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1.
Diabetes Care ; 44(8): 1788-1796, 2021 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109595

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether risk of severe outcomes among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) differs from that of patients without diabetes or with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release records of patients discharged after COVID-19 hospitalization from U.S. hospitals from March to November 2020 (N = 269,674 after exclusion), we estimated risk differences (RD) and risk ratios (RR) of intensive care unit admission or invasive mechanical ventilation (ICU/MV) and of death among patients with T1DM compared with patients without diabetes or with T2DM. Logistic models were adjusted for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Models adjusted for additional demographic and clinical characteristics were used to examine whether other factors account for the associations between T1DM and severe COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with patients without diabetes, T1DM was associated with a 21% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.21, 95% CI 0.19-0.24; RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.43-1.56) and a 5% higher absolute risk of mortality (RD 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07; RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24-1.57), with adjustment for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Compared with T2DM, T1DM was associated with a 9% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.09, 95% CI 0.07-0.12; RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.12-1.22), but no difference in mortality (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.02; RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.13). After adjustment for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurring before or at COVID-19 diagnosis, patients with T1DM no longer had increased risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.03) and had lower mortality (RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01) in comparisons with patients with T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T1DM hospitalized for COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe outcomes than those without diabetes. Higher risk of ICU/MV in patients with T1DM than in patients with T2DM was largely accounted for by the presence of DKA. These findings might further guide recommendations related to diabetes management and the prevention of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277301, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109330

Реферат

PURPOSE: To assess hospitalized COVID-19 inpatients for the prevalence of retinopathy and tear film SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and associated risk factors for their detection. METHODS: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients underwent dilated ophthalmic examination and fundus photography. Conjunctival swabs were assessed for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR via a triple target assay. We assessed the relationships of retinopathy with clinical outcomes, systemic risk factors and laboratory data. RESULTS: The median age was 59.5 years and 29 (48%) were female. Retinopathy associated with COVID-19 was observed in 12 of 60 patients (20%). The median age of patients with COVID-19 retinopathy was 51.5 compared to 62.5 years in individuals without retinopathy (p = 0.01). Median BMI was 34.3 in patients with retinopathy versus 30.9 in those without retinopathy (p = 0.04). Fifteen of 60 patients (25%) tested SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive in their tear film without a relationship with timing of illness and hospitalization. The N2 gene was particularly sensitive with 18 of 19 eyes (94.7%) showing N2-positivity, including 2 patients with alpha variant-positivity (B.1.1.7). CONCLUSION: Retinopathy was observed in 20% of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Patients with retinopathy were more likely to be younger and have higher BMI than hospitalized patients without retinopathy. Tear film SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 25% of patients. The relationship of obesity and age with retinopathy requires further investigation.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Retinal Diseases , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors
3.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 218, 2022 Oct 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108966

Реферат

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate air leakage during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and explore potential risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent IMV in a single-center PICU in a tertiary referral hospital. Air leakage risk factors and factors associated with an improved outcome were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 548 children who underwent IMV were enrolled in this study. Air leakage occurred in 7.5% (41/548) of the cases in the PICU. Air leakage increased the duration of IMV and hospitalization time. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a higher risk of air leakage during IMV for PICU patients with acute respiratory dyspnea syndrome (ARDS) (OR = 4.38), a higher pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) (OR = 1.08), or a higher peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) (OR = 1.08), whereas the risk was lower for patients with central respiratory failure (OR = 0.14). The logistic model had excellent predictive power for air leakage, with an area under the curve of 0.883 and tenfold cross-validation. Patients aged between 1 and 6 years who were diagnosed with measles or pneumonia and had a low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or high PaO2/FiO2 ratio were associated with improved outcomes. Patients diagnosed with central respiratory failure or congenital heart diseases were associated with less desirable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ARDS, a higher PCIS at admission or a higher PIP were at higher risk of air leakage.


Тема - темы
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Risk Factors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Intensive Care Units
4.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(10): e008942, 2022 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108428

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) is perceived as a risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. We sought to determine whether CVD is associated with in-hospital death and cardiovascular events in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This study used data from a multicenter cohort of adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units at 68 centers across the United States from March 1 to July 1, 2020. The primary exposure was CVD, defined as preexisting coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or atrial fibrillation/flutter. Myocardial injury on intensive care unit admission defined as a troponin I or T level above the 99th percentile upper reference limit of normal was a secondary exposure. The primary outcome was 28-day in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included cardiovascular events (cardiac arrest, new-onset arrhythmias, new-onset heart failure, myocarditis, pericarditis, or stroke) within 14 days. RESULTS: Among 5133 patients (3231 male [62.9%]; mean age 61 years [SD, 15]), 1174 (22.9%) had preexisting CVD. A total of 1178 (34.6%) died, and 920 (17.9%) had a cardiovascular event. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, history of smoking, and comorbidities, preexisting CVD was associated with a 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98-1.34) higher odds of death. No independent association was observed between preexisting CVD and cardiovascular events. Myocardial injury on intensive care unit admission was associated with higher odds of death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.61-2.31]) and cardiovascular events (adjusted odds ratio, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.47-2.24]), regardless of the presence of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: CVD risk factors, rather than CVD itself, were the major contributors to outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19. The occurrence of myocardial injury, regardless of CVD, and its association with outcomes suggests it is likely due to multiorgan injury related to acute inflammation rather than exacerbation of preexisting CVD. REGISTRATION: NCT04343898; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04343898.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Troponin I , Hospital Mortality , Risk Factors
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063159, 2022 11 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108282

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than the general population. This group is pivotal to healthcare system resilience during the COVID-19, and future, pandemics. We investigated demographic, social, behavioural and occupational risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: HCWs enrolled in a large-scale sero-epidemiological study at a UK university teaching hospital were sent questionnaires spanning a 5-month period from March to July 2020. In a retrospective observational cohort study, univariate logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator regression model was used to identify variables to include in a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among 2258 HCWs, highest ORs associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity on multivariate analysis were having a household member previously testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (OR 6.94 (95% CI 4.15 to 11.6); p<0.0001) and being of black ethnicity (6.21 (95% CI 2.69 to 14.3); p<0.0001). Occupational factors associated with a higher risk of seropositivity included working as a physiotherapist (OR 2.78 (95% CI 1.21 to 6.36); p=0.015) and working predominantly in acute medicine (OR 2.72 (95% CI 1.57 to 4.69); p<0.0001) or medical subspecialties (not including infectious diseases) (OR 2.33 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.88); p=0.001). Reporting that adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) was 'rarely' available had an OR of 2.83 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.25; p=0.01). Reporting attending a handover where social distancing was not possible had an OR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.9; p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants and potential vaccine escape continue to threaten stability of healthcare systems worldwide, and sustained vigilance against HCW infection remains a priority. Enhanced risk assessments should be considered for HCWs of black ethnicity, physiotherapists and those working in acute medicine or medical subspecialties. Workplace risk reduction measures include ongoing access to high-quality PPE and effective social distancing measures.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Health Personnel , Risk Factors , Antibodies, Viral , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Demography
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(37): e30637, 2022 Sep 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107666

Реферат

To determine the prevalence of sleep disturbance during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among US adults who are more vulnerable to complications because of age and co-morbid conditions, and to identify associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional survey linked to 3 active clinical trials and 2 cohort studies, conducted between 11/30/2020 and 3/3/2021. Five academic internal medicine practices and 2 federally qualified health centers. A total of 715 adults ages 23 to 91 years living with one or more chronic conditions. A fifth (20%) of participants reported poor sleep. Black adults were twice as likely to report poor sleep compared to Whites. Self-reported poor physical function (51%), stress (42%), depression (28%), and anxiety (36%) were also common and all significantly associated with poor sleep. Age ≥70 years and having been vaccinated for COVID-19 were protective against poor sleep. Sex, education, income, alcohol use, and employment status were not significantly associated with sleep quality. In this diverse sample of adults with chronic conditions, by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, disparities in sleep health amid the ongoing pandemic were apparent. Worse physical function and mental health were associated with poor sleep and should be considered targets for health system interventions to prevent the many subsequent consequences of disturbed sleep on health outcomes. Measurements: self-reported sleep quality, physical function, stress, depression, and anxiety.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Young Adult
7.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 843-855, 2021 09 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106189

Реферат

BACKGROUND: A previous efficacy trial found benefit from inhaled budesonide for COVID-19 in patients not admitted to hospital, but effectiveness in high-risk individuals is unknown. We aimed to establish whether inhaled budesonide reduces time to recovery and COVID-19-related hospital admissions or deaths among people at high risk of complications in the community. METHODS: PRINCIPLE is a multicentre, open-label, multi-arm, randomised, controlled, adaptive platform trial done remotely from a central trial site and at primary care centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 65 years or older or 50 years or older with comorbidities, and unwell for up to 14 days with suspected COVID-19 but not admitted to hospital. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care, usual care plus inhaled budesonide (800 µg twice daily for 14 days), or usual care plus other interventions, and followed up for 28 days. Participants were aware of group assignment. The coprimary endpoints are time to first self-reported recovery and hospital admission or death related to COVID-19, within 28 days, analysed using Bayesian models. The primary analysis population included all eligible SARS-CoV-2-positive participants randomly assigned to budesonide, usual care, and other interventions, from the start of the platform trial until the budesonide group was closed. This trial is registered at the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN86534580) and is ongoing. FINDINGS: The trial began enrolment on April 2, 2020, with randomisation to budesonide from Nov 27, 2020, until March 31, 2021, when the prespecified time to recovery superiority criterion was met. 4700 participants were randomly assigned to budesonide (n=1073), usual care alone (n=1988), or other treatments (n=1639). The primary analysis model includes 2530 SARS-CoV-2-positive participants, with 787 in the budesonide group, 1069 in the usual care group, and 974 receiving other treatments. There was a benefit in time to first self-reported recovery of an estimated 2·94 days (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] 1·19 to 5·12) in the budesonide group versus the usual care group (11·8 days [95% BCI 10·0 to 14·1] vs 14·7 days [12·3 to 18·0]; hazard ratio 1·21 [95% BCI 1·08 to 1·36]), with a probability of superiority greater than 0·999, meeting the prespecified superiority threshold of 0·99. For the hospital admission or death outcome, the estimated rate was 6·8% (95% BCI 4·1 to 10·2) in the budesonide group versus 8·8% (5·5 to 12·7) in the usual care group (estimated absolute difference 2·0% [95% BCI -0·2 to 4·5]; odds ratio 0·75 [95% BCI 0·55 to 1·03]), with a probability of superiority 0·963, below the prespecified superiority threshold of 0·975. Two participants in the budesonide group and four in the usual care group had serious adverse events (hospital admissions unrelated to COVID-19). INTERPRETATION: Inhaled budesonide improves time to recovery, with a chance of also reducing hospital admissions or deaths (although our results did not meet the superiority threshold), in people with COVID-19 in the community who are at higher risk of complications. FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research and United Kingdom Research Innovation.


Тема - темы
Budesonide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Aged , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 535-544, 2020 08 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106188

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. METHODS: 35 883 households were selected from municipal rolls using two-stage random sampling stratified by province and municipality size, with all residents invited to participate. From April 27 to May 11, 2020, 61 075 participants (75·1% of all contacted individuals within selected households) answered a questionnaire on history of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and risk factors, received a point-of-care antibody test, and, if agreed, donated a blood sample for additional testing with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Prevalences of IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification to allow for differences in non-response rates based on age group, sex, and census-tract income. Using results for both tests, we calculated a seroprevalence range maximising either specificity (positive for both tests) or sensitivity (positive for either test). FINDINGS: Seroprevalence was 5·0% (95% CI 4·7-5·4) by the point-of-care test and 4·6% (4·3-5·0) by immunoassay, with a specificity-sensitivity range of 3·7% (3·3-4·0; both tests positive) to 6·2% (5·8-6·6; either test positive), with no differences by sex and lower seroprevalence in children younger than 10 years (<3·1% by the point-of-care test). There was substantial geographical variability, with higher prevalence around Madrid (>10%) and lower in coastal areas (<3%). Seroprevalence among 195 participants with positive PCR more than 14 days before the study visit ranged from 87·6% (81·1-92·1; both tests positive) to 91·8% (86·3-95·3; either test positive). In 7273 individuals with anosmia or at least three symptoms, seroprevalence ranged from 15·3% (13·8-16·8) to 19·3% (17·7-21·0). Around a third of seropositive participants were asymptomatic, ranging from 21·9% (19·1-24·9) to 35·8% (33·1-38·5). Only 19·5% (16·3-23·2) of symptomatic participants who were seropositive by both the point-of-care test and immunoassay reported a previous PCR test. INTERPRETATION: The majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas. Most PCR-confirmed cases have detectable antibodies, but a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 did not have a PCR test and at least a third of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. These results emphasise the need for maintaining public health measures to avoid a new epidemic wave. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, and Spanish National Health System.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
NCHS Data Brief ; (448): 1-8, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2102673

Реферат

Alcohol use is a known risk factor for mortality, and the rates of alcohol induced deaths have risen over the past several years (1). Alcohol use in the United States increased during the first year of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which may have affected mortality rates, especially for alcohol-induced deaths (2). Understanding trends in alcohol-induced mortality, with a particular focus on differences from 2019 to 2020, may help identify groups particularly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. This report presents overall and sex-specific trends in alcohol-induced death rates from 2000 to 2020, and then focuses on the rates for 2019 and 2020 by sex, age group, and underlying cause of death.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Female , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cause of Death , Mortality
10.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon ; 44(1): 93, 2022 Mar.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101833

Реферат

SUMMARY: To the editor, during these pandemic years, COVID-19 is taking away focus from other respiratory diseases such as pneumoconiosis, which should not be overlooked. We would like to emphasize the possible role of small airways in subjects with asbestos exposure. In a very interesting study, Yang et al (1) investigated the relation between increased small airway obstruction and asbestos exposure in patients with asbestosis. The authors evaluated lung function in a cohort of 281 patients with newly diagnosed asbestosis during an eight-year period, evidencing that patients with asbestosis have small airway obstructive defects that are significantly associated with asbestos exposure (1). These results are very consistent and in line with our previous study, in which we showed that a population of 655 long-term residents in an environmental asbestos (tremolite)-exposed area had a higher prevalence of smallairways disease compared to a group of 653 individuals living in areas not tremolite-exposed (2). Odds Ratio for small-airways obstruction was 3.46, irrespective of smoking status (2). To date, our knowledge on the role of small airways in pulmonary diseases is still matter of debate. Although small airways have a minor contribution to airway resistance in healthy subjects, it has been shown that small airways are the major site of airflow limitation in diseases such as asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (3). Taken these data together, we warmly encourage clinicians and researchers to always consider small airways parameters when performing lung function on asbestosexposed subjects. Moreover, long-term investigations are warranted to explore the decline in airflow over time in patients with either occupational or environmental asbestos exposure and with asbestosis.


Тема - темы
Airway Obstruction , Asbestos , Asbestosis , COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , Humans , Asbestosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Asbestos/adverse effects , Airway Obstruction/complications , Risk Factors , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099522

Реферат

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of non-communicable diseases and their correlation with COVID-19 disease severity among patients infected in Dubai. Clinical and demographic data were extracted from hospital records of 34,687 COVID-19 patients who visited or were admitted into Dubai hospitals between 28 January 2020 and 30 September 2020. Prevalence of co-morbidities in COVID-19 patients were assessed. The main risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity were also identified using three regression models. All co-morbidities were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity in the bivariate analysis (p-value ≤ 0.05) except for vitamin-D deficiency and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Patients with ischemic heart diseases (AOR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.15), pulmonary and other heart diseases (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.32) and chronic kidney diseases (AOR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.25) had higher odds of severe COVID-19 symptoms. Suffering from multiple co-morbidities increased the odds of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms substantially in comparison to having only one co-morbidity i.e., (AOR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.76-2.60) to (AOR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.97). Identifying these risk factors could assist in the early recognition of high-risk populations and ensure the most appropriate preventive measures and required medical management during the pandemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099517

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused remarkable psychological overwhelming and an increase in stressors that may trigger suicidal behaviors. However, its impact on the rate of suicidal behaviors has been poorly reported. We conducted a population-based retrospective analysis of all suicidal behaviors attended in healthcare centers of Catalonia (northeast Spain; 7.5 million inhabitants) between January 2017 and June 2022 (secondary use of data routinely reported to central suicide and diagnosis registries). We retrieved data from this period, including an assessment of suicide risk and individuals' socioeconomic as well as clinical characteristics. Data were summarized yearly and for the periods before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain in March 2020. The analysis included 26,458 episodes of suicidal behavior (21,920 individuals); of these, 16,414 (62.0%) were suicide attempts. The monthly moving average ranged between 300 and 400 episodes until July 2020, and progressively increased to over 600 episodes monthly. In the postpandemic period, suicidal ideation increased at the expense of suicidal attempts. Cases showed a lower suicide risk; the percentage of females and younger individuals increased, whereas the prevalence of classical risk factors, such as living alone, lacking a family network, and a history of psychiatric diagnosis, decreased. In summary, suicidal behaviors have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, with more episodes of suicidal ideation without attempts in addition to younger and lower risk profiles.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Female , Humans , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Electronic Health Records , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Prevalence
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099500

Реферат

The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing globally prior to COVID-19. The pandemic resulted in changes in lifestyle and personal habits such as universal mask-wearing and social distancing. However, there is insufficient information on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of allergic conditions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. We analyzed the incidence rate for self-reported and doctor-diagnosed cases of allergic diseases of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. A total of 15,469 subjects were registered from a national cohort dataset of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we calculated the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each disease in 2020 compared to 2019. Subgroup analyses were performed according to age and sex. There were no statistically significant differences between the incidence of doctor-diagnosed and current allergic diseases in 2019 and 2020 (asthma, p = 0.667 and p = 0.268; atopic dermatitis, p = 0.268 and p = 0.973; allergic rhinitis, p = 0.691 and p = 0.942, respectively), and subgroup analysis showed consistent results. Among the Korean population from 2019 to 2020, the incidence of the allergic diseases asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis did not decrease as expected.


Тема - темы
Asthma , COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Rhinitis, Allergic , Adult , Humans , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Nutrition Surveys , Risk Factors , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Prevalence
14.
Risk Anal ; 42(7): 1571-1584, 2022 Jul.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097864

Реферат

Understanding is still developing about spatial risk factors for COVID-19 infection or mortality. This is a secondary analysis of patient records in a confined area of eastern England, covering persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 through end May 2020, including dates of death and residence area. We obtained residence area data on air quality, deprivation levels, care home bed capacity, age distribution, rurality, access to employment centers, and population density. We considered these covariates as risk factors for excess cases and excess deaths in the 28 days after confirmation of positive Covid status relative to the overall case load and death recorded for the study area as a whole. We used the conditional autoregressive Besag-York-Mollie model to investigate the spatial dependency of cases and deaths allowing for a Poisson error structure. Structural equation models were applied to clarify relationships between predictors and outcomes. Excess case counts or excess deaths were both predicted by the percentage of population age 65 years, care home bed capacity and less rurality: older population and more urban areas saw excess cases. Greater deprivation did not correlate with excess case counts but was significantly linked to higher mortality rates after infection. Neither excess cases nor excess deaths were predicted by population density, travel time to local employment centers, or air quality indicators. Only 66% of mortality was explained by locally high case counts. Higher deprivation clearly linked to higher COVID-19 mortality separate from wider community prevalence and other spatial risk factors.


Тема - темы
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , England/epidemiology , Humans , Mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 299: 63-74, 2022 Nov 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099072

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has affected people in several countries around the world. They experience respiratory symptoms that can be mild, moderate, or severe. Several reviews that characterize the risk factors of COVID-19 have been performed, but most address only risk factors associated with medical conditions, ignoring environmental and sociodemographic-socioeconomic factors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at characterizing different risk factors in the published literature that influence contagion by COVID-19. METHODS: The review consists of three stages, including a systematic mapping with studies found in the Scopus database, an analysis of results, and finally the identification of relevant COVID-19 risk factors. RESULTS: A map of studies id provided considering two main groups: the type of research and context. Most studies consider risk factors associated with medical conditions, while research on other factors is scarce. CONCLUSIONS: Medical conditions such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and factors such as age and sex, appear to be the ones that increase the risk of contracting COVID-19. Further research is needed on environmental, sociodemographic, and socioeconomic risk factors.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors
16.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 297, 2022 Oct 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098346

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Routine follow-up of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 is recommended, however due to the ongoing high number of infections this is not without significant health resource and economic burden. In a previous study we investigated the prevalence of, and risk factors for, persistent chest radiograph (CXR) abnormalities post-hospitalisation with COVID-19 and identified a 5-point composite score that strongly predicted risk of persistent CXR abnormality at 12-weeks. Here we sought to validate and refine our findings in an independent cohort of patients. METHODOLOGY: A single-centre prospective study of consecutive patients attending a virtual post-hospitalisation COVID-19 clinic and CXR as part of their standard clinical care between 2nd March - 22nd June 2021. Inpatient and follow-up CXRs were scored by the assessing clinician for extent of pulmonary infiltrates (0-4 in each lung) with complete resolution defined as a follow-up score of zero. RESULTS: 182 consecutive patients were identified of which 31% had persistent CXR abnormality at 12-weeks. Patients with persistent CXR abnormality were significantly older (p < 0.001), had a longer hospital length of stay (p = 0.005), and had a higher incidence of both level 2 or 3 facility admission (level 2/3 care) (p = 0.003) and ever-smoking history (p = 0.038). Testing our composite score in the present cohort we found it predicted persistent CXR abnormality with reasonable accuracy (area under the receiver operator curve [AUROC 0.64]). Refining this score replacing obesity with Age ≥ 50 years, we identify the SHADE-750 score (1-point each for; Smoking history, Higher-level care (level 2/3 admission), Age ≥ 50 years, Duration of admission ≥ 15 days and Enzyme-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH ≥ 750U/L), that accurately predicted risk of persistent CXR abnormality, both in the present cohort (AUROC 0.73) and when retrospectively applied to our 1st cohort (AUROC 0.79). Applied to both cohorts combined (n = 213) it again performed strongly (AUROC 0.75) with all patients with a score of zero (n = 18) having complete CXR resolution at 12-weeks. CONCLUSIONS: In two independent cohorts of patients hospitalised with COVID-19, we identify a 5-point score which accurately predicts patients at risk of persistent CXR abnormality at 12-weeks. This tool could be used by clinicians to identify patients in which radiological follow-up may not be required.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Radiography, Thoracic , Hospitalization , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Risk Factors , Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098297

Реферат

Persistent breathlessness >28 days after acute COVID-19 infection has been identified as a highly debilitating post-COVID symptom. However, the prevalence, risk factors, mechanisms and treatments for post-COVID breathlessness remain poorly understood. We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for relevant studies published from 1 January 2020 to 1 November 2021 (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021285733) and included 119 eligible papers. Random-effects meta-analysis of 42 872 patients with COVID-19 reported in 102 papers found an overall prevalence of post-COVID breathlessness of 26% (95% CI 23-29) when measuring the presence/absence of the symptom, and 41% (95% CI 34-48) when using Medical Research Council (MRC)/modified MRC dyspnoea scale. The pooled prevalence decreased significantly from 1-6 months to 7-12 months post-infection. Post-COVID breathlessness was more common in those with severe/critical acute infection, those who were hospitalised and females, and was less likely to be reported by patients in Asia than those in Europe or North America. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed (including deconditioning, restrictive/obstructive airflow limitation, systemic inflammation, impaired mental health), but the body of evidence remains inconclusive. Seven cohort studies and one randomised controlled trial suggested rehabilitation exercises may reduce post-COVID breathlessness. There is an urgent need for mechanistic research and development of interventions for the prevention and treatment of post-COVID breathlessness.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/therapy , Risk Factors , Exercise Therapy
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e059860, 2022 11 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097978

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk factors for workplace bullying and mental health outcomes among workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A nationwide online survey was conducted from August to September 2020 in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 16 384 workers (men: n=9565; women: n=6789). MAIN OUTCOME VARIABLES: Workplace bullying was measured by one item from the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire; severe psychological distress according to the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (≥13) and suicidal ideation by one item. Prevalence ratios were calculated by modified Poisson regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders such as gender, age, occupational characteristics and a prior history of depression. RESULTS: Overall, 15% of workers experienced workplace bullying, 9% had severe psychological distress and 12% had suicidal ideation during the second and third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. The results of this study showed men, executives, managers and permanent employees had a higher risk of bullying than women or part-time workers. Increased physical and psychological demands were common risk factors for bullying, severe psychological distress and suicidal ideation. Starting to work from home was a significant predictor for adverse mental health outcomes but a preventive factor against workplace bullying. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed different high-risk groups for bullying or mental health during the pandemic. Any intervention to decrease workplace bullying or mental health problems should focus not only on previously reported vulnerable workers but also workers who have experienced a change in work style or job demands.


Тема - темы
Bullying , COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Psychological Distress , Male , Female , Humans , Suicidal Ideation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Workplace/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
19.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(4): 392-398, 2021 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096426

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: The seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibody was evaluated among employees of a Veterans Affairs healthcare system to assess potential risk factors for transmission and infection. METHODS: All employees were invited to participate in a questionnaire and serological survey to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as part of a facility-wide quality improvement and infection prevention initiative regardless of clinical or nonclinical duties. The initiative was conducted from June 8 to July 8, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 2,900 employees, 51% participated in the study, revealing a positive SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of 4.9% (72 of 1,476; 95% CI, 3.8%-6.1%). There were no statistically significant differences in the presence of antibody based on gender, age, frontline worker status, job title, performance of aerosol-generating procedures, or exposure to known patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) within the hospital. Employees who reported exposure to a known COVID-19 case outside work had a significantly higher seroprevalence at 14.8% (23 of 155) compared to those who did not 3.7% (48 of 1,296; OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 2.67-7.68; P < .0001). Notably, 29% of seropositive employees reported no history of symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among employees was not significantly different among those who provided direct patient care and those who did not, suggesting that facility-wide infection control measures were effective. Employees who reported direct personal contact with COVID-19-positive persons outside work were more likely to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Employee exposure to SARS-CoV-2 outside work may introduce infection into hospitals.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(9): 1011-1015, 2020 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096316

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological variables are associated with daily COVID-19 incidence. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort from January 25 to February 29, 2020. SETTING: Cities of Wuhan, Xiaogan, and Huanggang, China. PATIENTS: The COVID-19 cases detected each day. METHODS: We collected daily data of COVID-19 incidence, 8 ambient air pollutants (particulate matter of ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5], particulate matter ≤10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and maximum 8-h moving average concentrations for ozone [O3-8h]) and 3 meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind) in China's 3 worst COVID-19-stricken cities during the study period. The multivariate Poisson regression was performed to understand their correlation. RESULTS: Daily COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with PM2.5 and humidity in all cities. Specifically, the relative risk (RR) of PM2.5 for daily COVID-19 incidences were 1.036 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.032-1.039) in Wuhan, 1.059 (95% CI, 1.046-1.072) in Xiaogan, and 1.144 (95% CI, 1.12-1.169) in Huanggang. The RR of humidity for daily COVID-19 incidence was consistently lower than that of PM2.5, and this difference ranged from 0.027 to 0.111. Moreover, PM10 and temperature also exhibited a notable correlation with daily COVID-19 incidence, but in a negative pattern The RR of PM10 for daily COVID-19 incidence ranged from 0.915 (95% CI, 0.896-0.934) to 0.961 (95% CI, 0.95-0.972, while that of temperature ranged from 0.738 (95% CI, 0.717-0.759) to 0.969 (95% CI, 0.966-0.973). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that PM2.5 and humidity are substantially associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 and that PM10 and temperature are substantially associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Weather , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Poisson Distribution , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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