosed cohort, respectively). Hematologic malignancies were also frequent, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma being among the five most common cancer subtypes in the diagnosed cohort. Overall, patients were aged above 65 years and had multiple comorbidities. Occurrence of death ranged from 2% to 14% and from 6% to 26% in the diagnosed and hospitalized COVID-19 cohorts, respectively. Patients hospitalized with influenza (n = 67,743) had a similar distribution of cancer subtypes, sex, age, and comorbidities but lower occurrence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of cancer and COVID-19 had multiple comorbidities and a high occurrence of COVID-19-related events. Hematologic malignancies were frequent. IMPACT: This study provides epidemiologic characteristics that can inform clinical care and etiologic studies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25945, 2021 May 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191011

Реферат

ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and the associated risk factors among first-line medical staff in Wuhan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.From March 5 to 15, 2020, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression scale were used to investigate the anxiety and depression status of medical staff in Wuhan Cabin Hospital (a Hospital). Two hundred seventy-six questionnaires were received from 96 doctors and 180 nurses, including 79 males and 197 females.During the COVID-19 epidemic, the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression was 27.9% and 18.1%, respectively, among 276 front-line medical staff in Wuhan. The prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among doctors was 19.8% and 11.5%, respectively, and the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among nurses was 32.2% and 21.7%, respectively. Females recorded higher total scores for anxiety and depression than males, and nurses recorded higher scores for anxiety and depression than doctors.During the COVID-19 epidemic, some first-line medical staff experienced mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Nurses were more prone to anxiety and depression than doctors. Effective strategies toward to improving the mental health should be provided to first-line medical staff, especially female medical staff and nurses.


Тема - темы
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Medical Staff/psychology , Mobile Health Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Workload/psychology
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 350-366, set-dez. 2022.
Статья в португальский | WHO COVID, LILACS - Страны Америки - | ID: covidwho-2205388

Реферат

Introdução: No final do ano de 2019 surgiu na China uma doença infectocontagiosa de característica respiratória e alto grau de disseminação até então desconhecida. No Brasil o primeiro caso de Covid-19 foi confirmado no final de fevereiro de 2020 e a primeira morte em meados de março. Segundo dados da plataforma Coronavírus Brasil, em 17 de março de 2021, houve registro de 11.603.535 casos confirmados e 282.127 óbitos. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil de pessoas que morreram tendo como causa básica do óbito a Covid-19, em um município do Sudoeste do Paraná, entre os anos de 2020 e 2021. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo, documental de caráter quantitativo que foi realizado na prefeitura municipal de Francisco Beltrão. Resultados: Houve prevalência de óbitos em pacientes do sexo masculino, idosos, com presença de alguma comorbidade associada, sendo hipertensão a mais citada (50,8%). Os sintomas mais prevalentes foram tosse (74,4%), dispneia (56,3%) e saturação < 95% (48,3%), necessitando ainda de hospitalização em algum período da doença (94,1%), sendo os leitos de Sistema Único de Saúde os mais procurados (74,4%). Quanto à taxa de ocupação 49,6% dos casos necessitou apenas de leitos de enfermaria e 42% unidades de terapia intensiva. Discussão: Diversas pesquisas apontam que o sexo masculino é o mais acometido por condições graves de saúde, devido à demora na busca de assistência médica. No que se refere à idade, neste estudo, a prevalência de óbitos se deu entre 71 e 75 anos (15,1%) o que justifica que o envelhecimento é um fator de risco elevado para complicações da doença. Durante a análise dos dados, notou- se que grande parte dos pacientes que tiveram como desfecho o óbito, possuíam algum fator associado, dentre os mais citados, verificou-se a Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica (50,8%) Diabetes Mellitus (24,8%), doenças cardiovasculares (23,9%) e obesidade (14,7%). No que diz respeito à hospitalização, nesse estudo notou-se que 74,4% da amostra foram hospitalizadas em leitos de SUS, 18,5% em hospitais particulares e 7,1% não possuíam essa informação. Conclusão: É possível observar a importância do estudo epidemiológico para identificar o perfil da população em risco, podendo auxiliar no planejamento do atendimento, rastreamento e controle da doença, além de conhecer a evolução da patologia, a fim de buscar ações adequadas para seu enfrentamento.


Introduction: At the end of 2019, a previously unknown infectious disease with respiratory characteristics and a high degree of dissemination emerged in China. In Brazil the first case of Covid-19 was confirmed in late February 2020 and the first death in mid-March. According to data from the Coronavirus Brazil platform, as of March 17, 2021, 11,603,535 confirmed cases and 282,127 deaths were recorded. Objective: To describe the profile of people who died with Covid-19 as the underlying cause of death in a city in southwestern Paraná between the years 2020 and 2021. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, documental, quantitative study carried out at the Francisco Beltrão City Hall. Results: There was a prevalence of deaths in male patients, elderly, with the presence of some associated comorbidity, hypertension being the most cited (50.8%). The most prevalent symptoms were cough (74.4%), dyspnea (56.3%) and saturation < 95% (48.3%), requiring hospitalization in some period of the disease (94.1%), and the Unified Health System beds were the most sought (74.4%). As for the occupancy rate, 49.6% of the cases required only ward beds and 42% intensive care units. Discussion: Several studies show that men are the most affected by serious health conditions, due to the delay in seeking medical assistance. Regarding age, in this study, the prevalence of deaths was between 71 and 75 years (15.1%), which justifies that aging is a high risk factor for disease complications. During data analysis, it was noted that most patients who died had some associated factor, among the most cited were systemic arterial hypertension (50.8%), diabetes mellitus (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (23.9%) and obesity (14.7%). Regarding hospitalization, in this study it was noted that 74.4% of the sample were hospitalized in SUS beds, 18.5% in private hospitals, and 7.1% did not have this information. Conclusion: It is possible to observe the importance of the epidemiological study to identify the profile of the population at risk, which can help in planning care, tracking and control of the disease, besides knowing the evolution of the pathology in order to seek appropriate actions for its confrontation


Introducción: A finales del año 2019 apareció en China una enfermedad infecto- contagiosa de característica respiratoria y alto grado de diseminación desconocida hasta entonces. En Brasil se confirmó el primer caso de Covid-19 a finales de febrero de 2020 y la primera muerte a mediados de marzo. Según los datos de la plataforma Coronavirus Brasil, hasta el 17 de marzo de 2021, había 11.603.535 casos confirmados y 282.127 muertes. Objetivo: Describir el perfil de las personas fallecidas con Covid-19 como causa subyacente de muerte en una ciudad del sudoeste de Paraná entre los años 2020 y 2021. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio transversal, descriptivo, documental de carácter cuantitativo que se realizó en la prefectura municipal de Francisco Beltrão. Resultados: Hubo una prevalencia de muertes en pacientes masculinos, de edad avanzada, con presencia de alguna comorbilidad asociada, siendo la hipertensión la más citada (50,8%). Los síntomas más prevalentes fueron la tos (74,4%), la disnea (56,3%) y la saturación < 95% (48,3%), requiriendo hospitalización en algún periodo de la enfermedad (94,1%), siendo las camas del Sistema Único de Salud las más solicitadas (74,4%). En cuanto a la tasa de ocupación, el 49,6% de los casos sólo necesitaban camas de sala y el 42% unidades de cuidados intensivos. Discusión: Varias investigaciones señalan que el género masculino es el más afectado por las condiciones de salud graves, debido al retraso en la búsqueda de asistencia médica. En cuanto a la edad, en este estudio, la prevalencia de muertes se produjo entre los 71 y los 75 años (15,1%), lo que justifica que el envejecimiento sea un factor de riesgo elevado para las complicaciones de la enfermedad. Durante el análisis de los datos, se observó que la mayoría de los pacientes que fallecieron tenían algún factor asociado, entre los más citados estaban la Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica (50,8%), la Diabetes Mellitus (24,8%), las enfermedades cardiovasculares (23,9%) y la obesidad (14,7%). En lo que respecta a la hospitalización, en este estudio se observó que el 74,4% de la muestra estaba hospitalizada en camas del SUS, el 18,5% en hospitales privados y el 7,1% no tenía esta información. Conclusión: Es posible observar la importancia del estudio epidemiológico para identificar el perfil de la población en riesgo, pudiendo ayudar en la planificación de la atención, el rastreo y el control de la enfermedad, además de conocer la evolución de la patología, con el fin de buscar las acciones adecuadas para su enfrentamiento.


Тема - темы
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death , Unified Health System , Aged , Aging/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cough , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyspnea , Oxygen Saturation , Hospitalization , Hypertension , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Obesity
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 904550, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154831

Реферат

Objective: After the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the health status of the general population has suffered a huge threat, and the mental health of front-line healthcare providers has also encountered great challenges. Therefore, this study aims to: (1) investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among healthcare providers, and (2) verify the moderating role of self-efficacy in the influence of PTSD on mental health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey of 1993 participants. The presence of depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, and PTSD was evaluated using screening tests from March 1. Sociodemographic and COVID-19-related data were also collected. A data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression. Results: The prevalence of PTSD among healthcare providers was 9.3%. PTSD was negatively correlated with self-efficacy (r = -0.265, P < 0.01), anxiety (r = -0.453, P < 0.01), and depression (r = 0.708, P < 0.01). Profession, daily working hours, maximum continuous working days, and daily sleep time were influencing factors of PTSD. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that physicians (OR = 2.254, 95% CI = 1.298, 3.914) and nurses (OR = 2.176, 95% CI = 1.337, 3.541) were more likely to experience PTSD than other healthcare providers. Conclusion: Self-efficacy has a moderating effect on the influence of PTSD on anxiety and depression. This suggests that health managers need to respond to the current psychological crisis of healthcare providers, implement appropriate psychological interventions, and minimize the psychological harm caused by COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
10.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN281521, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154411

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals and families, causing adverse psychological effects, especially in young adults, women, and parents. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of current major depressive episode (CMDE) in mothers of preschoolers (up to five years old) and its associated stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic in a municipality in the Southern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with mothers. All mothers were interviewed by telephone call during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. Plus) to assess the presence of CMDE. Statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression. We evaluated 666 mothers. The prevalence of CMDE was 12.3%. Mothers with financial losses had 2.1 (95%CI: 1.3-3.4) more odds of presenting CMDE than those financially stable. We observed that financial losses were determinant for the higher prevalence of depression in mothers.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult
11.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 26, 2022 02 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153508

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has a high acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) prevalence, and to our knowledge, there are no data on the status of secondary prevention in children with RHD. This study describes the status of secondary RHD prevention. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective study was performed on children aged 5-17 years with RHD in Ethiopia. Good adherence was defined as at least 80% completion of benzathine penicillin (BPG) or oral Amoxicillin within the previous year. The primary outcome measure was adherence to prophylaxis, expressed as a proportion. Socio-demographics, severity of RHD, and ARF recurrence were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 337 children with a mean age of 12.9 ± 2.6 years were included. The majority (73%) had severe aortic/mitral disease. Participants were on BPG (80%) or Amoxicillin (20%) prophylaxis. Female sex (P = 0.04) use of BPG (0.03) and shorter mean duration of prophylaxis in months (48.5 ± 31.5 vs. 60.7 ± 33, respectively, P < 0.008) predicted good adherence. Running out of medications (35%), interrupted follow-up (27%), and the COVID-19 pandemic (26%) were the most common reasons for missing prophylaxis. Recurrence of ARF was higher in participants on Amoxicillin compared with BPG (40% vs. 16%, P < 0.001) and in those with poor adherence compared with good adherence (36.8% vs. 17.9%, respectively, P = 0.005). Type and duration of prophylaxis (OR 0.5, CI = 0.24, 0.9, P = 0.02; OR = 1.1, CI = 1.1, 1.2, P = 0.04, respectively), and sex (OR = 1.9, CI = 1.1, 3.4, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of poor adherence. CONCLUSION: Poor adherence is prevalent in Ethiopian children living with RHD. Amoxicillin is a suboptimal option for prophylaxis as its use is associated with lower adherence and a higher rate of ARF recurrence.


Тема - темы
Amoxicillin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Penicillin G Benzathine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Heart Disease/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Rheumatic Heart Disease/diagnosis , Rheumatic Heart Disease/epidemiology , Rheumatic Heart Disease/microbiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Med Life ; 15(9): 1119-1128, 2022 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146200

Реферат

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has changed lives around the world. In particular, healthcare workers faced significant challenges as a result of the pandemic. This study investigates the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in March-April 2020 in Germany among healthcare workers and relates it to questionnaire data. In June 2020, all employees of the reporting hospital were offered a free SARS-CoV-2 antibody test. The first 2,550 test results were sent along with study documents. The response rate was 15.1%. The COVID-19 PCR test prevalence amongst health care workers in this study was 1.04% (95% CI 0.41-2.65%), higher by a factor of 5 than in the general population (p=0.01). The ratio of seroprevalence to PCR prevalence was 1.5. COVID-19-associated symptoms were also prevalent in the non-COVID-19-positive population. Only two symptoms showed statistically significant odds ratios, loss of smell and loss of taste. Health care workers largely supported non-pharmaceutical interventions during the initial lockdown (93%). Individual behavior correlated significantly with attitudes toward policy interventions and perceived individual risk factors. Our data suggest that healthcare workers may be at higher risk of infection. Therefore, a discussion about prioritizing vaccination makes sense. They also support offering increased SARS-CoV-2 testing to hospital workers. It is concluded that easier access to SARS-CoV-2 testing reduces the number of unreported cases. Furthermore, individual attitudes toward rules and regulations on COVID-19 critically influence compliance. Thus, one goal of public policy should be to maintain high levels of support for non-pharmaceutical interventions to keep actual compliance high.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals, University , Personnel, Hospital , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(3): 6751, 2022 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146087

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic, giving rise to a serious global health threat. Many countries including Greece have seen a two-wave pattern of reported cases, with a first wave in spring and a second in autumn of 2020. METHODS: A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was designed to measure the prevalence of IgG antibodies with a quantitative SARS-CoV-2 IgG lab-based serology test, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay, against novel coronavirus in rural areas in Greece after the second pandemic wave. The study was conducted on 29 January 2021 in a rural semi-closed area, the municipality of Deskati, prefecture of western Macedonia in Greece after the second pandemic wave. RESULTS: Sixty-nine participants were included in this study. The present study demonstrated a high prevalence of COVID-19 infection (31 of 69 total participants; 45%) and those who were working in the public sector were at higher risk of COVID-19 infection in comparison to their counterparts in private sector (p=0.05364), (relative risk 2.64; 95% confidence interval 1.001-7.086). CONCLUSION: The study presents data showing a high prevalence of herd immunity for COVID-19 in a semi-closed area in Greece. These findings might help to understand the characteristics of this second wave, the behaviour and danger of SARS-CoV-2 in rural areas in Greece and Europe generally.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Prevalence , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Workplace
14.
R I Med J (2013) ; 105(10): 57-62, 2022 Dec 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2125297

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Higher prevalence of alcohol-related gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases (ARGLDs) were anecdotally reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, but little published evidence exists. METHODS: A healthcare system audit of inpatient GI consults was performed during the pandemic's lockdown phase (3/23/2020-5/10/2020, n=558) and reopening phase (6/1/2020-7/19/2020, n=711) with comparison to those timeframes in 2019. RESULTS: Consult volume decreased by 27.7% during the lockdown, but the proportion of ARGLDs increased by 59.6% (p=0.03). This trend continued during reopening, with potentially more severe disease as more patients required endoscopic intervention. Patients with alcoholic hepatitis during reopening were younger compared to the lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates increased prevalence and severity of ARGLDs amongst younger individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. This increase started during the lockdown but worsened despite relaxation of restrictions. Systems to increase screening for and treatment of alcohol use disorder as society recovers from the pandemic remain imperative.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Communicable Disease Control , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Ethanol
15.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(Supplement): S76-S79, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144161

Реферат

Background: The emergence of COVID-19 and its consequences is causing widespread fears, anxiety, and worries. To overcome the transmission of COVID-19, people resorted to compulsive behaviors. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) due to COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of level of fear due to COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess the factors associated with OCSs due to COVID-19 pandemic among the undergraduate medical students of in tertiary unit in Southern India. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 250 undergraduate medical students (both MBBS and BDS, from 1st to 4th year) in the institute. Students who had consented in the study were included as study participants. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19 S) were used in assessing OCSs and the level of fear due to COVID-19. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to compute the factors associated with OCS. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 21 ± 1.313 years. The prevalence of OCS in undergraduate medical students was 36 (14.4%), and the level of FCV-19 was 107 (42.8%). Male students (17.8%, 44.2%) had higher OCSs and levels of fear as compared to female students (13.6%, 42.4%). Students with FCV-19 were three (adjusted odds ratio-3.418, 95% confidence interval-1.596, 7.319) times more likely to manifest OCSs while factors such as age, gender, and course were not significantly associated with OCS. Conclusion: Psychological counseling for undergraduate students should be pivotal, especially during pandemics and outbreaks.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Students, Medical , Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Prevalence , Pandemics , Tertiary Healthcare , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , India/epidemiology , Fear
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1041695, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142365

Реферат

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions on travel and quarantine measures made people turn to self-medication (SM) to control the symptoms of their diseases. Different studies were conducted worldwide on different populations, and their results were different. Therefore, this global systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the pooled prevalence of self-medication. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, databases of Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched without a time limit. All eligible observational articles that reported self-medication during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed. Heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using Cochran's Q test and I2 statistics. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of self-medication. The methodological quality of the articles was evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: Fifty-six eligible studies were reviewed. The pooled prevalence of self-medication was 48.6% (95% CI: 42.8-54.3). The highest and lowest prevalence of self-medication was in Asia (53%; 95% CI: 45-61) and Europe (40.8%; 95% CI: 35-46.8). Also, the highest and lowest prevalence of self-medication was related to students (54.5; 95% CI: 40.8-68.3) and healthcare workers (32.5%; 16-49). The prevalence of self-medication in the general population (48.8%; 40.6-57) and in patients with COVID-19 (41.7%; 25.5-58). The prevalence of self-medication was higher in studies that collected data in 2021 than in 2020 (51.2 vs. 48%). Publication bias was not significant (p = 0.320). Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, self-medication was highly prevalent, so nearly half of the people self-medicated. Therefore, it seems necessary to provide public education to control the consequences of self-medication.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine , Students
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1010130, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142344

Реферат

Background: To safely resume in-person activities during the COVID-19 pandemic, Sapienza University of Rome implemented rigorous infection prevention and control measures, a successful communication campaign and a free SARS-CoV-2 testing program. In this study, we describe the University's experience in carrying out such a program in the context of the COVID-19 response and identify risk factors for infection. Methods: Having identified resources, space, supplies and staff, from March to June 2021 Sapienza offered to all its enrollees a molecular test service (8.30 AM to 4 PM, Monday to Thursday). A test-negative case-control study was conducted within the program. Participants underwent structured interviews that investigated activity-related exposures in the 2 weeks before testing. Multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Results: A total of 8,959 tests were administered, of which 56 were positive. The detection trend followed regional tendencies. Among 40 cases and 80 controls, multivariable analysis showed that a known exposure to a COVID-19 case increased the likelihood of infection (aOR: 8.39, 95% CI: 2.38-29.54), while having a job decreased it (aOR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.06-0.88). Of factors that almost reached statistical significance, participation in activities in the university tended to reduce the risk (aOR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.09-1.06), while attendance at private gatherings showed an increasing risk trend (aOR: 3.48, 95% CI: 0.95-12.79). Age, gender, activities in the community, visiting bars or restaurants, and use of public transportation were not relevant risk factors. When those students regularly attending the university campus were excluded from the analysis, the results were comparable, except that attending activities in the community came close to having a statistically significant effect (aOR: 8.13, 95% CI: 0.91-72.84). Conclusions: The testing program helped create a safe university environment. Furthermore, promoting preventive behavior and implementing rigorous measures in public places, as was the case in the university setting, contributed to limit the virus transmission.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Prevalence , Case-Control Studies
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276222, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140588

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Recent estimates of hypertension in Panama remain unknown. We aim to describe the variation in prevalence and unawareness of hypertension in two Panamanian provinces using two different cross-sectional population-based studies and to investigate risk factors associated with hypertension unawareness. METHODS: Data were derived from a sub-national study conducted in the provinces of Panama and Colon (PREFREC-2010 [2,733 participants]) and from a nationally representative study (ENSPA-2019), in which we restricted our analyses to the same provinces (4,653 participants). Individuals aged 30-75 years who had (a) self-reported history of hypertension or (b) blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90mmHg or (c) a combination or both were classified as hypertensive. Participants with BP≥140/90mmHg who denied a history of hypertension were considered unaware of the condition. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between risk factors and unawareness, expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). FINDINGS: In 2010, the prevalence and unawareness of hypertension in men were 51.6% (95% CI: 45.7-57.5) and 32.3% (25.4-40.1), respectively, and in women 46.0% (42.1-49.9) and 16.1% (12.6-20.4), respectively. In 2019, the prevalence and unawareness of hypertension in men were 46.5% (42.1-51.0) and 52.3% (45.9-58.6), and in women 42.1% (39.6-44.7) and 33.3% (29.8-37.0). Men (2010 and 2019), age <50 years (2010 and 2019), having no/primary education (2010), and living in a non-urban region (2019) were positively associated with hypertension unawareness, whereas obesity (2010), physical inactivity (2010), family history of hypertension (2019), and BP assessment in the year before study enrollment (2010 and 2019) were inversely associated with hypertension unawareness. INTERPRETATION: Benefits of a decrease in the prevalence of hypertension are being undermined by an increase in hypertension unawareness. Actions should be encouraged to strengthen the implementation of the existing healthcare program for cardiovascular risk factor control.


Тема - темы
Hypertension , Male , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hypertension/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Blood Pressure , Unconsciousness
19.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0267530, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140386

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, health professionals have been working under extreme conditions, increasing the risk of physical and mental illness. We evaluated the prevalence of burnout and its associated factors among postgraduate student residents in health professions during the global health crisis. METHODS: Healthcare residents were recruited from all across Brazil between July and September 2020 through digital forms containing instruments for assessing burnout (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI)), resilience (brief resilient coping scale (BRCS)) and anxiety, stress and depression (depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)). Additionally, the relationships between burnout and chronic diseases, autonomy and educational adequacy in the residency programme, personal protective equipment (PPE), workload and care for patients with COVID-19 were evaluated. The chi-square test, Student's t test, Pearson's correlation test and logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1,313 participants were included: mean (standard deviation) age, 27.8 (4.4) years; female gender, 78.1%; white race, 59.3%; and physicians, 51.3%. The overall prevalence of burnout was 33.4%. The odds (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) of burnout were higher in the presence of pre-existing diseases (1.76 [1.26-2.47]) and weekly work > 60 h (1.36 [1.03-1.79]) and were lower in the presence of high resilience (0.84 [0.81-0.88]), autonomy (0.87 [0.81-0.93]), and educational structure (0.77 [0.73-0.82]), adequate availability of PPE (0.72 [0.63-0.83]) and non-white race (0.63 [0.47-0.83]). Burnout was correlated with anxiety (r = 0.47; p < 0.05), stress (r: 0.58; p < 0.05) and depression (r: 0.65; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of burnout among residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Individual characteristics and conditions related to the work environment were associated with a higher or lower occurrence of the syndrome.


Тема - темы
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 706, 2022 Nov 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139199

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Occupation groups like police officers and fire fighters are exposed to a number of traumatic events which put them at a risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies have found the prevalence of PTSD in police officers to vary between 7 and 19%. However, most of these studies have been undertaken in western setting with little research having been undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among field police patrol officers serving in Kampala Metropolitan Police (KMP) North Region. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 392 field police patrol officers serving in KMP North Region. Diagnosis of PTSD was undertaken using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5. In order to assess for psychiatric comorbidities, the study used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) RESULTS: In this study, the prevalence of PTSD was 7.4%. An additional 62.5% had sub-threshold PTSD, which was defined as, the presence of at least one PTSD symptom but not meeting full criteria for PTSD diagnosis. The factors found to be significantly associated with PTSD were all related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidities, namely the presence of: a current major depressive episode (aOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 1.5- 14.8; p = .009); an alcohol use disorder (aOR = 5.1; 95% CI: 2.0-13.0; p = .001); and presence of dissociation symptoms (aOR = 6.7; 95% CI: 2.0-22.2; p = .002). CONCLUSION: PTSD is one of the common psychiatric disorders experienced by serving police officers in Uganda. The tendency of PTSD in this group to co-occur with other psychiatric disorders means that any treatment program to address it should be part of a comprehensive multi-disorder mental health treatment programme in the police office.


Тема - темы
Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Police/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uganda/epidemiology
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