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1.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 535-544, 2021 12 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161182

Реферат

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the general population, the risk of severe COVID-19 is associated with old age, male sex, hypertension, obesity and chronic diseases. Chronic lung diseases are listed as additional risk factors for hospitalization and ICU admission. The purpose of this review is to define whether chronic lung diseases, such as bronchiectasis and interstitial diseases, represent a risk for a severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients affected by common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most common symptomatic primary antibody defect. RECENT FINDINGS: CVID patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported since the beginning of the pandemic with a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic to mild/moderate and severe COVID-19. The meta-analysis of 88 CVID cases described in large cohorts and case reports demonstrated that CVID patients with chronic lung involvement have an increased risk for severe COVID-19 in comparison to CVID without lung diseases (50 vs. 28%, relative risk 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.04--2.92, P = 0.043). Differently from the general population, age and metabolic comorbidities did not represent a risk factor for severe course in this patient's population. SUMMARY: Underlying chronic lung diseases but not age represent a risk factor for severe COVID-19 in CVID. Prompt therapeutic intervention should be adopted in SARS-CoV-2 positive CVID patients with chronic lung diseases independently of their age.


Тема - темы
Bronchiectasis/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Age Factors , Bronchiectasis/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e27433, 2021 04 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141323

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Egypt started in 2000 at 8 sentinel sites geographically distributed all over the country. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 was added to the panel of viral testing by polymerase chain reaction for the first 2 patients with ILI seen at one of the sentinel sites. We report the first SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus co-infection with mild symptoms detected through routine ILI surveillance in Egypt. OBJECTIVE: This report aims to describe how the case was identified and the demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of the patient. METHODS: The case was identified by Central Public Health Laboratory staff, who contacted the ILI sentinel surveillance officer at the Ministry of Health. The case patient was contacted through a telephone call. Detailed information about the patient's clinical picture, course of disease, and outcome was obtained. The contacts of the patient were investigated for acute respiratory symptoms, disease confirmation, and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 510 specimens collected from patients with ILI symptoms from October 2019 to August 2020, 61 (12.0%) were COVID-19-positive and 29 (5.7%) tested positive for influenza, including 15 (51.7%) A(H1N1), 11 (38.0%) A(H3N2), and 3 (10.3%) influenza B specimens. A 21-year-old woman was confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus coinfection. She had a high fever of 40.2 °C and mild respiratory symptoms that resolved within 2 days with symptomatic treatment. All five of her family contacts had mild respiratory symptoms 2-3 days after exposure to the confirmed case, and their symptoms resolved without treatment or investigation. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the possible occurrence of SARS-CoV-2/influenza A(H1N1) coinfection in younger and healthy people, who may resolve the infection rapidly. We emphasize the usefulness of the surveillance system for detection of viral causative agents of ILI and recommend broadening of the testing panel, especially if it can guide case management.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sentinel Surveillance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e24220, 2021 01 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141289

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Real-time polymerase chain reaction using nasopharyngeal swabs is currently the most widely used diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 detection. However, false negatives and the sensitivity of this mode of testing have posed challenges in the accurate estimation of the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection rates. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether technical and, therefore, correctable errors were being made with regard to nasopharyngeal swab procedures. METHODS: We searched a web-based video database (YouTube) for videos demonstrating SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab tests, posted from January 1 to May 15, 2020. Videos were rated by 3 blinded rhinologists for accuracy of swab angle and depth. The overall score for swab angle and swab depth for each nasopharyngeal swab demonstration video was determined based on the majority score with agreement between at least 2 of the 3 reviewers. We then comparatively evaluated video data collected from YouTube videos demonstrating the correct nasopharyngeal swab technique with data from videos demonstrating an incorrect nasopharyngeal swab technique. Multiple linear regression analysis with statistical significance set at P=.05 was performed to determine video data variables associated with the correct nasopharyngeal swab technique. RESULTS: In all, 126 videos met the study inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of these, 52.3% (66/126) of all videos demonstrated the correct swab angle, and 46% (58/126) of the videos demonstrated an appropriate swab depth. Moreover, 45.2% (57/126) of the videos demonstrated both correct nasopharyngeal swab angle and appropriate depth, whereas 46.8% (59/126) of the videos demonstrated both incorrect nasopharyngeal swab angle and inappropriate depth. Videos with correct nasopharyngeal swab technique were associated with the swab operators identifying themselves as a medical professional or as an Ear, Nose, Throat-related medical professional. We also found an association between correct nasopharyngeal swab techniques and recency of video publication date (relative to May 15, 2020). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that over half of the videos documenting the nasopharyngeal swab test showed an incorrect technique, which could elevate false-negative test rates. Therefore, greater attention needs to be provided toward educating frontline health care workers who routinely perform nasopharyngeal swab procedures.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Testing/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Media , Specimen Handling/methods , Video Recording , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
ACS Sens ; 7(11): 3560-3570, 2022 Nov 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115655

Реферат

Current tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detect either the constituent nucleic acids/proteins of the viral particles or antibodies specific to the virus, but cannot provide information about viral neutralization by an antibody and the efficacy of an antibody. Such information is important about individuals' vulnerability to severe symptoms or their likelihood of showing no symptoms. We immobilized online SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) into separate surface plasmon resonance (SPR) channels of a tris-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) chip to simultaneously detect the anti-S1 antibody and viral particles in serum samples. In addition, with a high-molecular-weight-cutoff filter, we separated the neutralized viral particles from the free antibody molecules and used a sensing channel immobilized with Protein G to determine antibody-neutralized viral particles. The optimal density of probe molecules in each fluidic channel can be precisely controlled through the closure and opening of the specific ports. By utilizing the high surface density of ACE2, multiple assays can be carried out without regenerations. These three species can be determined with a short analysis time (<12 min per assay) and excellent sensor-to-sensor/cycle-to-cycle reproducibility (RSD < 5%). When coupled with an autosampler, continuous assays can be performed in an unattended manner at a single chip for up to 6 days. Such a sensor capable of assaying serum samples containing the three species at different levels provides additional insights into the disease status and immunity of persons being tested, which should be helpful for containing the SARS-CoV-2 spread during the era of incessant viral mutations.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virion/isolation & purification
5.
Cir Cir ; 90(4): 459-466, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111392

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on the outcomes of surgical patients and the factors associated with postoperative complications and mortality. METHODS: The study included hospitalized patients with similar demographic and clinical features, who underwent similar surgical operations with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for SARS CoV-2 before or within days following the surgery (COVID-19 group) and a control group was formed of patients who tested negative for COVID-19. The two groups were compared in terms of demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, the presence of pneumonia, complications, and 30-day post-operative mortality. RESULTS: The diagnosis for COVID-19 increased the risk of complications and mortality. Age, CRP, D-dimer, ASA Grade 3-4, > 2 comorbidities, and pneumonia were determined to be factors increasing the risk of complications. Age, CRP, > 2 comorbidities, emergency operations, and pneumonia were determined to increase the risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: As patients with peri/post-operative COVID-19 positivity might be at increased risk of postoperative complications and mortality, emergency surgery in infected cases should be delayed in appropriate cases.


OBJETIVO: Nos propusimos evaluar el efecto de la COVID-19 en los resultados de los pacientes quirúrgicos y los factores relacionados con las complicaciones postoperatorias y la mortalidad. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron los pacientes hospitalizados sometidos a operaciones quirúrgicas similares con características demográficas y clínicas similares con una prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa positiva para el CoV-2 del SARS antes/en los días siguientes a la cirugía (grupo COVID-19) y los controles negativos. Los dos grupos se compararon en términos demográficos, clínicos y de laboratorio de la presencia de neumonía, las complicaciones y la mortalidad a los 30 días del postoperatorio. RESULTADOS: El diagnóstico de COVID-19 aumentó el riesgo de complicaciones y mortalidad. La edad, la CRP, el Dímero D, el grado 3-4 de la ASA, tener más de 2 comorbilidades y neumonía se relacionaron con un mayor riesgo de complicaciones. Mientras que la edad, la PCR, tener más de dos comorbilidades, las operaciones de urgencia y la neumonía se relacionaron con un mayor riesgo de mortalidad. CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes con COVID-19 pre/postoperatorio podrían tener un mayor riesgo de complicaciones postoperatorias y de mortalidad, por lo que las cirugías de urgencia en casos infectados podrían retrasarse en los casos adecuados.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Postoperative Complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(12): 1141-1159, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115208

Реферат

Considerable efforts have been made on the development of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) for delivering of nucleic acids in LNP-based medicines, including a first-ever short interfering RNA (siRNA) medicine, Onpattro, and the mRNA vaccines against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which have been approved and are currently in use worldwide. The successful rational design of ionizable cationic lipids was a major breakthrough that dramatically increased delivery efficiency in this field. The LNPs would be expected to be useful as a platform technology for the delivery of various therapeutic modalities for genome editing and even for undiscovered therapeutic mechanisms. In this review, the current progress of my research, including the molecular design of pH-sensitive cationic lipids, their applications for various tissues and cell types, and for delivering various macromolecules, including siRNA, antisense oligonucleotide, mRNA, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system will be described. Mechanistic studies regarding relationships between the physicochemical properties of LNPs, drug delivery, and biosafety are also summarized. Furthermore, current issues that need to be addressed for next generation drug delivery systems are discussed.


Тема - темы
Drug Carriers/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cations/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , RNA, Guide/chemistry , RNA, Guide/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , /metabolism
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(11)2022 Nov 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119221

Реферат

SARS-CoV-2 is now a major global health issue and manifests mainly as a respiratory disorder. Several other complications involving hypercoagulability, cardiovascular system and central nervous system have been described in the literature. Among these atypical presentations, encephalopathy associated with SARS-CoV-2 is a rare entity with heterogenous clinical and radiological findings. The direct presence of SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was rarely found in encephalopathy patients with acute SARS-Cov-2 infection.Here, we report a case of myeloencephalitis with positive real-time PCR for SARS-CoV-2 in CSF in a young woman presenting exclusively with neurological symptoms. Other differential diagnosis were extensively pursued by a comprehensive aetiological workup. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the Omicron era. In the context of recent global explosion of SARS-Cov-2 infections, clinicians should consider this pathogen among other possible neurotropic agents and be familiar with its radiological and clinical presentations.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis , Female , Humans , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Encephalomyelitis/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(2): e1008618, 2021 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109274

Реферат

For practical reasons, many forecasts of case, hospitalization, and death counts in the context of the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are issued in the form of central predictive intervals at various levels. This is also the case for the forecasts collected in the COVID-19 Forecast Hub (https://covid19forecasthub.org/). Forecast evaluation metrics like the logarithmic score, which has been applied in several infectious disease forecasting challenges, are then not available as they require full predictive distributions. This article provides an overview of how established methods for the evaluation of quantile and interval forecasts can be applied to epidemic forecasts in this format. Specifically, we discuss the computation and interpretation of the weighted interval score, which is a proper score that approximates the continuous ranked probability score. It can be interpreted as a generalization of the absolute error to probabilistic forecasts and allows for a decomposition into a measure of sharpness and penalties for over- and underprediction.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/virology , Forecasting , Humans , Probability , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Nature ; 611(7936): 570-577, 2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106425

Реферат

Expanding our global testing capacity is critical to preventing and containing pandemics1-9. Accordingly, accessible and adaptable automated platforms that in decentralized settings perform nucleic acid amplification tests resource-efficiently are required10-14. Pooled testing can be extremely efficient if the pooling strategy is based on local viral prevalence15-20; however, it requires automation, small sample volume handling and feedback not available in current bulky, capital-intensive liquid handling technologies21-29. Here we use a swarm of millimetre-sized magnets as mobile robotic agents ('ferrobots') for precise and robust handling of magnetized sample droplets and high-fidelity delivery of flexible workflows based on nucleic acid amplification tests to overcome these limitations. Within a palm-sized printed circuit board-based programmable platform, we demonstrated the myriad of laboratory-equivalent operations involved in pooled testing. These operations were guided by an introduced square matrix pooled testing algorithm to identify the samples from infected patients, while maximizing the testing efficiency. We applied this automated technology for the loop-mediated isothermal amplification and detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in clinical samples, in which the test results completely matched those obtained off-chip. This technology is easily manufacturable and distributable, and its adoption for viral testing could lead to a 10-300-fold reduction in reagent costs (depending on the viral prevalence) and three orders of magnitude reduction in instrumentation cost. Therefore, it is a promising solution to expand our testing capacity for pandemic preparedness and to reimagine the automated clinical laboratory of the future.


Тема - темы
Automation , COVID-19 Testing , Magnets , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Robotics , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/economics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Algorithms , Automation/economics , Automation/methods , Robotics/methods , Indicators and Reagents/economics
10.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(2): 228-229, 2021 Feb.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096442

Реферат

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has migrated to regions that were initially spared, and it is likely that different populations are currently at risk for illness. Herein, we present our observations of the change in characteristics and resource use of COVID-19 patients over time in a national system of community hospitals to help inform those managing surge planning, operational management, and future policy decisions.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virginia/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(1): 75-83, 2021 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096434

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Shortages of personal protective equipment during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have led to the extended use or reuse of single-use respirators and surgical masks by frontline healthcare workers. The evidence base underpinning such practices warrants examination. OBJECTIVES: To synthesize current guidance and systematic review evidence on extended use, reuse, or reprocessing of single-use surgical masks or filtering face-piece respirators. DATA SOURCES: We used the World Health Organization, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Public Health England websites to identify guidance. We used Medline, PubMed, Epistemonikos, Cochrane Database, and preprint servers for systematic reviews. METHODS: Two reviewers conducted screening and data extraction. The quality of included systematic reviews was appraised using AMSTAR-2. Findings were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: In total, 6 guidance documents were identified. Levels of detail and consistency across documents varied. They included 4 high-quality systematic reviews: 3 focused on reprocessing (decontamination) of N95 respirators and 1 focused on reprocessing of surgical masks. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation were highlighted as the most promising reprocessing methods, but evidence on the relative efficacy and safety of different methods was limited. We found no well-established methods for reprocessing respirators at scale. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on the impact of extended use and reuse of surgical masks and respirators is limited, and gaps and inconsistencies exist in current guidance. Where extended use or reuse is being practiced, healthcare organizations should ensure that policies and systems are in place to ensure these practices are carried out safely and in line with available guidance.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Equipment Reuse/standards , Infection Control/instrumentation , Masks/virology , N95 Respirators/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Management/methods , Risk Management/standards
12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(1): 89-92, 2021 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096391
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