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1.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(11): e722, 2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148332

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The recent outbreak of Human Monkeypox (MPXV) in nonendemic regions of the world is of great concern. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically analyze the current epidemiology, clinical presentation, and outcomes of the Monkeypox virus. METHOD: Systematic literature was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Scopus using predefined MESH terms by using "AND" and "OR." The following search terms were used: Monkeypox [MeSH] OR "Monkeypox virus" [MeSH] OR "POX" OR "Monkeypox" AND "Outbreak" AND "Outcomes" from December 2019 till 14th June 2022 without restrictions of language. RESULTS: A total of 1074 (99.90%) patients tested positive for Monkeypox virus through RT-PCR while 1 (0.09) patient was suspected. There was a gender difference with male predominance (54.23% vs. 45.48%) compared with female patients. Mean age (±SD) of patients was 20.66 ± 16.45 years. The major symptoms were rash (100%), fever (96%), and other important symptoms were upper respiratory symptoms (97%), headache (95%), vomiting (95%), oral ulcers (96%), conjunctivitis (96%) and lymphadenopathy (85%). The average mean duration of treatment was 5 days, while the mean hospitalization duration was 13.3 ± 6.37 days. The outcome of 20 patients was available, 19 of 20 patients recovered fully from monkeypox, however, 1 patient was not able to survive resulting in death. CONCLUSION: The recent monkeypox virus outbreak has shown that the virus could transmit in ways that were not previously expected. Further research is needed to understand the possible outcomes and association with humans and their different organ systems.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Prognosis
2.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1350-1367, 2020 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153223

Реферат

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primary enzyme within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which acts to oppose the actions of Ang (angiotensin) II by generating Ang-(1-7) to reduce inflammation and fibrosis and mitigate end organ damage. As COVID-19 spans multiple organ systems linked to the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand clearly how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may affect the multifaceted RAS. In addition, recognition of the role of ACE2 and the RAS in COVID-19 has renewed interest in its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in general. We provide researchers with a framework of best practices in basic and clinical research to interrogate the RAS using appropriate methodology, especially those who are relatively new to the field. This is crucial, as there are many limitations inherent in investigating the RAS in experimental models and in humans. We discuss sound methodological approaches to quantifying enzyme content and activity (ACE, ACE2), peptides (Ang II, Ang-[1-7]), and receptors (types 1 and 2 Ang II receptors, Mas receptor). Our goal is to ensure appropriate research methodology for investigations of the RAS in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and COVID-19 to ensure optimal rigor and reproducibility and appropriate interpretation of results from these investigations.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
3.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1526-1536, 2020 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153220

Реферат

ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Yet, little is known about the clinical and biologic correlates of circulating ACE2 levels in humans. We assessed the clinical and proteomic correlates of plasma (soluble) ACE2 protein levels in human heart failure. We measured plasma ACE2 using a modified aptamer assay among PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) participants (n=2248). We performed an association study of ACE2 against ≈5000 other plasma proteins measured with the SomaScan platform. Plasma ACE2 was not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 was associated with older age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, worse New York Heart Association class, a history of coronary artery bypass surgery, and higher pro-BNP (pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels. Plasma ACE2 exhibited associations with 1011 other plasma proteins. In pathway overrepresentation analyses, top canonical pathways associated with plasma ACE2 included clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling, actin cytoskeleton signaling, mechanisms of viral exit from host cells, EIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor 2) signaling, and the protein ubiquitination pathway. In conclusion, in humans with heart failure, plasma ACE2 is associated with various clinical factors known to be associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including older age, male sex, and diabetes mellitus, but is not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 protein levels are prominently associated with multiple cellular pathways involved in cellular endocytosis, exocytosis, and intracellular protein trafficking. Whether these have a causal relationship with ACE2 or are relevant to novel coronavirus-2 infection remains to be assessed in future studies.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Disease Progression , Heart Failure/enzymology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Academic Medical Centers , Analysis of Variance , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Proteomics/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , United States
4.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139129

Реферат

BACKGROUND: As mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly age-dependent, we aimed to identify population subgroups at an elevated risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 using age-/gender-adjusted data from European cohort studies with the aim to identify populations that could potentially benefit from booster vaccinations. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of underlying medical conditions as prognostic factors for adverse outcomes due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including death, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation within three separate settings (community, hospital and ICU). Cohort studies that reported at least age and gender-adjusted data from Europe were identified through a search of peer-reviewed articles published until 11 June 2021 in Ovid Medline and Embase. Results are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and absolute risk differences in deaths per 1000 COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: We included 88 cohort studies with age-/gender-adjusted data from 6 653 207 SARS-CoV-2 patients from Europe. Hospital-based mortality was associated with high and moderate certainty evidence for solid organ tumours, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, liver disease and obesity, while a higher risk, albeit with low certainty, was noted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. Community-based mortality was associated with a history of heart failure, stroke, diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Evidence of high/moderate certainty revealed a strong association between hospitalisation for COVID-19 and solid organ transplant recipients, sleep apnoea, diabetes, stroke and liver disease. INTERPRETATION: The results confirmed the strong association between specific prognostic factors and mortality and hospital admission. Prioritisation of booster vaccinations and the implementation of nonpharmaceutical protective measures for these populations may contribute to a reduction in COVID-19 mortality, ICU and hospital admissions.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Europe/epidemiology , Male , Female
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 947401, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141978

Реферат

Finding cytokine storm initiator factors associated with uncontrolled inflammatory immune response is necessary in COVID-19 patients. The aim was the identification of Fas/Fas Ligand (FasL) role in lung involvement and mortality of COVID-19 patients. In this case-control study, mild (outpatient), moderate (hospitalized), and severe (ICU) COVID-19 patients and healthy subjects were investigated. RNA isolated from PBMCs for cDNA synthesis and expression of mFas/mFasL mRNA was evaluated by RT-PCR. Serum sFas/sFasL protein by ELISA and severity of lung involvement by CT-scan were evaluated. Also, we docked Fas and FasL via Bioinformatics software (in silico) to predict the best-fit Fas/FasL complex and performed molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) in hyponatremia and fever (COVID-19 patients), and healthy conditions. mFasL expression was increased in moderate and severe COVID-19 patients compared to the control group. Moreover, mFas expression showed an inverse correlation with myalgia symptom in COVID-19 patients. Elevation of sFasL protein in serum was associated with reduced lung injury and mortality. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed that blood profile alterations of COVID-19 patients, such as fever and hyponatremia could affect Fas/FasL complex interactions. Our translational findings showed that decreased sFasL is associated with lung involvement; severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. We think that sFasL is a mediator of neutrophilia and lymphopenia in COVID-19. However, additional investigation is suggested. This is the first report describing that the serum sFasL protein is a severity and mortality prognostic marker for the clinical management of COVID-19 patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hyponatremia , Case-Control Studies , DNA, Complementary , Fas Ligand Protein , Humans , Prognosis , RNA , RNA, Messenger , fas Receptor/metabolism
6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(3): 613-627, 2022 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141043

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying long-term sequelae after AKI remain unclear. Vessel instability, an early response to endothelial injury, may reflect a shared mechanism and early trigger for CKD and heart failure. METHODS: To investigate whether plasma angiopoietins, markers of vessel homeostasis, are associated with CKD progression and heart failure admissions after hospitalization in patients with and without AKI, we conducted a prospective cohort study to analyze the balance between angiopoietin-1 (Angpt-1), which maintains vessel stability, and angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2), which increases vessel destabilization. Three months after discharge, we evaluated the associations between angiopoietins and development of the primary outcomes of CKD progression and heart failure and the secondary outcome of all-cause mortality 3 months after discharge or later. RESULTS: Median age for the 1503 participants was 65.8 years; 746 (50%) had AKI. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of the Angpt-1:Angpt-2 ratio was associated with 72% lower risk of CKD progression (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.51), 94% lower risk of heart failure (aHR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.15), and 82% lower risk of mortality (aHR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.35) for those with AKI. Among those without AKI, the highest quartile of Angpt-1:Angpt-2 ratio was associated with 71% lower risk of heart failure (aHR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.69) and 68% less mortality (aHR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.68). There were no associations with CKD progression. CONCLUSIONS: A higher Angpt-1:Angpt-2 ratio was strongly associated with less CKD progression, heart failure, and mortality in the setting of AKI.


Тема - темы
Acute Kidney Injury , Heart Failure , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Aged , Angiopoietins , Female , Heart Failure/complications , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Risk Factors
7.
Ann Fam Med ; 20(6): 548-550, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140353

Реферат

Our objective was to externally validate 2 simple risk scores for mortality among a mostly inpatient population with COVID-19 in Canada (588 patients for COVID-NoLab and 479 patients for COVID-SimpleLab). The mortality rates in the low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups for COVID-NoLab were 1.1%, 9.6%, and 21.2%, respectively. The mortality rates for COVID-SimpleLab were 0.0%, 9.8%, and 20.0%, respectively. These values were similar to those in the original derivation cohort. The 2 simple risk scores, now successfully externally validated, offer clinicians a reliable way to quickly identify low-risk inpatients who could potentially be managed as outpatients in the event of a bed shortage. Both are available online (https://ebell-projects.shinyapps.io/covid_nolab/ and https://ebell-projects.shinyapps.io/COVID-SimpleLab/).


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Prognosis , Canada/epidemiology , Inpatients , Outpatients
8.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 255, 2022 Nov 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139417

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The presentation of peptides and the subsequent immune response depend on the MHC characteristics and influence the specificity of the immune response. Several studies have found an association between HLA variants and differential COVID-19 outcomes and have shown that HLA genotypes are associated with differential immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, particularly in severely ill patients. Information, whether HLA haplotypes are associated with the severity or length of the disease in moderately diseased individuals is absent. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing-based HLA typing was performed in 303 female and 231 male non-hospitalized North Rhine Westphalian patients infected with SARS-CoV2 during the first and second wave. For HLA-Class I, we obtained results from 528 patients, and for HLA-Class II from 531. In those patients, who became ill between March 2020 and January 2021, the 22 most common HLA-Class I (HLA-A, -B, -C) or HLA-Class II (HLA -DRB1/3/4, -DQA1, -DQB1) haplotypes were determined. The identified HLA haplotypes as well as the presence of a CCR5Δ32 mutation and number of O and A blood group alleles were associated to disease severity and duration of the disease. RESULTS: The influence of the HLA haplotypes on disease severity and duration was more pronounced than the influence of age, sex, or ABO blood group. These associations were sex dependent. The presence of mutated CCR5 resulted in a longer recovery period in males. CONCLUSION: The existence of certain HLA haplotypes is associated with more severe disease.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/genetics , HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics , Prognosis , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , HLA-DRB1 Chains
9.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 456, 2022 Nov 23.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139292

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Supporting decisions for patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with COVID-19 requires accurate prognostication. We aimed to evaluate prognostic models for predicting outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, in different locations and across time. METHODS: We included patients who presented to the ED with suspected COVID-19 and were admitted to 12 hospitals in the New York City (NYC) area and 4 large Dutch hospitals. We used second-wave patients who presented between September and December 2020 (2137 and 3252 in NYC and the Netherlands, respectively) to evaluate models that were developed on first-wave patients who presented between March and August 2020 (12,163 and 5831). We evaluated two prognostic models for in-hospital death: The Northwell COVID-19 Survival (NOCOS) model was developed on NYC data and the COVID Outcome Prediction in the Emergency Department (COPE) model was developed on Dutch data. These models were validated on subsequent second-wave data at the same site (temporal validation) and at the other site (geographic validation). We assessed model performance by the Area Under the receiver operating characteristic Curve (AUC), by the E-statistic, and by net benefit. RESULTS: Twenty-eight-day mortality was considerably higher in the NYC first-wave data (21.0%), compared to the second-wave (10.1%) and the Dutch data (first wave 10.8%; second wave 10.0%). COPE discriminated well at temporal validation (AUC 0.82), with excellent calibration (E-statistic 0.8%). At geographic validation, discrimination was satisfactory (AUC 0.78), but with moderate over-prediction of mortality risk, particularly in higher-risk patients (E-statistic 2.9%). While discrimination was adequate when NOCOS was tested on second-wave NYC data (AUC 0.77), NOCOS systematically overestimated the mortality risk (E-statistic 5.1%). Discrimination in the Dutch data was good (AUC 0.81), but with over-prediction of risk, particularly in lower-risk patients (E-statistic 4.0%). Recalibration of COPE and NOCOS led to limited net benefit improvement in Dutch data, but to substantial net benefit improvement in NYC data. CONCLUSIONS: NOCOS performed moderately worse than COPE, probably reflecting unique aspects of the early pandemic in NYC. Frequent updating of prognostic models is likely to be required for transportability over time and space during a dynamic pandemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Prognosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , ROC Curve , New York City
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063573, 2022 11 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137753

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence that the impact of COVID-19 crisis may be stronger for individuals with multimorbidity, frailty and lower socioeconomic status. Existing reviews focus on few, mainly short-term effects of COVID-19 illness and patients with single chronic disease. Information is also largely missing for population representative samples.Applying population-based approach, the systematic reviews will have two objectives: (1) to evaluate the aetiological roles of frailty, multimorbidity and socioeconomic status on SARS-CoV-2 infection probability, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation and COVID-19 related mortality among general population and (2) to investigate the prognostic roles of frailty, multimorbidity and socioeconomic characteristics on the risk of hospitalisation, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, COVID-19 mortality, functioning, quality of life, disability, mental health and work absence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: For this ongoing work, four databases were searched: PubMed, Embase, WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease and PsycINFO, for the period between January 2020 and April 7 2021. Peer-reviewed published literature in English and all types of population-based studies will be considered. Studies using standard tools to assess multimorbidity such as disease count, comorbidity indices or disease combinations will be retained, as well as studies with standard scales and scores for frailty or measurement of a socioeconomic gradient. Initial search included 10 139 articles, 411 for full-text reading. Results will be summarised by risk factor, objective and outcome. The feasibility of meta-analysis will be determined by the findings and will aim to better understand uncertainties of the results. Quality of studies will be assessed using standardised scales. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study will be based on published evidence, and it is exempt from the ethical approval. This work is part of the Population Health Information Research Infrastructure (PHIRI) project. Dissemination of the results will imply conference presentation, submission for scientific publication and PHIRI project report. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021249444.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Frailty , Humans , Frailty/epidemiology , Multimorbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Prognosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Socioeconomic Factors , Meta-Analysis as Topic
12.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(11): e24726, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127775

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-positive dermatomyositis (MDA5+ DM) is significantly associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD), especially rapidly progressive ILD (RPILD) due to poor prognosis, resulting in high mortality rates. However, the pathogenic mechanism of MDA5+ DM-RPILD is unclear. Although some MDA5+ DM patients have a chronic course of ILD, many do not develop RPILD. Therefore, the related biomarkers for the early diagnosis, disease activity monitoring, and prediction of the outcome of RPILD in MDA5+ DM patients should be identified. Blood-based biomarkers are minimally invasive and can be easily detected. METHODS: Recent relative studies related to blood biomarkers in PubMed were reviewed. RESULTS: An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that dysregulated expression of blood biomarkers related to ILD such as ferritin, Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), surfactant protein-D (SP-D), and cytokines, and some tumor markers in MDA5+ DM may provide information in disease presence, activity, treatment response, and prognosis. These studies have highlighted the great potentials of blood biomarker values for MDA5+ DM-ILD and MDA5+ DM-RPILD. This review provides an overview of recent studies related to blood biomarkers, besides highlighted protein biomarkers, including antibody (anti-MDA5 IgG subclasses and anti-Ro52 antibody), genetic (exosomal microRNAs and neutrophil extracellular traps related to cell-free DNA), and immune cellular biomarkers in MDA5+ DM, MDA5+ DM-ILD, and MDA5+ DM-RPILD patients, hopefully elucidating the pathogenesis of MDA5+ DM-ILD and providing information on the early diagnosis, disease activity monitoring, and prediction of the outcome of the ILD, especially RPILD. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, this review may provide insight to guide treatment decisions for MDA5+ DM-RPILD patients and improve outcomes.


Тема - темы
Dermatomyositis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Humans , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1 , Autoantibodies , Disease Progression , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1065345, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123419

Реферат

Background: Several systemic inflammatory biomarkers have been associated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease severity in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear which markers are better for predicting prognosis, especially for COVID-19 Omicron BA.2 infected patients. The present study aimed to identify reliable predictors of prognosis of COVID-19 Omicron BA.2 from inflammatory indicators. Methods: A cohort of 2645 COVID-19 Omicron BA.2 infected patients were retrospectively analyzed during the Omicron BA.2 surge in Shanghai between April 12, 2022, and June 17, 2022. The patients were admitted to the Shanghai Fourth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University. Six systemic inflammatory indicators were included, and their cut-off points were calculated using maximally selected rank statistics. The analysis involved Kaplan-Meier curves, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, and time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves (time-ROC) for OS-associated inflammatory indicators. Results: A total of 2347 COVID-19 Omicron BA.2 infected patients were included. All selected indicators proved to be independent predictors of OS in the multivariate analysis (all P < 0.01). A high derived neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) was associated with a higher mortality risk of COVID-19 [hazard ratio, 4.272; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.417-7.552]. The analyses of time-AUC and C-index showed that the dNLR (C-index: 0.844, 0.824, and 0.718 for the 5th, 10th, and 15th day, respectively) had the best predictive power for OS in COVID-19 Omicron BA.2 infected patients. Among different sub-groups, the dNLR was the best predictor for OS regardless of age (0.811 for patients aged ≥70 years), gender (C-index, 0.880 for men and 0.793 for women) and disease severity (C-index, 0.932 for non-severe patients and 0.658 for severe patients). However, the platelet to lymphocyte ratio was superior to the other indicators in patients aged <70 years. Conclusions: The prognostic ability of the dNLR was higher than the other evaluated inflammatory indicators for all COVID-19 Omicron BA.2 infected patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , Humans , Male , Female , Retrospective Studies , China/epidemiology , Lymphocytes , Prognosis
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(21): 8180-8187, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116746

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed at investigating the impacts of demographic, hematological, and biochemical factors on the clinical course and the prognostic outcome in adult COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was performed in the internal medicine departments of two hospitals, and data were extracted from the medical files of 1,700 adult COVID-19 patients (836 females, 49.2%; 864 males, 50.8%) with an average age of 48.23 ± 16.68 (range: 18-93). Clinical data included baseline descriptives, prior medical history, admission date, treatment, and hematological and biochemical blood test results. The relationship between the survival, length of hospitalization, hematological, and biochemical parameters was investigated. RESULTS: Advanced age (p<0.001), presence of at least on comorbid disease (p=0.045), increased length of hospitalization (p=0.006), elevated white blood cell (p=0.001) and neutrophil (p=0.002) counts, increased serum levels of glucose (p=0.027), blood urea nitrogen (p<0.001), AST (p=0.006), LDH (p<0.001), CRP (p>0.001), and D-dimer (p=0.001). In contrast, diminution of serum levels of albumin (p<0.001), ALT (p=0.028), calcium (p=0.022), and platelet count (p=0.010) were associated with increased mortality. There was a positive and weak relationship between serum D-dimer levels and length of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Our data imply that identifying and validating indicators that predict COVID-19 disease progression to improve health outcomes is crucial. Age, comorbidities, immunological response, radiographic abnormalities, laboratory markers, and signs of organ dysfunction may all predict poor outcomes individually or collectively. Identifying characteristics that predict COVID-19 problems is critical to guiding clinical management, improving patient outcomes, and allocating limited resources.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Male , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
15.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(9): 915-920, 2022 Sep.
Статья в Китайский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115846

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 2019 novel coronavirus inactivated vaccine on the disease severity of patients with Delta variant of coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 704 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 infected with Delta variant who were older than 18 years old and admitted in the coronavirus disease 2019 designated hospital of Yangzhou (Subei Hospital New Area Branch) from July 2021 to September 2021. They were divided into severe (severe, critical) group and non-severe (light, ordinary) group according to the clinical characteristics of patients. According to the vaccination status, they were divided into 0-dose group, 1-dose group and 2-dose group. We evaluated the effects of vaccination on the severity of the disease and the production of antibodies, and analyzed the influencing factors leading to the severe group of coronavirus disease 2019. RESULTS: The proportion of severe group in the 2-dose vaccinated group was significantly lower than that in the 1-dose vaccinated group and 0-dose vaccinated group [3.02% (7/232) vs. 9.48% (22/232), 15.83% (38/240), P < 0.05]. The time from onset to admission (day: 1.97±1.66 vs. 2.66±2.70), age (years: 45.3±12.2 vs. 63.6±17.0), direct bilirubin [DBil (µmol/L): 3.70±1.83 vs. 5.30±5.13], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH (U/L): 240.69±74.29 vs. 256.30±85.18], creatinine [SCr (µmol/L): 63.38±19.86 vs. 70.23±25.43], interleukin-6 [IL-6 (ng/L): 7.32 (1.54, 17.40) vs. 18.38 (8.83, 33.43)], creatine kinase [CK (U/L): 66.00 (43.00, 99.75) vs. 78.00 (54.50, 144.00)] and D-dimer [mg/L: 0.30 (0.08, 0.49) vs. 0.41 (0.23, 0.69)] of patients in the 2-dose group were significantly lower than those in the 0-dose group (all P < 0.05), while platelet [PLT (×109/L): 176.69±60.25 vs. 149.25±59.07], white blood cell count [WBC (×109/L): 5.43±1.77 vs. 5.03±1.88] and lymphocyte [LYM (×109/L): 1.34±0.88 vs. 1.17±0.50] were significantly higher than those in the 0-dose group (all P < 0.05). The titer of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the 2-dose group was significantly higher than those in the 1-dose group and 0-dose group on the 10th day after admission [U/L: 130.94 (92.23, 326.31), 113.18 (17.62, 136.20), 117.85 (33.52, 156.73), both P < 0.05], and higher than 0-dose group on the 16th day [U/L: 156.12 (120.32, 167.76) vs. 126.52 (61.34, 149.57), P < 0.05]. The proportion of complete 2-dose vaccination [10.45% (7/67) vs. 35.32% (225/637)], LYM (×109/L: 1.09±0.32 vs. 1.25±0.56) and PLT (×109/L: 138.55±68.03 vs. 166.93±59.70) in the severe group were significantly lower than those in the non-severe group (P < 0.05), while the time from onset to admission (day: 3.01±2.99 vs. 2.25±2.09), the length of hospital stay (day: 28±18 vs. 16±6), male proportion [77.61% (52/67) vs. 34.54% (220/637)], age (years: 69.13±12.63 vs. 52.28±16.53), DBil [µmol/L: 4.20 (3.18, 6.65) vs. 3.60 (2.80, 4.90], LDH (U/L: 310.61±98.33 vs. 238.19±72.14), SCr (µmol/L: 85.67±38.25 vs. 65.98±18.57), C-reactive protein [CRP (µmol/L): 28.12 (11.32, 42.23) vs. 8.49 (2.61, 17.58)], IL-6 [ng/L: 38.38 (24.67, 81.50) vs. 11.40 (4.60, 22.07)], CK [U/L: 140.00 (66.00, 274.00) vs. 72.80 (53.00, 11.00)] and the D-dimer [mg/L: 0.46 (0.29, 0.67) vs. 0.35 (0.19, 0.57)] in the severe group were significantly higher than those in the non-severe group (all P < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) of severe group was 0.430 (P = 0.010) in the 1-dose group and the 2-dose group compared with the 0-dose group. However, the risk of severe group was 0.381-fold in the 2-dose group compared with the 0-dose group [OR = 0.381, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.121-1.199] which was not statistically significant, when the age was included in the regression analysis (P > 0.05). PLT (OR = 0.992, 95%CI was 0.986-0.998) were protective factors, but older than 60 years old (OR = 3.681, 95%CI was 1.637-8.278), CK (OR = 1.001, 95%CI was 1.000-1.001), IL-6 (OR = 1.006, 95%CI was 1.002-1.010), SCr (OR = 1.020, 95%CI was 1.007-1.033) were risk factors for severe group (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the 0-dose vaccinated patients, the coronavirus disease 2019 patients infected with delta variant and fully vaccinated with 2-dose 2019 novel coronavirus inactivated vaccine had lower level of IL-6, SCr, CK and D-dimer, and higher PLT, LYM and IgG titer, who were not easy to develop into the severe condition.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Interleukin-6 , ROC Curve , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccines, Inactivated
16.
Physiol Rep ; 10(22): e15512, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115675

Реферат

Previous studies suggested that ongoing treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor drugs may alter the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and promote the development of more severe forms of the disease. The authors conducted a comparative, observational study to retrospectively analyze data collected from 394 patients admitted to ICU due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The primary aim of the study was to establish an association between the use of RAAS inhibitor drugs and mortality in the ICU. The secondary aims of the study were to establish an association between the use of RAAS inhibitor drugs and clinical severity at ICU admission, the need for tracheal intubation, total days of mechanical ventilation, and the ICU length of stay. The authors found no statistically significant difference in ICU mortality between patients on RAAS inhibitor drugs at admission and those who were not (31.3% versus 26.2% mortality, p-value 0.3). However, the group of patients taking RAAS inhibitor drugs appeared to be more critical at ICU admission, and this difference became statistically significant in the subgroup of non-hypertensive patients. ICU mortality in the subgroup of non-hypertensive patients treated with RAAS inhibitor drugs also tended to be higher. Overexpression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in human cells, induced by RAAS inhibitor drugs, promotes viral entry-replication of SARS-CoV-2 and alters the basal balance of the RAAS, which may explain the findings observed in the present study. These phenomena may be amplified in non-hypertensive patients treated with RAAS inhibitor therapy.


Тема - темы
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Prognosis , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units , Hospitalization
17.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(5): 1689-1696, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113781

Реферат

BACKGROUND: While chloride (Cl) is the most abundant anion in the serum, it is unfortunately one of the most commonly disregarded laboratory test results routinely drawn upon admission into the medical intensive care unit (MICU). We aimed to investigate the relation between in-hospital mortality, different pathologies requiring admission to the MICU, serum Cl levels, and other biochemical tests in a tertiary center. METHODS: The prospective study included data from 373 patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care center between 2017 and 2019. Data of patients under 18, pregnant patients or patients who were in the MICU for under 48 h were excluded. Comorbidity status, complete blood count, biochemistry tests, and blood gas analysis results of all patients included in the study were collected and recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with the obtained data. RESULTS: : Of the patients included in the study, 158 (42.4%) were discharged, and 215 (57.6%) died. In the receiver operator characteristics curve analysis performed to determine the discriminating power of Cl levels with a cut-off value of >98 mEq/L in relation to mortality, its sensitivity was found to be 84% and specificity 60%. According to Kaplan-Meier analysis results, mortality rate was higher (60% vs 46%) and survival time was lower (19.0 ± 1.46 vs. 23.0 ± 4.36 days; p = 0.035) in the patient group with high Cl levels compared to the patient group with normal or low Cl levels. In the Cox regression analysis, it was found that the survival time of the patients hospitalized in the MICU was associated with the variables of Cl, presence of cancer diagnosis and pCO2 (hazard ratio: 1.030 (1.008-1.049), 2.260(1.451-3.500), and 1.020 (1.003-1.029); p < 0.05, respectively). DISCUSSION: Mortality in MICU patients were found to increase in association with higher Cl levels at admission, presence of cancer disease, and higher pCO2 levels. In addition, it should not be ignored that there may be an important relationship between renal failure and hyperchloremia in MICU patients.


Тема - темы
Critical Care , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Humans , Prospective Studies , Prognosis , Intensive Care Units
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(10): 1555-1563, 2022 10 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110325

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Fatality due to COVID-19 continues to be a challenge. Timely identification of critical COVID-19 patients is crucial for their close clinical follow-up and treatment. We aimed to identify the mortality predictors of critical COVID-19 patients. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed medical records of 232 out of 300 patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) whose medical records were available in the hospital database. Non-survivors and survivors were compared for parameters. Medical records of demographics, comorbidities, radiological signs, respiratory support, and laboratory tests on the first day of ICU admission were included. The durations of ICU stay and hospitalization were also evaluated. RESULTS: The patients with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score above 28.5 and the patients with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) above 45.5 mg/dL were significantly more mortal (95% CI: 0.701, p = 0.0001; 95% CI: 0.599, p = 0.022; respectively). Partial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) ratio below 110.5 mmHg was a predictor for mortality (95% CI: 0.397, p = 0.018). Older age, smoking, crazy paving pattern on computed tomography (CT), and short duration of hospitalization were also predictors of mortality. The patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation were significantly more mortal whereas the patients requiring high flow oxygen and non-invasive ventilation were significantly more likely to survive. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend evaluating APACHE-II score, BUN value, P/F ratio, age, smoking status, radiological signs on CT, length of hospitalization and modality of respiratory support upon ICU admission to identify critical patients with poor prognoses.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Prognosis , Intensive Care Units , APACHE , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6812, 2022 Nov 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117209

Реферат

Clinical prognostic models can assist patient care decisions. However, their performance can drift over time and location, necessitating model monitoring and updating. Despite rapid and significant changes during the pandemic, prognostic models for COVID-19 patients do not currently account for these drifts. We develop a framework for continuously monitoring and updating prognostic models and apply it to predict 28-day survival in COVID-19 patients. We use demographic, laboratory, and clinical data from electronic health records of 34912 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from March 2020 until May 2022 and compare three modeling methods. Model calibration performance drift is immediately detected with minor fluctuations in discrimination. The overall calibration on the prospective validation cohort is significantly improved when comparing the dynamically updated models against their static counterparts. Our findings suggest that, using this framework, models remain accurate and well-calibrated across various waves, variants, race and sex and yield positive net-benefits.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Prognosis , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Calibration , Retrospective Studies
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19220, 2022 Nov 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117131

Реферат

Our study was aimed at developing and validating a new approach, embodied in a machine learning-based model, for sequentially monitoring hospitalized COVID-19 patients and directing professional attention to patients whose deterioration is imminent. Model development employed real-world patient data (598 prediction events for 210 patients), internal validation (315 prediction events for 97 patients), and external validation (1373 prediction events for 307 patients). Results show significant divergence in longitudinal values of eight routinely collected blood parameters appearing several days before deterioration. Our model uses these signals to predict the personal likelihood of transition from non-severe to severe status within well-specified short time windows. Internal validation of the model's prediction accuracy showed ROC AUC of 0.8 and 0.79 for prediction scopes of 48 or 96 h, respectively; external validation showed ROC AUC of 0.7 and 0.73 for the same prediction scopes. Results indicate the feasibility of predicting the forthcoming deterioration of non-severe COVID-19 patients by eight routinely collected blood parameters, including neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelets counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, CRP, LDH, and D-dimer. A prospective clinical study and an impact assessment will allow implementation of this model in the clinic to improve care, streamline resources and ease hospital burden by timely focusing the medical attention on potentially deteriorating patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Machine Learning , Hospitals , Retrospective Studies
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