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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26143, 2021 May 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191018

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly emerging infectious respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Currently, more than 100 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed worldwide, with over 2.4 million mortalities. The pandemic affects people of all ages but older individuals and those with severe chronic illnesses, including cancer patients, are at higher risk. PATIENT CONCERNS: The impact of cancer treatment on the progression of COVID-19 is unclear. Therefore, we assessed the effects of chemotherapy on COVID-19 outcomes for 2 cancer patients. On January 24, 2020, a level I response to a major public health emergency was initiated in Hubei Province, China, which includes Enshi Autonomous Prefecture that has a population of 4.026 million people. As of April 30, 2020, 252 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 11 asymptomatic carriers were identified in Enshi. DIAGNOSIS: Among the confirmed cases and asymptomatic carriers, 2 patients were identified who were previously diagnosed with malignant tumors, including one with hepatocellular carcinoma and the other with cardia carcinoma. INTERVENTIONS: These 2 patients were receiving or just completed chemotherapy at the time of their COVID-19 diagnosis. OUTCOMES: Both patients were followed and presented favorable outcomes. The positive outcomes for these 2 patients could be partially explained by their recent chemotherapy that impacted their immune status. Also, their relatively younger ages and lack of comorbidities were likely factors in their successful recovery from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Anticancer treatment might enhance a patient's ability to respond favorably to COVID-19 infection. However, anticancer treatment is likely to impact immune function differently in different individuals, which can influence disease outcomes.


Тема - темы
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cyclobutanes/therapeutic use , Docetaxel/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/immunology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Organoplatinum Compounds/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sorafenib/therapeutic use , Stomach Neoplasms/complications , Stomach Neoplasms/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26034, 2021 May 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191014

Реферат

ABSTRACT: To determine the role of ultra-low dose chest computed tomography (uld CT) compared to chest radiographs in patients with laboratory-confirmed early stage SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.Chest radiographs and uld CT of 12 consecutive suspected SARS-CoV-2 patients performed up to 48 hours from hospital admission were reviewed by 2 radiologists. Dosimetry and descriptive statistics of both modalities were analyzed.On uld CT, parenchymal abnormalities compatible with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were detected in 10/12 (83%) patients whereas on chest X-ray in, respectively, 8/12 (66%) and 5/12 (41%) patients for reader 1 and 2. The average increment of diagnostic performance of uld CT compared to chest X-ray was 29%. The average effective dose was, respectively, of 0.219 and 0.073 mSv.Uld CT detects substantially more lung injuries in symptomatic patients with suspected early stage SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia compared to chest radiographs, with a significantly better inter-reader agreement, at the cost of a slightly higher equivalent radiation dose.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Radiation Dosage , Radiography, Thoracic/adverse effects , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiometry/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

Реферат

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Тема - темы
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
5.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 114(10): 631, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204324

Реферат

We would like to correspond and share ideas on the publication "SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, a new autoimmune hepatitis trigger?." López Romero-Salazar reported a case of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) after receiving SARS-COV2 vaccine. López Romero-Salazar et al noted that "vaccination can induce the development of autoimmune pathology in patients at risk." The possibility of a link between AIH and the SARS-CoV2 vaccine is explored. We agree that the COVID-19 vaccination has the potential to create clinical problems. The aberrant immune response could lead to a variety of health issues, including hepatitis. The vaccine recipient in this case had hepatitis, but there is no information about his or her health or liver function prior to inoculation. Other probable causes of hepatitis should be considered.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30202, 2022 06 20.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202460

Реферат

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Wastewater-based epidemiology has contributed significantly to the comprehension of the dynamics of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Its additional value in monitoring SARS-CoV-2 circulation in the population and identifying newly arising variants independently of diagnostic testing is now undisputed. As a proof of concept, we report here correlations between SARS-CoV-2 detection in wastewater and the officially recorded COVID-19 case numbers, as well as the validity of such surveillance to detect emerging variants, exemplified by the detection of the B.1.1.529 variant Omicron in Basel, Switzerland. METHODS: From July 1 to December 31, 2021, wastewater samples were collected six times a week from the inflow of the local wastewater treatment plant that receives wastewater from the catchment area of the city of Basel, Switzerland, comprising 273,075 inhabitants. The number of SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies was determined by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to determine correlations with the median seven-day incidence of genome copies per litre of wastewater and official case data. To explore delayed correlation effects between the seven-day median number of genome copies/litre wastewater and the median seven-day incidence of SARS-CoV-2 cases, time-lagged Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated for up to 14 days. RNA extracts from daily wastewater samples were used to genotype circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: The number of daily cases and the median seven-day incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the catchment area showed a high correlation with SARS-CoV-2 measurements in wastewater samples. All correlations between the seven-day median number of genome copies/litre wastewater and the time-lagged median seven-day incidence of SARS-CoV-2 cases were significant (p<0.001) for the investigated lag of up to 14 days. Correlation coefficients declined constantly from the maximum of 0.9395 on day 1 to the minimum of 0.8016 on day 14. The B.1.1.529 variant Omicron was detected in wastewater samples collected on November 21, 2021, before its official acknowledgement in a clinical sample by health authorities. CONCLUSIONS: In this proof-of-concept study, wastewater-based epidemiology proved a reliable and sensitive surveillance approach, complementing routine clinical testing for mapping COVID-19 pandemic dynamics and observing newly circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Switzerland/epidemiology , Waste Water/analysis
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(10): e1010479, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154303

Реферат

Exacerbated and persistent innate immune response marked by pro-inflammatory cytokine expression is thought to be a major driver of chronic COVID-19 pathology. Although macrophages are not the primary target cells of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, viral RNA and antigens in activated monocytes and macrophages have been detected in post-mortem samples, and dysfunctional monocytes and macrophages have been hypothesized to contribute to a protracted hyper-inflammatory state in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we demonstrate that CD169, a myeloid cell specific I-type lectin, facilitated ACE2-independent SARS-CoV-2 fusion and entry in macrophages. CD169-mediated SARS-CoV-2 entry in macrophages resulted in expression of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs with minimal viral protein expression and no infectious viral particle release, suggesting a post-entry restriction of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle. Intriguingly this post-entry replication block was alleviated by exogenous ACE2 expression in macrophages. Restricted expression of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA in CD169+ macrophages elicited a pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1ß) in a RIG-I, MDA-5 and MAVS-dependent manner, which was suppressed by remdesivir treatment. These findings suggest that de novo expression of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in macrophages contributes to the pro-inflammatory cytokine signature and that blocking CD169-mediated ACE2 independent infection and subsequent activation of macrophages by viral RNA might alleviate COVID-19-associated hyperinflammatory response.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Prague Med Rep ; 123(4): 250-257, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145507

Реферат

The SARS-CoV-2 viral load in a respiratory sample can be inversely quantified using the cycle threshold (Ct), defined as the number of amplification cycles required to detect the viral genome in a quantitative PCR assay using reverse transcriptase (RT-qPCR). It may be classified as high (Ct < 25), intermediate (25-30) and low (Ct > 30). We describe the clinical course of 3 patients with haematological neoplasms who contracted COVID-19. None of them had been vaccinated. Firstly, a 22-year-old male with a refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia experienced an oligosymptomatic COVID-19 and had a Ct of 23 with an ascending curve. Another male, aged 23, had recently begun treatment for a promyelocytic leukaemia. He had a subacute course with high oxygen requirements. His Ct dropped from 28, when he only experienced fever, to 14.8, during the most critical period and on the edge of ventilatory support. Viral clearance was documented 126 days after the beginning of the symptoms. Finally, a 60-year-old male had received rituximab as maintenance therapy for a follicular lymphoma 3 months before contracting COVID-19. He had a fulminant course and required mechanical ventilation a few days later. We highlight the association between the course of CoViD-19 and the Ct. Viral shedding was longer than in immunocompetent hosts.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Neoplasms , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications
10.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143699

Реферат

Small molecular nucleic acid drugs produce antiviral effects by activating pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, a small molecular nucleotide containing 5'triphosphoric acid (5'PPP) and possessing a double-stranded structure was designed and named nCoV-L. nCoV-L was found to specifically activate RIG-I, induce interferon responses, and inhibit duplication of four RNA viruses (Human enterovirus 71, Human poliovirus 1, Human coxsackievirus B5 and Influenza A virus) in cells. In vivo, nCoV-L quickly induced interferon responses and protected BALB/c suckling mice from a lethal dose of the enterovirus 71. Additionally, prophylactic administration of nCoV-L was found to reduce mouse death and relieve morbidity symptoms in a K18-hACE2 mouse lethal model of SARS-CoV-2. In summary, these findings indicate that nCoV-L activates RIG-I and quickly induces effective antiviral signals. Thus, it has potential as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mice , Animals , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Cell Line , DEAD Box Protein 58 , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Interferons
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278061, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140683

Реферат

Contaminated surfaces are one of the ways that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be transmitted. SARS-CoV-2 can be detected on environmental surfaces; however, few environmental sampling studies have been conducted in nonclinical settings. The objective of this study was to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA on environmental surfaces in public areas in Las Vegas, Nevada. In total, 300 surface samples were collected from high-touch surfaces from high-congregate public locations and from a public health facility (PHF) that was visited by COVID-19 patients. Environmental samples were analyzed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) using SARS-CoV-2 specific primers and probes for three target genes. Results showed that 31 out of 300 (10.3%) surface samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 24 at the PHF and 7 in high-congregate public locations. Concentrations ranged from 102 to 106 viral particles per 3 ml sample on a wide variety of materials. The data also showed that the N gene assay had greater sensitivity compared to the S and ORF gene assays. Besides frequently touched surfaces, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in restrooms, on floors and surfaces in contact with floors, as well as in a mop water sample. The results of this study describe the extent and distribution of environmental SARS-CoV-2 contamination in public areas in Las Vegas, Nevada. A method using the N gene PCR assay was developed for SARS-CoV-2 environmental monitoring in public areas. Environmental monitoring with this method can determine the specific sites of surface contamination in the community and may be beneficial for prevention of COVID-19 indirect transmission, and evaluation and improvement of infection control practices in public areas, public health facilities, universities, and businesses.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Specimen Handling , DNA Primers
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277882, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140669

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Little is known about olfactory changes in pediatric COVID-19. It is possible that children under-report chemosensory changes on questionnaires, similar to reports in adults. Here, we aim to describe COVID-19-related olfactory dysfunction in outpatient children. We hypothesized that children with COVID-19 will demonstrate abnormal olfaction on smell-identification testing at a higher rate than children with negative COVID-19 testing. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken from June 2020-June 2021 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. A consecutive sample of 205 outpatients aged 5-21 years undergoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) PCR testing were approached for this study. Patients with prior olfactory dysfunction were excluded. Participants were given a standard COVID-19 symptom questionnaire, a Smell Identification Test (SIT) and home-odorant-based testing within 2 weeks of COVID-19 testing. Prior to study enrollment, power calculation estimated 42 patients to determine difference in rates of SIT results between groups. Data were summarized with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients underwent smell identification testing (23 positive (45%) and 28 negative (55%) for COVID-19; mean age 12.7 years; 60% female). 92% of all patients denied subjective change in their sense of smell or taste but only 58.8% were normosmic on testing. There was no difference in screening questionnaires or SIT scores between COVID-19 positive and negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike adults, there was no statistical difference in olfactory function between outpatient COVID-19 positive and negative children. Our findings suggest a discrepancy between objective and patient-reported olfactory function in pediatric patients, and poor performance of current screening protocols at detecting pediatric COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , Humans , Female , Child , Male , Smell , Cross-Sectional Studies , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277881, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140668

Реферат

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the global COVID-19 pandemic. Limited studies have been performed on various types of disinfectants utilized to control the spread of this highly contagious virus. This study aimed to investigate the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 using compressed sodium chloride (CSC) surface. A real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was used to evaluate the effectiveness of CSC on the disintegration of viral RNA in a time dependent manner. The effects of CSC on viral infectivity were determined using a TCID50 assay of a surrogate virus, hCoV-229E, in MRC-5 cell culture. The results demonstrated that CSC achieved a 2 to 3- log10 reduction of viral genomic RNA for a laboratory strain of hCoV-229E, and clinical samples of hCoV-229E and hCoV-OC43. A 3 to 4-log10 reduction was observed for SARS-CoV-2 (RdRp and E gene) suggesting that a CSC surface could effectively disintegrate the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome. CSC was observed to have a 6 log10 inactivation of infectious hCoV-229E using cell culture after 5 minutes of exposure compared to the control, indicating good disinfection efficacy of a CSC surface against virus.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Pandemics
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277317, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140640

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Stigma can be experienced as perceived or actual disqualification from social and institutional acceptance on the basis of one or more physical, behavioural or other attributes deemed to be undesirable. Long Covid is a predominantly multisystem condition that occurs in people with a history of SARSCoV2 infection, often resulting in functional disability. This study aimed to develop and validate a Long Covid Stigma Scale (LCSS); and to quantify the burden of Long Covid stigma. METHODS: Data from the follow-up of a co-produced community-based Long Covid online survey using convenience non-probability sampling was used. Thirteen questions on stigma were designed to develop the LCSS capturing three domains-enacted (overt experiences of discrimination), internalised (internalising negative associations with Long Covid and accepting them as self-applicable) and anticipated (expectation of bias/poor treatment by others) stigma. Confirmatory factor analysis tested whether LCSS consisted of the three hypothesised domains. Model fit was assessed and prevalence was calculated. RESULTS: 966 UK-based participants responded (888 for stigma questions), with mean age 48 years (SD: 10.7) and 85% female. Factor loadings for enacted stigma were 0.70-0.86, internalised 0.75-0.84, anticipated 0.58-0.87, and model fit was good. The prevalence of experiencing stigma at least 'sometimes' and 'often/always' was 95% and 76% respectively. Anticipated and internalised stigma were more frequently experienced than enacted stigma. Those who reported having a clinical diagnosis of Long Covid had higher stigma prevalence than those without. CONCLUSION: This study establishes a scale to measure Long Covid stigma and highlights common experiences of stigma in people living with Long Covid.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267796, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140390

Реферат

The current global COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a public health crisis with more than 168 million cases reported globally and more than 4.5 million deaths at the time of writing. In addition to the direct impact of the disease, the economic impact has been significant as public health measures to contain or reduce the spread have led to country wide lockdowns resulting in near closure of many sectors of the economy. Antibodies are a principal determinant of the humoral immune response to COVID-19 infections and may have the potential to reduce disease and spread of the virus. The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represents a therapeutic option that can be produced at large quantity and high quality. In the present study, a mAb combination mixture therapy was investigated for its capability to specifically neutralize SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate that each of the antibodies bind the spike protein and neutralize the virus, preventing it from infecting cells in an in vitro cell-based assay, including multiple viral variants that are currently circulating in the human population. In addition, we investigated the effects of two different mutations in the Fc portion (YTE and LALA) of the antibody on Fc effector function and the ability to alleviate potential antibody-dependent enhancement of disease. These data demonstrate the potential of a combination of two mAbs that target two different epitopes on the SARS-CoV2 spike protein to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans while extending serum half-life and preventing antibody-dependent enhancement of disease.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
16.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 255, 2022 Nov 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139417

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The presentation of peptides and the subsequent immune response depend on the MHC characteristics and influence the specificity of the immune response. Several studies have found an association between HLA variants and differential COVID-19 outcomes and have shown that HLA genotypes are associated with differential immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, particularly in severely ill patients. Information, whether HLA haplotypes are associated with the severity or length of the disease in moderately diseased individuals is absent. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing-based HLA typing was performed in 303 female and 231 male non-hospitalized North Rhine Westphalian patients infected with SARS-CoV2 during the first and second wave. For HLA-Class I, we obtained results from 528 patients, and for HLA-Class II from 531. In those patients, who became ill between March 2020 and January 2021, the 22 most common HLA-Class I (HLA-A, -B, -C) or HLA-Class II (HLA -DRB1/3/4, -DQA1, -DQB1) haplotypes were determined. The identified HLA haplotypes as well as the presence of a CCR5Δ32 mutation and number of O and A blood group alleles were associated to disease severity and duration of the disease. RESULTS: The influence of the HLA haplotypes on disease severity and duration was more pronounced than the influence of age, sex, or ABO blood group. These associations were sex dependent. The presence of mutated CCR5 resulted in a longer recovery period in males. CONCLUSION: The existence of certain HLA haplotypes is associated with more severe disease.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/genetics , HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics , Prognosis , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , HLA-DRB1 Chains
17.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 681, 2022 Nov 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139193

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Smartphone use has increased significantly, especially during the period of global pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV2 coronavirus (COVID-19). Concurrently, smartphone addiction is a growing social problem in children and adolescents with the consequence of adverse health outcomes. This study assessed the prevalence of smartphone addiction, patterns of use, and the experienced body-region discomfort among Iranian school students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with students from grades 1-9 recruited n = 585 participants (mean age = 14.49 (2.26 years); female = 65.8%). Data were collected from parents and students through the online 'Smartphone addiction scale-short version' (SAS-SV), self-reported demographic questionnaires, and extracts of the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of smartphone addiction (53.3%) was relatively high in the overall sample. Participants spent 6.85 (4.62) hours per day on their smartphones, which had increased 53.86% relative to the pre-pandemic period. The primary smartphone uses were for social networking (77.9%), web-surfing (53.3%), and camera activities (50.9%). There was a positive correlation between smartphone addiction as assessed with the SAS-SV and daily use time (r = 0.34, p < 0.001), and the percentage of change relative to the pre-pandemic period (r = 0.26, p < 0.001). Discomfort related to smartphone use was mostly reported as present in the eyes (39.7%) and neck (39.1%). A positive correlation was found (p < 0.001) between smartphone addiction and discomfort in the eyes, neck, wrists, shoulders, and upper-back. CONCLUSION: The more frequent usage of smartphones by students during the Covid-19 pandemic were associated predominantly with discomfort to the eyes and neck. Parents should consider the complications of musculoskeletal and postural changes during the child's future years and pay particular attention to the individual's patterns of smartphone use with an emphasis on posture and usage that reduces discomfort to the eyes and the musculoskeletal system, particularly the neck.


Тема - темы
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal System , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Female , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e066044, 2022 11 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137787

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Long COVID (LC), also known as post-COVID-19 syndrome, refers to symptoms persisting 12 weeks after COVID-19 infection. It affects up to one in seven people contracting the illness and causes a wide range of symptoms, including fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, dizziness, pain and brain fog. Many of these symptoms can be linked to dysautonomia or dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system after SARS-CoV2 infection. This study aims to test the feasibility and estimate the efficacy, of the heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-B) technique via a standardised slow diaphragmatic breathing programme in individuals with LC. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 30 adult LC patients with symptoms of palpitations or dizziness and an abnormal NASA Lean Test will be selected from a specialist Long COVID rehabilitation service. They will undergo a 4-week HRV-B intervention using a Polar chest strap device linked to the Elite HRV phone application while undertaking the breathing exercise technique for two 10 min periods everyday for at least 5 days a week. Quantitative data will be gathered during the study period using: HRV data from the chest strap and wrist-worn Fitbit, the modified COVID-19 Yorkshire Rehabilitation Scale, Composite Autonomic Symptom Score, WHO Disability Assessment Schedule and EQ-5D-5L health-related quality of life measures. Qualitative feedback on user experience and feasibility of using the technology in a home setting will also be gathered. Standard statistical tests for correlation and significant difference will be used to analyse the quantitate data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received ethical approval from Health Research Authority (HRA) Leicester South Research Ethics Committee (21/EM/0271). Dissemination plans include academic and lay publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05228665.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Biofeedback, Psychology/methods , Dizziness , Feasibility Studies , Heart Rate/physiology , Quality of Life , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19986, 2022 Nov 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133634

Реферат

RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), is an essential in the RNA replication within the life cycle of the severely acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing the deadly respiratory induced sickness COVID-19. Remdesivir is a prodrug that has seen some success in inhibiting this enzyme, however there is still the pressing need for effective alternatives. In this study, we present the discovery of four non-nucleoside small molecules that bind favorably to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp over the active form of the popular drug remdesivir (RTP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by utilizing high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) against the vast ZINC compound database coupled with extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. After post-trajectory analysis, we found that the simulations of complexes containing both ATP and RTP remained stable for the duration of their trajectories. Additionally, it was revealed that the phosphate tail of RTP was stabilized by both the positive amino acid pocket and magnesium ions near the entry channel of RdRp which includes residues K551, R553, R555 and K621. It was also found that residues D623, D760, and N691 further stabilized the ribose portion of RTP with U10 on the template RNA strand forming hydrogen pairs with the adenosine motif. Using these models of RdRp, we employed them to screen the ZINC database of ~ 17 million molecules. Using docking and drug properties scoring, we narrowed down our selection to fourteen candidates. These were subjected to 200 ns simulations each underwent free energy calculations. We identified four hit compounds from the ZINC database that have similar binding poses to RTP while possessing lower overall binding free energies, with ZINC097971592 having a binding free energy two times lower than RTP.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Triphosphate , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Zinc
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20309, 2022 Nov 24.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133632

Реферат

A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, emerged in China at the end of 2019 causing a large global outbreak. As treatments are of the utmost importance, drugs with broad anti-coronavirus activity embody a rich and rapid drug discovery landscape, where candidate drug compounds could be identified and optimized. To this end, we tested ten small-molecules with chemical structures close to ferulic acid derivatives (FADs) (n = 8), caffeic acid derivatives (CAFDs) (n = 1) and carboxamide derivatives (CAMDs) (n = 1) for their ability to reduce HCoV-229E replication, another member of the coronavirus family. Among these ten drugs tested, five of them namely MBA112, MBA33, MBA27-1, OS4-1 and MBA108-1 were highly cytotoxic and did not warrant further testing. In contrast, we observed a moderate cytotoxicity for two of them, MBA152 and 5c. Three drugs, namely MBA140, LIJ2P40, and MBA28 showed lower cytotoxicity. These candidates were then tested for their antiviral propreties against HCoV-229E and SARS-CoV2 replication. We first observed encouraging results in HCoV-229E. We then measured a reduction of the viral SARS-CoV2 replication by 46% with MBA28 (EC50 > 200 µM), by 58% with MBA140 (EC50 = 176 µM), and by 82% with LIJ2P40 (EC50 = 66.5 µM). Overall, the FAD LIJ2P40 showed a reduction of the viral titer on SARS-CoV-2 up to two logs with moderate cytotoxicity which opens the door to further evaluation to fight Covid-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy
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