Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Шоу: 20 | 50 | 100
Результаты 1 - 20 de 106
Фильтр
Добавить фильтры

база данных
Годовой диапазон
2.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(11): 2457-2464, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137109

Реферат

Pulmonary embolism response teams (PERTs) have emerged as a multidisciplinary, multispecialty team of experts in the care of highly complex symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism (PE), with a centralized unique activation process, providing rapid multimodality assessment and risk stratification, formulating the best individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approach, streamlining the care in challenging clinical case scenarios (e.g., intermediate-high risk and high-risk PE), and facilitating the implementation of the recommended therapeutic strategies on time. PERTs are currently changing how complex acute PE cases are approached. The structure, organization, and function of a given PERT may vary from hospital to hospital, depending on local expertise, specific resources, and infrastructure for a given academic hospital center. Current emerging data demonstrate the value of PERTs in improving time to PE diagnosis; shorter time to initiation of anticoagulation reducing hospital length of stay; increasing use of advanced therapies without an increase in bleeding; and in some reports, decreasing mortality. Importantly, PERTs are positively impacting outcomes by changing the paradigm of care for acute PE through global adoption by the health-care community.


Тема - темы
Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Hemorrhage , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
3.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e937739, 2022 Nov 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100411

Реферат

BACKGROUND We present the report of the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) that occurred 3 days after anticoagulation discontinuation in a patient with a history of pulmonary embolism in the course of COVID-19. CASE REPORT A previously healthy 38-year-old man was hospitalized in April 2021 with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, complicated by segmental and subsegmental pulmonary embolism. The patient was treated with a concurrent combination of remdesivir, dexamethasone, therapeutic enoxaparin, ceftriaxone, passive oxygen therapy, and convalescent plasma therapy, which led to pulmonary improvement. The treatment with therapeutic enoxaparin (80 mg/0.8 mL twice a day) was continued for 1 month after discharge, followed by 15 mg of rivaroxaban twice a day for 3 weeks and 20 mg of rivaroxaban once a day for 11 weeks. Within 3 days after rivaroxaban discontinuation, the patient experienced a decrease in visual acuity in his right eye, to the level of 5/25. Nonischemic CRVO with cystoid macular edema was diagnosed and an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was performed. Common identifiable factors contributing to CRVO were excluded, and the treatment with prophylactic enoxaparin was initiated. Two weeks later, macular edema decreased significantly and visual acuity improved to 20/20. The treatment with enoxaparin was discontinued. CONCLUSIONS Rebound hypercoagulability after discontinuation of rivaroxaban therapy can manifest as CRVO in a young patient with a history of COVID-19 pulmonary embolism. It was successfully treated with an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Macular Edema , Pulmonary Embolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Male , Humans , Adult , Retinal Vein Occlusion/complications , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/etiology , Intravitreal Injections , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
4.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 296, 2022 Oct 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098345

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant treatment is recommended for at least three months after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but the persistent pulmonary clot burden after that time is unknown. METHODS: Lung perfusion was assessed by ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) SPECT/CT in 20 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute PE after a minimum of three months anticoagulation therapy in a retrospective observational study. RESULTS: Remaining perfusion defects after a median treatment period of six months were observed in only two patients. All patients (13 men, seven women, mean age 55.6 ± 14.5 years) were on non-vitamin K direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). No recurrent venous thromboembolism or anticoagulant-related bleeding complications were observed. Among patients with partial clinical recovery, high-risk PE and persistent pulmonary infiltrates were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001, respectively). INTERPRETATION: Temporary DOAC treatment seems to be safe and efficacious for resolving pulmonary clot burden in SARS-CoV-2-associated acute PE. Partial clinical recovery is more likely caused by prolonged SARS-CoV-2-related parenchymal lung damage rather than by persistent pulmonary perfusion defects.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Perfusion
5.
Pharmacol Res ; 184: 106424, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008027

Реферат

The global COVID-19 pandemic remains a critical public health threat, as existing vaccines and drugs appear insufficient to halt the rapid transmission. During an outbreak from May to August 2021 in Taiwan, patients with severe COVID-19 were administered NRICM102, which was a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula developed based on its predecessor NRICM101 approved for treating mild cases. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of NRICM102 in ameliorating severe COVID-19-related embolic and fibrotic pulmonary injury. NRICM102 was found to disrupt spike protein/ACE2 interaction, 3CL protease activity, reduce activation of neutrophils, monocytes and expression of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8), chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES) and proinflammatory receptor (TLR4). NRICM102 also inhibited the spread of virus and progression to embolic and fibrotic pulmonary injury through reducing prothrombotic (vWF, PAI-1, NET) and fibrotic (c-Kit, SCF) factors, and reducing alveolar type I (AT1) and type II (AT2) cell apoptosis. NRICM102 may exhibit its protective capability via regulation of TLRs, JAK/STAT, PI3K/AKT, and NET signaling pathways. The study demonstrates the ability of NRICM102 to ameliorate severe COVID-19-related embolic and fibrotic pulmonary injury in vitro and in vivo and elucidates the underlying mechanisms.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Pulmonary Embolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CCL5 , Cytokines , Fibrosis , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8 , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Pandemics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor
6.
Nucl Med Commun ; 43(9): 978-986, 2022 09 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985179

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: It was aimed to reveal the continuing perfusion defect rates in patients with a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) due to COVID-19 who have completed the third month of anticoagulant therapy but whose symptoms or laboratory elevations continue. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 who were diagnosed with PE by Q-SPECT-CT between 1 September 2020 and 1 November 2021, who underwent control Q-SPECT/CT were included in the study. Demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, and first and second Q-SPECT/CT evaluation results of the patients were recorded. RESULTS: It was observed that the pulmonary defect continued in Q-SPECT/CT in the third month of anticoagulant treatment in 58.3% of the patients diagnosed with PE due to COVID-19, and new defects developed in 6.3%. The persistence rate of segment defects was higher than that of subsegment defects. It was observed that the defects persisted more frequently in patients with a history of hospitalization due to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Perfusion defects may still be present in patients diagnosed with PE due to COVID-19 in the presence of persistent dyspnea/chest pain/D-dimer elevation after 3 months of treatment. Perfusion defect persistence rates are higher in defects more proximal to the subsegment level and in people with severe COVID-19, and extended treatment should be considered in these patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Perfusion , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(8): 1208-1211, 2022 Aug.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983457

Реферат

A 53-year-old male Japanese patient with COVID-19 was admitted to our hospital after his respiratory condition worsened on day 9 of the disease. With the diagnosis of severe COVID-19, treatment with remdesivir, dexamethasone, and unfractionated heparin was started for the prevention of thrombosis. Although the patient's respiratory status data improved after treatment, severe respiratory failure persisted. Thrombocytopenia and D-dimer elevation were observed on day 8 after heparin therapy initiation. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) antibody measured by immunological assay was positive, and contrast computed tomography showed pulmonary artery thrombus. The patient was diagnosed with HIT because the pre-test probability score (4Ts score) for HIT was 7 points. Heparin was changed to apixaban, a direct oral anticoagulant, which resulted in a reduction of the pulmonary thrombus and improvement of the respiratory failure. In patients with COVID-19, anticoagulant therapy with heparin requires careful monitoring of thrombocytopenia and elevated D-dimer as possible complications related to HIT. (151/250 words).


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Respiratory Insufficiency , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy
8.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957455

Реферат

Background. Fixed-dose ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis (USAT) rapidly improves hemodynamic parameters and reverses right ventricular dysfunction caused by acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The effectiveness of USAT for acute PE associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. Methods and results. The study population of this cohort study consisted of 36 patients with an intermediate-high- or high-risk acute PE treated with a fixed low-dose USAT protocol (r-tPA 10-20 mg/15 h). Of these, 9 patients tested positive for COVID-19 and were age-sex-matched to 27 patients without COVID-19. The USAT protocol included, beyond the infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, anti-Xa-activity-adjusted unfractionated heparin therapy (target 0.3-0.7 U/mL). The study outcomes were the invasively measured mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) before and at completion of USAT, and the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), according to which more points indicate more severe hemodynamic impairment. Twenty-four (66.7%) patients were men; the mean age was 67 ± 14 years. Mean &nbsp;± &nbsp;standard deviation mPAP decreased from 32.3 ± 8.3 to 22.4 ± 7.0 mmHg among COVID-19 patients and from 35.4 ± 9.7 to 24.6 ± 7.0 mmHg among unexposed, with no difference in the relative improvement between groups (p = 0.84). Within 12 h of USAT start, the median NEWS decreased from six (Q1-Q3: 4-8) to three (Q1-Q3: 2-4) points among COVID-19 patients and from four (Q1-Q3: 2-6) to two (Q1-Q3: 2-3) points among unexposed (p = 0.29). One COVID-19 patient died due to COVID-19-related complications 14 days after acute PE. No major bleeding events occurred. Conclusions. Among patients with COVID-19-associated acute PE, mPAP rapidly decreased during USAT with a concomitant progressive improvement of the NEWS. The magnitude of mPAP reduction was similar in patients with and without COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catheters , Cohort Studies , Female , Heparin , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
9.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0266944, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910586

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Early reports of increased thrombosis risk with SARS-CoV-2 infection led to changes in venous thromboembolism (VTE) management. Real-world data on the prevalence, efficacy and harms of these changes informs best practices. OBJECTIVE: Define practice patterns and clinical outcomes related to VTE diagnosis, prevention, and management in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) using a multi-hospital US sample. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study of 1121 patients admitted to 33 hospitals, exposure was dose of anticoagulant prescribed for VTE prophylaxis (standard, intensified, therapeutic), and primary outcome was VTE (pulmonary embolism [PE] and deep vein thrombosis [DVT]); secondary outcomes were PE, DVT, arterial thromboembolism (ATE), and bleeding events. Multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering by site and adjusted for risk factors were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Inverse probability weighting was used to account for confounding by indication. RESULTS: 1121 patients (mean age 60 ± 18, 47% female) admitted with COVID-19 between February 2, 2020 and December 31, 2020 to 33 US hospitals were included. Pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis was prescribed in 86%. Forty-seven patients (4.2%) had PE, 51 (4.6%) had DVT, and 23 (2.1%) had ATE. Forty-six patients (4.1%) had major bleeding and 46 (4.1%) had clinically relevant non-major bleeding. Compared to standard prophylaxis, adjusted odds of VTE were 0.67 (95% CI 0.21-2.1) with no prophylaxis, 1.0 (95% CI 0.06-17) with intensified, and 3.0 (95% CI 0.89-10) with therapeutic. Adjusted odds of bleeding with no prophylaxis were 5.6 (95% CI 3.0-11) and 5.3 (95% CI 3.0-10) with therapeutic (no events on intensified dosing). CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic anticoagulation was associated with a 3-fold increased odds of VTE and 5-fold increased odds of bleeding. While higher bleeding rates with high-intensity prophylaxis were likely due to full-dose anticoagulation, we conclude that high thrombosis rates were due to clinical concern for thrombosis before formal diagnosis.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
11.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 54(3): 431-437, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885483

Реферат

We observed multiple fatal intracranial hemorrhages shortly after initiating therapeutic anticoagulation for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in COVID-19 patients suggesting increased anticoagulation risk associated with COVID-19. The objective of this study is to quantify risk of major hemorrhage in hospitalized COVID-19 patients on therapeutic anticoagulation for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving therapeutic anticoagulation for DVT, PE or both at four New York City hospitals were evaluated for hemorrhagic complications. These were categorized as major (including fatal) or clinically relevant non-major according to the criteria of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Hemorrhagic complications were correlated with clinical and laboratory data, ICD-10 code diagnoses and type of anticoagulation treatment. Minor hemorrhages were excluded. Major/clinically relevant hemorrhages occurred in 36 of 170 (21%) hospitalized COVID-19 patients being treated with therapeutic anticoagulation for VTE including 4 (2.4%) fatal hemorrhages. Hemorrhage was 3.4 times more likely with unfractionated heparin 27/76 (36%) compared to 8/81 (10%) with low molecular weight heparin (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that major hemorrhage was associated with intubation (p = 0.04) and elevated serum LDH (p < 0.001) and low fibrinogen (p = 0.05). Increased risk of hemorrhagic complications in treating VTE in hospitalized COVID-19 patients should be considered especially when using unfractionated heparin, in intubated patients, with low fibrinogen and/or elevated LDH. Checking serum fibrinogen and LDH before initiating therapeutic anticoagulation and monitoring coagulation parameters frequently may reduce bleeding complications.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrinogen/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis
12.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(5): 1056-1066, 2022 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822054

Реферат

Venous thromboembolism is a very common and costly health problem worldwide. Anticoagulant treatment for VTE is imperfect: all have the potential for significant bleeding, and none prevent the development of post thrombotic syndrome after deep vein thrombosis or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism. For these reasons, alternate forms of therapy with improved efficacy and decreased bleeding are needed. Selectins are a family (P-selectin, E-selectin, L-selectin) of glycoproteins that facilitate and augment thrombosis, modulating neutrophil, monocyte, and platelet activity. P- and E-selectin have been investigated as potential biomarkers for thrombosis. Inhibition of P-selectin and E-selectin decrease thrombosis and vein wall fibrosis, with no increase in bleeding. Selectin inhibition is a promising avenue of future study as either a stand-alone treatment for VTE or as an adjunct to standard anticoagulation therapies.


Тема - темы
P-Selectin/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , E-Selectin , Hemorrhage , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Selectins , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
14.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 50(296): 118-123, 2022 Apr 19.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1790558

Реферат

COVID-19 patients, particularly those with severe pulmonary involvement, are at an increased thromboembolic risk related, among various causes, to the cytokine storm and excessive activation of the coagulation cascade and platelets. Different intensity of anticoagulation for them is proposed, mainly with low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs); in a confirmed pulmonary embolism (PE) the therapeutic dose of LMWH is routinely used. Some authors suggest that hemorrhagic complications in COVID-19 patients are rare. At the same time, one can find reports on internal bleeding, including retroperitoneal hematoma (RPH) and other abdominal hematomas. CASE REPORTS: The authors describe 5 cases (3 of those aged more than 80 years) with giant RPHs and with moderate/severe COVID-19 pneumonia, treated before RPH diagnosis with different enoxaparin doses. The therapeutic dose was given to the male with verified PE limited to the segmental/subsegmental pulmonary arteries and initially to the female in whom echocardiography was strongly suggestive of PE, yet this diagnosis was excluded on CT angiography. In one patient, the enoxaparin dose was escalated from 40 mg bd to 60 mg bd after the D-dimer increase. Two patients had bleeding complications despite the enoxaparin dose restricted to 40 mg/daily or bd. Two males had a coexistent psoas hematoma while in only one female there was a coexistent femoral hematoma. RPHs occurred between day 4 and 14 of hospitalization and all were treated conservatively. Three patients who died were particularly charged, so their deaths were not merely directly associated with RPH, which was closely analyzed in one autopsy performed. The authors underline that the choice of anticoagulation intensity in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia without venous thromboembolism seems sometimes difficult but recent publications indicate the low prophylactic enoxaparin dose as an optimal option. Anticoagulation dose escalation based only on the D-dimer level may not be appropriate for certain patients; moreover, the D-dimer increase is commonly observed during internal bleeding.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Hematoma/chemically induced , Hematoma/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779332

Реферат

A man in his 70s was admitted to hospital due to a fall, urinary tract infection and delirium. The patient had a 'do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation' order in place and a ward-based ceiling of care was agreed. He tested positive for COVID-19 while on a geriatric ward and subsequently developed bilateral pulmonary emboli with haemodynamic instability. The patient had a significant bleeding risk; however, the expected morbidity and mortality risk from the pulmonary emboli was high. A decision was made to give the patient low-dose thrombolysis on the geriatric ward, following which he made a full recovery. Acute thrombolysis is normally performed in emergency department, high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) settings; however, this was not possible in this case due to the burden the COVID-19 pandemic had placed on HDU/ICU services and bed capacity. Adaptation of treatment guidelines allowed for emergency life-saving treatment to be delivered to this patient.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Aged , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 277, 2022 Mar 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759707

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Although the RECOVERY trial showed that dexamethasone was efficacious for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), its impact on the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) and other serious procoagulant events was not assessed. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report the case of a previously healthy 83-year-old woman with COVID-19, without any genetic predisposition to thrombosis. She developed moderate respiratory distress 12 days after symptom onset and a 10-day course of dexamethasone therapy was initiated. Her clinical condition and imaging findings improved initially; however, they deteriorated after the completion of dexamethasone therapy, despite the improvement in her pneumonia and viral clearance. Laboratory tests showed markedly raised serum D-dimer, ferritin, and sIL-2R levels, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the left iliac vein and PE of the right pulmonary artery. The DVT and PE were successfully treated using intravenous heparin administration. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates the potential risk of rebound inflammation and procoagulant events following dexamethasone withdrawal. We believe that COVID-19-induced DVT and PE can be affected by dexamethasone therapy. Although dexamethasone reduces procoagulant factors, increases anticoagulant factors, and modulates cytokines, which can suppress/delay thrombus formation during treatment, it confers the risk for rebound cytokine production after treatment completion, triggering cytokine and coagulation cascades that can lead to thromboembolic diseases. In this critical clinical period, the patient's deteriorating condition may be overlooked because of the masking effects of dexamethasone treatment on fever and other clinical conditions and laboratory changes. Clinicians should follow-up coagulation markers carefully and contrast-enhanced computed tomography is useful for detecting coagulation; and, if PE occurs, therapeutic heparin administration is essential because emboli can also generate cytokines.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 57, 2022 02 23.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702971

Реферат

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that poses a major threat to global public health. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, causing severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, it can also result in multiple extrapulmonary complications. The pathogenesis of extrapulmonary damage in patients with COVID-19 is probably multifactorial, involving both the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the indirect mechanisms associated with the host inflammatory response. Recognition of features and pathogenesis of extrapulmonary complications has clinical implications for identifying disease progression and designing therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of the extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19 from immunological and pathophysiologic perspectives and focuses on the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for the management of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
19.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 10(4): 826-831.e1, 2022 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665242

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Great interest exists in standardizing the anticoagulant choice for patients requiring treatment of distal deep vein thrombosis (DDVT). In the present multicenter, retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the outcomes of patients with DDVT who had been treated with warfarin vs direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs; ie, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, dabigatran). METHODS: Queries were built for the TriNetX database (TriNetX LLC, Cambridge, Mass), a federated network of healthcare organizations across the United States that provides de-identified patient data through aggregated counts and statistical summaries. International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, diagnostic codes were used to identify eligible patients. Data from January 1, 2013 to January 1, 2020 were reviewed. Statistical analyses, including propensity matching, were performed using TriNetX's internal software. The inclusion criterion was treatment with either warfarin or a DOAC started within the first 24 hours of diagnosis of an isolated thrombosis of the following veins: anterior tibial, posterior tibial, peroneal, or calf muscular veins. The exclusion criteria were a history of an adverse reaction to anticoagulant agents, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection, thrombophilia, mechanical heart valve, chronic proximal DVT (PDVT) and/or DDVT, and 6-month history of the following: acute PDVT, pulmonary embolism (PE), or anticoagulant usage. The outcomes measured included the incidence of mortality, PE, PDVT, stroke, myocardial infarction, and major bleeding within 6 months after initiating anticoagulation therapy. RESULTS: In a cohort of 6509 patients, 1570 were treated with warfarin and 4939 were treated with a DOAC drug. After propensity matching for age, sex, ethnicity, and comorbidities, the DOAC cohort had a significantly lower incidence of PE (1.795% vs 3.590%; P = .0020) and major bleeding (7.949% vs 10.513%; P = .0134). Differences in the incidence of mortality, PDVT, myocardial infarction, and stroke were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Before the present study, no strong evidence was available to suggest an optimal treatment modality for DDVT requiring anticoagulation therapy. The data from the present study suggest that patients receiving DOACs for the treatment of DDVT will have significantly lower rates of progression to PE and a lower incidence of major bleeding compared with patients receiving warfarin. This suggests that DOACs are superior to warfarin for treatment of DDVT.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Pulmonary Embolism , Stroke , Venous Thrombosis , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/chemically induced , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Warfarin/adverse effects
20.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 10(3): 578-584.e2, 2022 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650575

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the radiographic resolution of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) examinations in patients diagnosed with acute PE while hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to understand the mid-term and long-term implications of anticoagulation therapy. METHODS: We identified patients with acute PE per CECT and at least one follow-up CECT from March 11, 2020, to May 27, 2021, using a prospective registry of all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection receiving care within a multicenter Health System. Initial and follow-up CECT examinations were reviewed independently by two radiologists to evaluate for PE resolution. The Modified Miller Score was used to assess for thrombus burden at diagnosis and on follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 6070 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection, 5.7% (348/6070) were diagnosed with acute PE and 13.5% (47/348) had a follow-up CECT examination. The mean ± standard deviation time to follow-up imaging was 44 ± 48 days (range, 3-161 days). Of 47 patients, 47 (72.3%) had radiographic resolution of PE, with a mean time to follow-up of 48 ± 43 days (range, 6-239 days). All patients received anticoagulation monotherapy for a mean of 149 ± 95 days and this included apixaban (63.8%), warfarin (12.8%), and rivaroxaban (8.5%), among others. The mean Modified Miller Score at PE diagnosis and follow-up was 4.8 ± 4.2 (range, 1-14) and 1.4 ± 3.3 (range, 0-16; P < .0001), respectively. Nine patients (19%) died at a mean of 13 ± 8 days after follow-up CECT (range, 1-27 days) and at a mean of 28 ± 16 days after admission (range, 11-68 days). Seen of the nine deaths (78%) deaths were associated with progression of COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 have a clinically apparent 5.7% rate of developing PE. In patients with follow-up imaging, 72.3% had radiographic thrombus resolution at a mean of 44 days while on anticoagulation. Prospective studies of the natural history of PEs with COVID-19 that include systematic follow-up imaging are warranted to help guide anticoagulation recommendations.


Тема - темы
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
Критерии поиска