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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1038017, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109888

Реферат

COVID-19, referred to as new coronary pneumonia, is an acute infectious disease caused by a new type of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate the effect of integrated Chinese medicine and Western medicine in patients with COVID-19 from overseas. Data were collected from 178 COVID-19 patients overseas at First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University from April 1, 2021 to July 31, 2021. These patients received therapy of integrated Chinese medicine and western medicine. Demographic data and clinical characteristics were extracted and analyzed. In addition, the prescription which induced less length of PCR positive days and hospitalization days than the median value was obtained. The top 4 frequently used Chinese medicine and virus-related genes were analyzed by network pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis. According to the chest computed tomography (CT) measurement, abnormal lung findings were observed in 145 subjects. The median length of positive PCR/hospitalization days was 7/7 days for asymptomatic subjects, 14/24 days for mild subjects, 10/15 days for moderate subjects, and 14/20 days for severe subjects. The most frequently used Chinese medicine were Scutellaria baicalensis (Huangqin), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Gancao), Bupleurum chinense (Chaihu), and Pinellia ternata (Banxia). The putative active ingredients were baicalin, stigmasterol, sigmoidin-B, cubebin, and troxerutin. ACE, SARS-CoV-2 3CL, SARS-CoV-2 Spike, SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a, and caspase-6 showed good binding properties to active ingredients. In conclusion, the clinical results showed that integrated Chinese medicine and Western medicine are effective in treating COVID-19 patients from overseas. Based on the clinical outcomes, the putative ingredients from Chinese medicine and the potential targets of SARS-CoV-2 were provided, which could provide a reference for the clinical application of Chinese medicine in treating COVID-19 worldwide.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Hospitalization
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(10): 1970-1976, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109670

Реферат

The 4 common types of human coronaviruses (HCoVs)-2 alpha (HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E) and 2 beta (HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43)-generally cause mild upper respiratory illness. Seasonal patterns and annual variation in predominant types of HCoVs are known, but parameters of expected seasonality have not been defined. We defined seasonality of HCoVs during July 2014-November 2021 in the United States by using a retrospective method applied to National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System data. In the 6 HCoV seasons before 2020-21, season onsets occurred October 21-November 12, peaks January 6-February 13, and offsets April 18-June 27; most (>93%) HCoV detection was within the defined seasonal onsets and offsets. The 2020-21 HCoV season onset was 11 weeks later than in prior seasons, probably associated with COVID-19 mitigation efforts. Better definitions of HCoV seasonality can be used for clinical preparedness and for determining expected patterns of emerging coronaviruses.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
3.
Euro Surveill ; 27(17)2022 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109629

Реферат

BackgroundUnavailability of vaccines endangers the overall goal to protect individuals and whole populations against infections.MethodsThe German notification system includes the publication of vaccine supply shortages reported by marketing authorisation holders (MAH), information on the availability of alternative vaccine products, guidance for physicians providing vaccinations and an unavailability reporting tool to monitor regional distribution issues.AimThis study provides a retrospective analysis of supply issues and measures in the context of European and global vaccine supply constraints.Resultsbetween October 2015 and December 2020, the 250 notifications concerned all types of vaccines (54 products). Most shortages were caused by increased demand associated with immigration in Germany in 2015 and 2016, new or extended vaccine recommendations, increased awareness, or changes in global immunisation programmes. Shortages of a duration up to 30 days were mitigated using existing storage capacities. Longer shortages, triggered by high demand on a national level, were mitigated using alternative products and re-allocation; in a few cases, vaccines were imported. However, for long lasting supply shortages associated with increased global demand, often occurring in combination with manufacturing issues, few compensatory mechanisms were available. Nevertheless, only few critical incidents were identified: (i) shortage of hexavalent vaccines endangering neonatal immunisation programmes in 2015;(ii) distribution issues with influenza vaccines in 2018; and (iii) unmet demand for pneumococcal and influenza vaccines during the coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic.ConclusionVaccine product shortages in Germany resemble those present in neighbouring EU states and often reflect increased global demand not matched by manufacturing capacities.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(11): e40751, 2022 Nov 18.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109572

Реферат

BACKGROUND: As of August 25, 2021, Jiangsu province experienced the largest COVID-19 outbreak in eastern China that was seeded by SARS-CoV-2 Delta variants. As one of the key epidemiological parameters characterizing the transmission dynamics of COVID-19, the incubation period plays an essential role in informing public health measures for epidemic control. The incubation period of COVID-19 could vary by different age, sex, disease severity, and study settings. However, the impacts of these factors on the incubation period of Delta variants remains uninvestigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to characterize the incubation period of the Delta variant using detailed contact tracing data. The effects of age, sex, and disease severity on the incubation period were investigated by multivariate regression analysis and subgroup analysis. METHODS: We extracted contact tracing data of 353 laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variants' infection in Jiangsu province, China, from July to August 2021. The distribution of incubation period of Delta variants was estimated by using likelihood-based approach with adjustment for interval-censored observations. The effects of age, sex, and disease severity on the incubation period were expiated by using multivariate logistic regression model with interval censoring. RESULTS: The mean incubation period of the Delta variant was estimated at 6.64 days (95% credible interval: 6.27-7.00). We found that female cases and cases with severe symptoms had relatively longer mean incubation periods than male cases and those with nonsevere symptoms, respectively. One-day increase in the incubation period of Delta variants was associated with a weak decrease in the probability of having severe illness with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.88 (95% credible interval: 0.71-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the incubation period was found to vary across different levels of sex, age, and disease severity of COVID-19. These findings provide additional information on the incubation period of Delta variants and highlight the importance of continuing surveillance and monitoring of the epidemiological characteristics of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants as they evolve.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Likelihood Functions , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Retrospective Studies
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275832, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109322

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Studies from Asia, Europe and the USA indicate that widely available haematological parameters could be used to determine the clinical severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and predict management outcome. There is limited data from Africa on their usefulness in patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). We performed an evaluation of baseline haematological parameters as prognostic biomarkers in ICU COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively on patients with confirmed COVID-19, admitted to the adult ICU in a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, between March 2020 and February 2021. Robust Poisson regression methods and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to explore the association of haematological parameters with COVID-19 severity and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 490 patients (median age 54.1 years) were included, of whom 237 (48%) were female. The median duration of ICU stay was 6 days and 309/490 (63%) patients died. Raised neutrophil count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were associated with worse outcome. Independent risk factors associated with mortality were age (ARR 1.01, 95%CI 1.0-1.02; p = 0.002); female sex (ARR 1.23, 95%CI 1.05-1.42; p = 0.008) and D-dimer levels (ARR 1.01, 95%CI 1.002-1.03; p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that raised neutrophil count, NLR and D-dimer at the time of ICU admission were associated with higher mortality. Contrary to what has previously been reported, our study revealed females admitted to the ICU had a higher risk of mortality.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , South Africa/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Hospitalization , Retrospective Studies
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0264240, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109283

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: To examine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the demographic and clinical characteristics, in-hospital care, and outcomes of long-term care residents admitted to general medicine wards for non-COVID-19 reasons. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of long-term care residents admitted to general medicine wards, for reasons other than COVID-19, in four hospitals in Toronto, Ontario between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2020. We used an autoregressive linear model to estimate the change in monthly admission volumes during the pandemic period (March-December 2020) compared to the previous two years, adjusting for any secular trend. We summarized and compared differences in the demographics, comorbidities, interventions, diagnoses, imaging, psychoactive medications, and outcomes of residents before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: Our study included 2,654 long-term care residents who were hospitalized for non-COVID-19 reasons between January 2018 and December 2020. The crude rate of hospitalizations was 79.3 per month between March-December of 2018-2019 and 56.5 per month between March-December of 2020. The was an adjusted absolute difference of 27.0 (95% CI: 10.0, 43.9) fewer hospital admissions during the pandemic period, corresponding to a relative drop of 34%. Residents admitted during the pandemic period had similar demographics and clinical characteristics but were more likely to be admitted for delirium (pandemic: 7% pre-pandemic: 5%, p = 0.01) and were less likely to be admitted for pneumonia (pandemic: 3% pre-pandemic: 6%, p = 0.004). Residents admitted during the pandemic were more likely to be prescribed antipsychotics (pandemic: 37%, pre-pandemic: 29%, p <0.001) and more likely to die in-hospital (pandemic:14% pre-pandemic: 10%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Better integration between long-term care and hospitals systems, including programs to deliver urgent medical care services within long-term care homes, is needed to ensure that long-term care residents maintain equitable access to acute care during current and future public health emergencies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Long-Term Care , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Ontario/epidemiology , Hospitalization
7.
Neurosurgery ; 90(6): 725-733, 2022 06 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109255

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms and outcomes in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated stroke are unique from those of non-COVID-19 stroke. OBJECTIVE: To describe the efficacy and outcomes of acute revascularization of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of COVID-19 in an international cohort. METHODS: We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted patients with COVID-19 with concomitant acute LVO across 50 comprehensive stroke centers. Our control group constituted historical controls of patients presenting with LVO and receiving a mechanical thrombectomy between January 2018 and December 2020. RESULTS: The total cohort was 575 patients with acute LVO; 194 patients had COVID-19 while 381 patients did not. Patients in the COVID-19 group were younger (62.5 vs 71.2; P < .001) and lacked vascular risk factors (49, 25.3% vs 54, 14.2%; P = .001). Modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 revascularization was less common in the COVID-19 group (74, 39.2% vs 252, 67.2%; P < .001). Poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as modified Ranklin Scale 3-6) was more common in the COVID-19 group (150, 79.8% vs 132, 66.7%; P = .004). COVID-19 was independently associated with a lower likelihood of achieving modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7; P < .001) and unfavorable outcomes (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5; P = .002). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor outcomes in patients with stroke due to LVO. Patients with COVID-19 with LVO were younger, had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors, and suffered from higher morbidity/mortality rates.


Тема - темы
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
8.
Neurology ; 99(14): e1486-e1498, 2022 Oct 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109249

Реферат

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Increased anxious-depressive symptomatology is observed in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer disease (AD), which may accelerate disease progression. We investigated whether ß-amyloid, cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe structures, neuroinflammation, and sociodemographic factors were associated with greater anxious-depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 confinement. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included cognitively unimpaired older adults from the Alzheimer's and Families cohort, the majority with a family history of sporadic AD. Participants performed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during the COVID-19 confinement. A subset had available retrospective (on average: 2.4 years before) HADS assessment, amyloid [18F] flutemetamol PET and structural MRI scans, and CSF markers of neuroinflammation (interleukin-6 [IL-6], triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2, and glial fibrillary acidic protein levels). We performed multivariable linear regression models to investigate the associations of prepandemic AD-related biomarkers and sociodemographic factors with HADS scores during the confinement. We further performed an analysis of covariance to adjust by participants' prepandemic anxiety-depression levels. Finally, we explored the role of stress and lifestyle changes (sleep patterns, eating, drinking, smoking habits, and medication use) on the tested associations and performed sex-stratified analyses. RESULTS: We included 921 (254 with AD biomarkers) participants. ß-amyloid positivity (B = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.1 to 6.36; p = 0.006), caregiving (B = 1.37; 95% CI 0.24-2.5; p = 0.018), sex (women: B = 1.95; 95% CI 1.1-2.79; p < 0.001), younger age (B = -0.12; 95% CI -0.18 to -0.052; p < 0.001), and lower education (B = -0.16; 95% CI -0.28 to -0.042; p = 0.008) were associated with greater anxious-depressive symptoms during the confinement. Considering prepandemic anxiety-depression levels, we further observed an association between lower levels of CSF IL-6 (B = -5.11; 95% CI -10.1 to -0.13; p = 0.044) and greater HADS scores. The results were independent of stress-related variables and lifestyle changes. Stratified analysis revealed that the associations were mainly driven by women. DISCUSSION: Our results link AD-related pathophysiology and neuroinflammation with greater anxious-depressive symptomatology during the COVID-19-related confinement, notably in women. AD pathophysiology may increase neuropsychiatric symptomatology in response to stressors. This association may imply a worse clinical prognosis in people at risk for AD after the pandemic and thus deserves to be considered by clinicians. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02485730.


Тема - темы
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Anxiety , Biomarkers , Depression , Female , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Male , Positron-Emission Tomography , Retrospective Studies , tau Proteins/metabolism
9.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 218, 2022 Oct 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108966

Реферат

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate air leakage during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and explore potential risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent IMV in a single-center PICU in a tertiary referral hospital. Air leakage risk factors and factors associated with an improved outcome were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 548 children who underwent IMV were enrolled in this study. Air leakage occurred in 7.5% (41/548) of the cases in the PICU. Air leakage increased the duration of IMV and hospitalization time. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a higher risk of air leakage during IMV for PICU patients with acute respiratory dyspnea syndrome (ARDS) (OR = 4.38), a higher pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) (OR = 1.08), or a higher peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) (OR = 1.08), whereas the risk was lower for patients with central respiratory failure (OR = 0.14). The logistic model had excellent predictive power for air leakage, with an area under the curve of 0.883 and tenfold cross-validation. Patients aged between 1 and 6 years who were diagnosed with measles or pneumonia and had a low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or high PaO2/FiO2 ratio were associated with improved outcomes. Patients diagnosed with central respiratory failure or congenital heart diseases were associated with less desirable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ARDS, a higher PCIS at admission or a higher PIP were at higher risk of air leakage.


Тема - темы
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Risk Factors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Intensive Care Units
10.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 282, 2022 Nov 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108857

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an effective, but highly resource intensive salvage treatment option in COVID patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a known sequelae of COVID-19 induced ARDS, yet there is a paucity of data on the incidence and determinants of RV dysfunction on VV ECMO. We retrospectively examined the determining factors leading to RV failure and means of early identification of this phenomenon in patients on VV ECMO. METHODS: The data was extracted from March 2020 to March 2021 from the regional University of Washington Extracorporeal Life Support database. The inclusion criteria included patients > 18 years of age with diagnosis of COVID-19. All had already been intubated and mechanically ventilated prior to VV ECMO deployment. Univariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors and surrogate markers for RV dysfunction. In addition, we compared outcomes between those with and without RV dysfunction. RESULTS: Of the 33 patients that met inclusion criteria, 14 (42%) had echocardiographic evidence of RV dysfunction, 3 of whom were placed on right ventricular assist device support. Chronic lung disease was an independent risk factor for RV dysfunction (p = 0.0002). RV dysfunction was associated with a six-fold increase in troponin I (0.07 ng/ml vs. 0.44 ng/ml, p = 0.039) and four-fold increase in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) (158 pg/ml vs. 662 pg/ml, p = 0.037). Deep vein thrombosis (DVT, 21% vs. 43%, p = 0.005) and pulmonary embolism (PE, 11% vs. 21%, p = 0.045) were found to be nearly twice as common in the RV dysfunction group. Total survival rate to hospital discharge was 39%. Data trended towards shorter duration of hospital stay (47 vs. 65.6 days, p = 0.15), shorter duration of ECMO support (21 days vs. 36 days, p = 0.06) and improved survival rate to hospital discharge (42.1% vs. 35.7%, p = 0.47) for those with intact RV function compared to the RV dysfunction group. CONCLUSIONS: RV dysfunction in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in common. Trends of troponin I and BNP may be important surrogates for monitoring RV function in patients on VV ECMO. We recommend echocardiographic assessment of the RV on such patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Troponin I
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 475, 2022 11 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108765

Реферат

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relationship between pandemic events and dental emergency service frequentation. Utilization patterns in the scope of the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed and considered in regard of seasonal parameters. METHODS: All outpatients seeking treatment in a university hospital's dental emergency service were analyzed in the years 2019, 2019 and 2020 according to demographic data and emergencies were subdivided into "absolute" and "relative". The years 2018 and 2019 were used to compare COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 phases. Defined waves of the pandemic were compared with equivalent prior-year periods. RESULTS: Our study includes 11,219 dental emergency patients over a period of three years with a slight surplus of male patients. Comparing the pre-COVID-19 years and 2020 as a year of pandemic, the total count of cases decreased by more than 25%. The share of absolute emergencies in 2020 was higher than in the years before (p < 0.0001). The under-utilization during the waves was more pronounced during the first wave compared to the second waves. CONCLUSIONS: Additionally to the clear decrease by more than 25% in 2020, we found an inverse dependency of 7-day-incidence of COVID-19 and number of visits. This effect was more distinct for relative emergencies, while the number of patients with absolute emergencies remains rather constant. Probably, there is an acclimatization effect regarding the waves. Patients older than 60 years who suffered from relative emergencies showed an under-utilzation during 2020. During a pandemic such as COVID-19, the effect of under-utilization is more pronounced among elderly patients. However, a pandemic acclimatization effect seems to occur. This can be taken into account in the administration of this kind of circumstances in the future.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Male , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Emergency Service, Hospital , Retrospective Studies
12.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1133, 2022 Nov 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108750

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic greatly impacted primary care and cancer care. We studied how primary care utilization in Ontario, Canada changed for patients who were newly diagnosed with cancer just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic compared to those diagnosed in non-pandemic years. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used linked healthcare databases to compare outcomes for patients with a new malignancy diagnosed within the year prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, between July 1 and September 30, 2019 (COVID-19 cohort) to those diagnosed in the same months in 2018 and 2017 (pre-pandemic cohort). We used Poisson regression models to compare rates of in-person and virtual visits to patients' usual primary care physician (PCP), emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations, all reported per person-year of follow-up. RESULTS: In-person visits to usual PCPs decreased from 4.07/person-year in the pre-pandemic cohort to 2.58 in the COVID-19 cohort (p < 0.0001). Virtual visits to usual PCPs increased from 0.00 to 1.53 (p < 0.0001). Combined in-person and virtual visits to patients' usual PCPs was unchanged from 4.07 to 4.12 (p = 0.89). The rate of ED visits decreased from 0.99/person-year to 0.88 (p < 0.0001). Non-elective hospitalizations remained unchanged, from 0.49/person-year to 0.47 (p = 0.1675). CONCLUSION: There was a sizeable shift in primary care visits for cancer patients from in-person to virtual during the pandemic, although there was no resultant increase in hospitalizations. This suggests that early in the pandemic, virtual care allowed for continuity in utilization of primary care, though further studies are required to confirm this persisted later in the pandemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Primary Health Care , Ontario/epidemiology
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e024393, 2022 05 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108433

Реферат

Background Although rare, classic viral myocarditis in the pediatric population is a disease that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Since 2020, myocarditis has been a common component of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) following SARS-CoV-2 infection. In 2021, myocarditis related to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines was recognized as a rare adverse event. This study aims to compare classic, MIS-C, and COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis with regard to clinical presentation, course, and outcomes. Methods and Results In this retrospective cohort study, we compared patients aged <21 years hospitalized at our institution with classic viral myocarditis from 2015 to 2019, MIS-C myocarditis from March 2020 to February 2021, and vaccine-related myocarditis from May 2021 to June 2021. Of 201 total participants, 43 patients had classic myocarditis, 149 had MIS-C myocarditis, and 9 had vaccine-related myocarditis. At presentation, ejection fraction was lowest for those with classic myocarditis, with ejection fraction <55% present in 58% of patients. Nearly all patients with MIS-C myocarditis (n=139, 93%) and all patients with vaccine-related myocarditis (n=9, 100%) had normal left ventricular ejection fraction at the time of discharge compared with 70% (n=30) of the classic myocarditis group (P<0.001). At 3 months after discharge, of the 21 children discharged with depressed ejection fraction, none of the 10 children with MIS-C myocarditis had residual dysfunction compared with 3 of the 11 (27%) patients in the classic myocarditis group. Conclusions Compared with classic myocarditis, those with MIS-C myocarditis had better clinical outcomes, including rapid recovery of cardiac function. Patients with vaccine-related myocarditis had prompt resolution of symptoms and improvement of cardiac function.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Humans , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
14.
Open Heart ; 9(2)2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108308

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic and therapeutic arsenal for heart failure with preserved ejection (HFpEF) has expanded. With novel therapies (eg, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors) and firmer recommendations to optimise non-cardiac comorbidities, it is unclear if outpatient HFpEF models can adequately deliver this. We; therefore, evaluated the efficacy of an existing dedicated HFpEF clinic to find innovative ways to design a more comprehensive model tailored to the modern era of HFpEF. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective analysis of 202 HFpEF outpatients was performed over 12 months before the COVID-19 pandemic. Baseline characteristics, clinic activities (eg, medication changes, lifestyle modifications, management of comorbidities) and follow-up arrangements were compared between a HFpEF and general cardiology clinic to assess their impact on mortality and morbidity at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Between the two clinic groups, the sample population was evenly matched with a typical HFpEF profile (mean age 79±9.6 years, 55% female and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic comorbidities). While follow-up practices were similar, the HFpEF clinic delivered significantly more interventions on lifestyle changes, blood pressure and heart rate control (p<0.0001) compared with the general clinic. Despite this, no significant differences in all-cause hospitalisation and mortality were observed. This may be attributed to the fact that clinic activities were primarily cardiology-focused. Importantly, non-cardiovascular admissions accounted for >60% of hospitalisation, including causes of recurrent admissions. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that existing general and emerging dedicated HFpEF clinics may not be adequate in addressing the multifaceted aspects of HFpEF as clinic activities concentrated primarily on cardiological measures. Although the small cohort and short follow-up period are important limitations, this study reminds clinicians that HFpEF patients are more at risk of non-cardiac than HF-related events. We have therefore proposed a pragmatic framework that can comprehensively deliver the modern guideline-directed recommendations and management of non-cardiac comorbidities through a multidisciplinary approach.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , Stroke Volume/physiology , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy , State Medicine , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Ambulatory Care Facilities
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e065148, 2022 11 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108285

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: During COVID-19 pandemic, complete lockdown of cities was one of the measures implemented by governments worldwide. Lockdown had a significant impact on people's lifestyles and access and utilisation of health services. This study aimed to assess the impact of the lockdown on glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a retrospective study, electronic medical records at a leading University Hospital in Northern Jordan were used to extract study data. PARTICIPANTS: All outpatients with T2DM. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose and lipid profile for patients with T2DM, 6 months before and 6 months after the full COVID-19 lockdown. RESULTS: A total of 639 patients (289 (45.2%) males and 350 (54.8%) females) were included in this study. Their age ranged from 18 to 91 years, with a mean (SD) of 59.9 (13.8) years. The overall means of HbA1c (8.41 vs 8.20, <0.001), high-density lipoprotein (1.16 vs 1.12, <0.001), low-density lipoprotein (2.81 vs 2.49, <0.001) and total cholesterol (4.45 vs 4.25, p<0.001) levels were significantly higher in the period before lockdown compared with the period after the lockdown. However, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were not affected significantly after the lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The glycaemic control and lipid profile had significantly improved after COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. The availability of medication and medical advice delivery systems (monthly medicine deliveries) during the lockdown in Jordan might have positive impact on patients with diabetes.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Jordan/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Lipids
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063159, 2022 11 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108282

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than the general population. This group is pivotal to healthcare system resilience during the COVID-19, and future, pandemics. We investigated demographic, social, behavioural and occupational risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: HCWs enrolled in a large-scale sero-epidemiological study at a UK university teaching hospital were sent questionnaires spanning a 5-month period from March to July 2020. In a retrospective observational cohort study, univariate logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator regression model was used to identify variables to include in a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among 2258 HCWs, highest ORs associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity on multivariate analysis were having a household member previously testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (OR 6.94 (95% CI 4.15 to 11.6); p<0.0001) and being of black ethnicity (6.21 (95% CI 2.69 to 14.3); p<0.0001). Occupational factors associated with a higher risk of seropositivity included working as a physiotherapist (OR 2.78 (95% CI 1.21 to 6.36); p=0.015) and working predominantly in acute medicine (OR 2.72 (95% CI 1.57 to 4.69); p<0.0001) or medical subspecialties (not including infectious diseases) (OR 2.33 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.88); p=0.001). Reporting that adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) was 'rarely' available had an OR of 2.83 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.25; p=0.01). Reporting attending a handover where social distancing was not possible had an OR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.9; p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants and potential vaccine escape continue to threaten stability of healthcare systems worldwide, and sustained vigilance against HCW infection remains a priority. Enhanced risk assessments should be considered for HCWs of black ethnicity, physiotherapists and those working in acute medicine or medical subspecialties. Workplace risk reduction measures include ongoing access to high-quality PPE and effective social distancing measures.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Health Personnel , Risk Factors , Antibodies, Viral , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Demography
17.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 25(9): 1068-1077, 2022 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107880

Реферат

AIM: Vaccination represents a cornerstone in mastering the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is a paucity of data regarding the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with rheumatic diseases such as Behçet syndrome (BS). The present study aimed to investigate the side-effects and post-vaccine disease exacerbation rates of COVID-19 vaccines in a BS cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 450 BS patients followed in our clinic who met the criteria of the International Study Group. COVID-19 vaccination status, type of vaccine received (Pfizer-BioNTech vs CoronaVac), post-vaccine side-effects and exacerbations were evaluated by interviewing patients over the phone or face to face. Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF) scores were calculated for BS symptoms before and after vaccination. RESULTS: In all, 287 patients received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Of the total number of COVID-19 vaccines (n = 639), 379 (59%) were Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines and 257 (41%) were CoronaVac vaccines. The number of side-effects after first, second, third and fourth vaccine doses were 151 (52.6%), 135 (49.4%), 29 (42.6%), and 3 (30%), respectively. BS exacerbation after first, second, third, and fourth vaccine doses were 151 (52.6%), 135 (49.4%), 16 (23.5%), and 3 (30%), respectively. Injection site pain/swelling was the most common side-effect at all vaccine doses followed by fatigue and arthralgia. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccines are well tolerated in patients with BS, and more side-effects develop after mRNA vaccines. Regardless of the vaccine type, exacerbations after the COVID-19 vaccine are common, predominantly mucocutaneous and articular involvement, and exacerbations in the form of other organ involvement are rare.


Тема - темы
Behcet Syndrome , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , Behcet Syndrome/complications , Behcet Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disease Progression , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects
18.
ASAIO J ; 68(10): 1233-1240, 2022 10 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107650

Реферат

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support surged during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our program changed the model of care pursuing to protect the multidisciplinary team from the risk of infection and to serve as many patients as possible. Patient-healthcare interactions were restricted, and the ECMO bed capacity was increased by reducing the ECMO specialist-patient ratio to 1:4 with non-ECMO trained nurses support. The outcomes worsened and we paused while we evaluated and modified our model of care. The ECMO bed capacity was reduced to allow a nurse ECMO-specialist nurse ratio 2:1 with an ECMO trained nurse assistant's support. Intensivists, general practitioners, nurse assistants, and physical and respiratory therapists were trained on ECMO. Tracheostomy, bronchoscopy, and microbiological molecular diagnosis were done earlier, and family visits and rehabilitation were allowed in the first 48 hours of ECMO cannulation. There were 35 patients in the preintervention cohort and 66 in the postintervention cohort. Ninety days mortality was significantly lower after the intervention (62.9% vs. 31.8%, p = 0.003). Factors associated with increased risk of death were the need for cannulation or conversion to veno arterial or veno arterio venous ECMO, hemorrhagic stroke, and renal replacement therapy during ECMO. The interventions associated with a decrease in the risk of death were the following: early fiberoptic bronchoscopy and microbiological molecular diagnostic tests. Increasing the ECMO multidisciplinary team in relation to the number of patients and the earlier performance of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, such as tracheostomy, fiberoptic bronchoscopy, molecular microbiological diagnosis of pneumonia, rehabilitation, and family support significantly decreased mortality of patients on ECMO due to COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , COVID-19/therapy , Catheterization , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(5): 874-877, 2022 11 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107619

Реферат

Influenza testing and case-confirmation rates in pregnant populations have not been reported during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Using electronic medical record data from a cohort of nearly 20,000 pregnancies in the United States, this retrospective cohort study examines the frequency of acute respiratory or febrile illness encounters, influenza testing, and influenza positivity during the 2020-2021 influenza season, which occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the 2019-2020 influenza season, which largely did not. The ratios of influenza tests to acute respiratory or febrile illness visits were similar in the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 influenza seasons (approximately 1:8 and 1:9, respectively) but were low and varied by study site. Although influenza testing in pregnant patients continued in the 2020-2021 season, when severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) circulation was widespread in the United States, no cases of influenza were identified in our study cohort.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , United States/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Seasons , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18918, 2022 Nov 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106468

Реферат

The aim of this study was to evaluate the death proportion and death risk of COVID-19 hospitalized patients over time and in different surges of COVID-19. This multi-center observational study was conducted from March 21, 2021 to October 3, 2021 which included the alpha and delta SARS-CoV-2 surges occurred in April and August in Tehran, respectively. The risk of COVID-19 death was compared in different months of admission. A total of 270,624 patients with COVID-19, of whom 6.9% died, were admitted to hospitals in Tehran province. Compared to patients admitted in March, a higher risk of COVID-19 death was observed among patients admitted to the hospital in July (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.17, 1.40), August (HR 1.40; 95% CI 1.28, 1.52), September (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.25, 1.50) and October (HR 4.63; 95% CI 2.77, 7.74). The ICU death proportion was 36.8% (95% CI: 35.5, 38.1) in alpha surge and increased significantly to 39.8 (95% CI 38.6, 41.1) in delta surge. The risk of COVID-19 death was significantly higher in delta surge compared to alpha surge (HR 1.22; 95% CI 1.17, 1.27). Delta surge was associated with a higher risk of death compared to alpha surge. High number of hospitalizations, a shortage of hospital beds, ICU spaces and medical supplies, poor nutritional status of hospitalized patients, and lack of the intensivist physicians or specialized nurses in the ICU were factors that contributed to the high mortality rate in the delta surge in Iran.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospital Mortality , Retrospective Studies
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