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1.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(22): 5619-5632, 2021 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174032

Реферат

In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for rapid serological tests that allow multiplexing emerged, as antibody seropositivity can instruct about individual immunity after an infection with SARS-CoV-2 or after vaccination. As many commercial antibody tests are either time-consuming or tend to produce false negative or false positive results when only one antigen is considered, we developed an automated, flow-based chemiluminescence microarray immunoassay (CL-MIA) that allows for the detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), spike protein (S1 fragment), and nucleocapsid protein (N) in human serum and plasma in less than 8 min. The CoVRapid CL-MIA was tested with a set of 65 SARS-CoV-2 serology positive or negative samples, resulting in 100% diagnostic specificity and 100% diagnostic sensitivity, thus even outcompeting commercial tests run on the same sample set. Additionally, the prospect of future quantitative assessments (i.e., quantifying the level of antibodies) was demonstrated. Due to the fully automated process, the test can easily be operated in hospitals, medical practices, or vaccination centers, offering a valuable tool for COVID-19 serosurveillance. Graphical abstract.


Тема - темы
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Automation, Laboratory , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immobilized Proteins/chemistry , Immobilized Proteins/immunology , Immune Sera , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Luminescent Measurements , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
2.
Theranostics ; 12(10): 4779-4790, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203050

Реферат

New variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are continuing to spread globally, contributing to the persistence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Increasing resources have been focused on developing vaccines and therapeutics that target the Spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Recent advances in microfluidics have the potential to recapitulate viral infection in the organ-specific platforms, known as organ-on-a-chip (OoC), in which binding of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) of the host cells occurs. As the COVID-19 pandemic lingers, there remains an unmet need to screen emerging mutations, to predict viral transmissibility and pathogenicity, and to assess the strength of neutralizing antibodies following vaccination or reinfection. Conventional detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants relies on two-dimensional (2-D) cell culture methods, whereas simulating the micro-environment requires three-dimensional (3-D) systems. To this end, analyzing SARS-CoV-2-mediated pathogenicity via microfluidic platforms minimizes the experimental cost, duration, and optimization needed for animal studies, and obviates the ethical concerns associated with the use of primates. In this context, this review highlights the state-of-the-art strategy to engineer the nano-liposomes that can be conjugated with SARS-CoV-2 Spike mutations or genomic sequences in the microfluidic platforms; thereby, allowing for screening the rising SARS-CoV-2 variants and predicting COVID-19-associated coagulation. Furthermore, introducing viral genomics to the patient-specific blood accelerates the discovery of therapeutic targets in the face of evolving viral variants, including B1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.2 (Delta), c.37 (Lambda), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). Thus, engineering nano-liposomes to encapsulate SARS-CoV-2 viral genomic sequences enables rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants in the long COVID-19 era.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genomics , Humans , Liposomes , Microfluidics , Mutation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1009328, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198710

Реферат

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and caused a global pandemic resulting in millions of deaths and tens of millions of patients positive tests. While studies have shown a D614G mutation in the viral spike protein are more transmissible, the effects of this and other mutations on the host response, especially at the cellular level, are yet to be fully elucidated. In this experiment we infected normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells with the Washington (D614) strain or the New York (G614) strains of SARS-CoV-2. We generated RNA sequencing data at 6, 12, and 24 hours post-infection (hpi) to improve our understanding of how the intracellular host response differs between infections with these two strains. We analyzed these data with a bioinformatics pipeline that identifies differentially expressed genes (DEGs), enriched Gene Ontology (GO) terms and dysregulated signaling pathways. We detected over 2,000 DEGs, over 600 GO terms, and 29 affected pathways between the two infections. Many of these entities play a role in immune signaling and response. A comparison between strains and time points showed a higher similarity between matched time points than across different time points with the same strain in DEGs and affected pathways, but found more similarity between strains across different time points when looking at GO terms. A comparison of the affected pathways showed that the 24hpi samples of the New York strain were more similar to the 12hpi samples of the Washington strain, with a large number of pathways related to translation being inhibited in both strains. These results suggest that the various mutations contained in the genome of these two viral isolates may cause distinct effects on the host transcriptional response in infected host cells, especially relating to how quickly translation is dysregulated after infection. This comparison of the intracellular host response to infection with these two SARS-CoV-2 isolates suggest that some of the mechanisms associated with more severe disease from these viruses could include virus replication, metal ion usage, host translation shutoff, host transcript stability, and immune inhibition.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , New York , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Proteins , Washington
4.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271359, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196940

Реферат

The viral genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), particularly its cell-binding spike protein gene, has undergone rapid evolution during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Variants including Omicron BA.1 and Omicron BA.2 now seriously threaten the efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and vaccines that target the spike protein. Viral evolution over a much longer timescale has generated a wide range of genetically distinct sarbecoviruses in animal populations, including the pandemic viruses SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1. The genetic diversity and widespread zoonotic potential of this group complicates current attempts to develop drugs in preparation for the next sarbecovirus pandemic. Receptor-based decoy inhibitors can target a wide range of viral strains with a common receptor and may have intrinsic resistance to escape mutant generation and antigenic drift. We previously generated an affinity-matured decoy inhibitor based on the receptor target of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and deployed it in a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV) for intranasal delivery and passive prophylaxis against COVID-19. Here, we demonstrate the exceptional binding and neutralizing potency of this ACE2 decoy against SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron BA.1 and Omicron BA.2. Tight decoy binding tracks with human ACE2 binding of viral spike receptor-binding domains across diverse clades of coronaviruses. Furthermore, in a coronavirus that cannot bind human ACE2, a variant that acquired human ACE2 binding was bound by the decoy with nanomolar affinity. Considering these results, we discuss a strategy of decoy-based treatment and passive protection to mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and future airway virus threats.


Тема - темы
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(36): 16604-16611, 2022 09 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185543

Реферат

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the infectious agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, remains a global medical problem. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was identified as the primary viral entry receptor, and transmembrane serine protease 2 primes the spike protein for membrane fusion. However, ACE2 expression is generally low and variable across tissues, suggesting that auxiliary receptors facilitate viral entry. Identifying these factors is critical for understanding SARS-Cov-2 pathophysiology and developing new countermeasures. However, profiling host-virus interactomes involves extensive genetic screening or complex computational predictions. Here, we leverage the photocatalytic proximity labeling platform µMap to rapidly profile the spike interactome in human cells and identify eight novel candidate receptors. We systemically validate their functionality in SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviral uptake assays with both Wuhan and Delta spike variants and show that dual expression of ACE2 with either neuropilin-2, ephrin receptor A7, solute carrier family 6 member 15, or myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 significantly enhances viral uptake. Collectively, our data show that SARS-CoV-2 synergistically engages several host factors for cell entry and establishes µMap as a powerful tool for rapidly interrogating host-virus interactomes.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
6.
Eur J Intern Med ; 103: 23-28, 2022 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2178274

Реферат

The role of a dysregulated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is well recognized. The imbalance between angiotensin II (Ang II) and Angiotensin1-7 (Ang1,7) caused by the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors exerts a pivotal role on the clinical picture and outcome of COVID-19. ACE2 receptors are not the exclusive angiotensinases in nature. Other angiotensinases (PRCP, and POP) have the potential to limit the detrimental effects of the interactions between ACE2 and the Spike proteins. In the cardiovascular disease continuum, ACE2 activity tends to decrease, and POP/PRCP activity to increase, from the health status to advanced deterioration of the cardiovascular system. The failure of the counter-regulatory RAS axis during the acute phase of COVID-19 is characterized by a decrease of ACE2 expression coupled to unchanged activity of other angiotensinases, therefore failing to limit the accumulation of Ang II. COVID-19 vaccines increase the endogenous synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. Once synthetized, the free-floating spike proteins circulate in the blood, interact with ACE2 receptors and resemble the pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 ("Spike effect" of COVID-19 vaccines). It has been noted that an increased catalytic activity of POP/PRCP is typical in elderly individuals with comorbidities or previous cardiovascular events, but not in younger people. Thus, the adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccination associated with Ang II accumulation are generally more common in younger and healthy subjects. Understanding the relationships between different mechanisms of Ang II cleavage and accumulation offers the opportunity to close the pathophysiological loop between the risk of progression to severe forms of COVID-19 and the potential adverse events of vaccination.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Endopeptidases , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Elife ; 112022 10 27.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164143

Реферат

Background: HIV infection dysregulates the B cell compartment, affecting memory B cell formation and the antibody response to infection and vaccination. Understanding the B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 in people living with HIV (PLWH) may explain the increased morbidity, reduced vaccine efficacy, reduced clearance, and intra-host evolution of SARS-CoV-2 observed in some HIV-1 coinfections. Methods: We compared B cell responses to COVID-19 in PLWH and HIV negative (HIV-ve) patients in a cohort recruited in Durban, South Africa, during the first pandemic wave in July 2020 using detailed flow cytometry phenotyping of longitudinal samples with markers of B cell maturation, homing, and regulatory features. Results: This revealed a coordinated B cell response to COVID-19 that differed significantly between HIV-ve and PLWH. Memory B cells in PLWH displayed evidence of reduced germinal centre (GC) activity, homing capacity, and class-switching responses, with increased PD-L1 expression, and decreased Tfh frequency. This was mirrored by increased extrafollicular (EF) activity, with dynamic changes in activated double negative (DN2) and activated naïve B cells, which correlated with anti-RBD-titres in these individuals. An elevated SARS-CoV-2-specific EF response in PLWH was confirmed using viral spike and RBD bait proteins. Conclusions: Despite similar disease severity, these trends were highest in participants with uncontrolled HIV, implicating HIV in driving these changes. EF B cell responses are rapid but give rise to lower affinity antibodies, less durable long-term memory, and reduced capacity to adapt to new variants. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of HIV on SARS-CoV-2 immunity, particularly as new variants emerge. Funding: This work was supported by a grant from the Wellcome Trust to the Africa Health Research Institute (Wellcome Trust Strategic Core Award [grant number 201433/Z/16/Z]). Additional funding was received from the South African Department of Science and Innovation through the National Research Foundation (South African Research Chairs Initiative [grant number 64809]), and the Victor Daitz Foundation.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , South Africa , Antibodies, Viral
8.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10721, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154859

Реферат

Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) are at increased risk for COVID-19-associated complications. We aimed to describe the evolving epidemiology and outcome of PCR-documented SARS-CoV-2 infection in KTR followed at our institution from March 2020 to May 2022. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for COVID-19-related symptoms or death within 28 days from diagnosis. Overall, 243 cases were included of which 68 (28%) developed the primary outcome. A significant decrease in the incidence of the primary outcome was observed (p < 0.001, r -0.342) during the study period. Anti-Spike monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were administered as early treatment (within 5-7 days of onset of symptoms) in 101 patients (14 with casirivimab/imdevimab and 87 with sotrovimab). Among 145 patients who had received at least one vaccination dose before infection, 109 patients were considered as adequately vaccinated. Multivariate analysis revealed that the Charlson Comorbidity Index (P 0.001; OR 1.28, CI 1.11-1.48) was associated with the primary outcome, while early administration of mAbs (P 0.032; OR 0.39, CI 0.16-0.92) was associated with a better outcome, but not infection during the period of the omicron variant predominance or adequate vaccination.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transplant Recipients
9.
Structure ; 28(8): 874-878, 2020 08 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132441

Реферат

During global pandemics, the spread of information needs to be faster than the spread of the virus in order to ensure the health and safety of human populations worldwide. In our current crisis, the demand for SARS-CoV-2 drugs and vaccines highlights the importance of biological targets and their three-dimensional shape. In particular, structural biology as a field was poised to quickly respond to crises due to previous experience and expertise and because of its early adoption of open access practices.


Тема - темы
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Databases, Protein , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Biology , Protein Conformation , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
10.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143679

Реферат

For more than two years after the emergence of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019), significant regional differences in morbidity persist. These differences clearly show lower incidence rates in several regions of the African and Asian continents. The work reported here aimed to test the hypothesis of a pre-pandemic natural immunity acquired by some human populations in central and western Africa, which would, therefore, pose the hypothesis of an original antigenic sin with a virus antigenically close to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To identify such pre-existing immunity, sera samples collected before the emergence of COVID-19 were tested to detect the presence of IgG reacting antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 proteins of major significance. Sera samples from French blood donors collected before the pandemic served as a control. The results showed a statistically significant difference of antibodies prevalence between the collected samples in Africa and the control samples collected in France. Given the novelty of our results, our next step consists in highlighting neutralizing antibodies to evaluate their potential for pre-pandemic protective acquired immunity against SARS-CoV-2. In conclusion, our results suggest that, in the investigated African sub-regions, the tested populations could have been potentially and partially pre-exposed, before the COVID-19 pandemic, to the antigens of a yet non-identified Coronaviruses.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
11.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143631

Реферат

In this retrospective, single-center study, we conducted an analysis of 13,699 samples from different individuals obtained from the Federal Research Center of Fundamental and Translational Medicine, from 1 April to 30 May 2020 in Novosibirsk region (population 2.8 million people). We identified 6.49% positive for SARS-CoV-2 cases out of the total number of diagnostic tests, and 42% of them were from asymptomatic people. We also detected two asymptomatic people, who had no confirmed contact with patients with COVID-19. The highest percentage of positive samples was observed in the 80+ group (16.3%), while among the children and adults it did not exceed 8%. Among all the people tested, 2423 came from a total of 80 different destinations and only 27 of them were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Out of all the positive samples, 15 were taken for SARS-CoV-2 sequencing. According to the analysis of the genome sequences, the SARS-CoV-2 variants isolated in the Novosibirsk region at the beginning of the pandemic belonged to three phylogenetic lineages according to the Pangolin classification: B.1, B.1.1, and B.1.1.129. All Novosibirsk isolates contained the D614G substitution in the Spike protein, two isolates werecharacterized by an additional M153T mutation, and one isolate wascharacterized by the L5F mutation.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 981693, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142011

Реферат

Objectives: Emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 might affect vaccine efficacy. Therefore, assessing the capacity of sera to neutralize variants of concern (VOCs) in BSL-2 conditions will help evaluating the immune status of population following vaccination or infection. Methods: Pseudotyped viruses bearing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from Wuhan-Hu-1/D614G strains (wild type, WT), B.1.617.2 (Delta), or B.1.1.529 (Omicron) VOCs were generated to assess the neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) activity by a pseudovirus-based neutralization assay (PVNA). PVNA performance was assessed in comparison to the micro-neutralization test (MNT) based on live viruses. Sera collected from COVID-19 convalescents and vaccinees receiving mRNA (BNT16b2 or mRNA-1273) or viral vector (AZD1222 or Ad26.COV2.S) vaccines were used to measure nAbs elicited by two-dose BNT16b2, mRNA-1273, AZD1222 or one-dose Ad26.CO2.S, at different times from completed vaccination, ~ 1.5 month and ~ 4-6 months. Sera from pre-pandemic and unvaccinated individuals were analyzed as controls. Neutralizing activity following booster vaccinations against VOCs was also determined. Results: PVNA titers correlated with the gold standard MNT assay, validating the reliability of PVNA. Sera analyzed late from the second dose showed a reduced neutralization activity compared to sera collected earlier. Ad26.CO2.S vaccination led to very low or absent nAbs. Neutralization of Delta and Omicron BA.1 VOCs showed significant reduction of nAbs respect to WT strain. Importantly, booster doses enhanced Omicron BA.1 nAbs, with persistent levels at 3 months from boosting. Conclusions: PVNA is a reliable tool for assessing anti-SARS-CoV-2 nAbs helping the establishment of a correlate of protection and the management of vaccination strategies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , RNA Viruses , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 946318, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141971

Реферат

Background and Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is the antigenically most distinct variant to date. As the heavily mutated spike protein enables neutralization escape, we studied serum-neutralizing activities of naïve and vaccinated individuals after Omicron BA.1 or BA.2 sub-lineage infections in live virus neutralization tests with Omicron BA.1, Omicron BA.2, wildtype (WT, B1.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2) strains. Serum samples obtained after WT infections and three-dose mRNA vaccinations with and without prior infection were included as controls. Results: Primary BA.1 infections yielded reduced neutralizing antibody levels against WT, Delta, and Omicron BA.2, while samples from BA.2-infected individuals showed almost no cross-neutralization against the other variants. Serum neutralization of Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants was detectable after three-dose mRNA vaccinations, but with reduced titers. Vaccination-breakthrough infections with either Omicron BA.1 or BA.2, however, generated equal cross-neutralizing antibody levels against all SARS-CoV-2 variants tested. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that although Omicron variants are able to enhance cross-neutralizing antibody levels in pre-immune individuals, primary infections with BA.1 or BA.2 induced mostly variant-specific neutralizing antibodies, emphasizing the differently shaped humoral immunity induced by the two Omicron variants. These data thus contribute substantially to the understanding of antibody responses induced by primary Omicron infections or multiple exposures to different SARS-CoV-2 variants and are of particular importance for developing vaccination strategies in the light of future emerging variants.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , RNA, Messenger , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 938378, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141954

Реферат

Background: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has infected millions of people around the world. Vaccination is a pillar in the strategy to control transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 spread. Immune responses to vaccination require elucidation. Methods: The immune responses to vaccination with three doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were followed in a cohort of 37 healthy adults (18-59 years old). Blood samples were collected at multiple time points and submitted to peptide array, machine learning modeling, and sequence alignment analyses, the results of which were used to generate vaccine-induced antibody-binding region (VIABR) immunosignatures (Registration number: ChiCTR2200058571). Results: Antibody spectrum signals showed vaccination stimulated antibody production. Sequence alignment analyses revealed that a third vaccine dose generated a new highly represented VIABR near the A570D mutation, and the whole process of inoculation enhanced the VIABR near the N501Y mutation. In addition, the antigen conformational epitopes varied between short- and long-term samples. The amino acids with the highest scores in the short-term samples were distributed primarily in the receptor binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domain regions of spike (S) protein, while in the long-term samples (12 weeks after the 2nd dose), some new conformational epitopes (CEs) were localized to crevices within the head of the S protein trimer. Conclusion: Protective antigenic epitopes were revealed by immunosignatures after three doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine inoculation. A third dose results in a new top-10 VIABR near the A570D mutation site of S protein, and the whole process of inoculation enhanced the VIABR near the N501Y mutation, thus potentially providing protection from strains that have gained invasion and immune escape abilities through these mutation.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Young Adult
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838780, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141804

Реферат

Antibodies specific for the spike glycoprotein (S) and nucleocapsid (N) SARS-CoV-2 proteins are typically present during severe COVID-19, and induced to S after vaccination. The binding of viral antigens by antibody can initiate the classical complement pathway. Since complement could play pathological or protective roles at distinct times during SARS-CoV-2 infection we determined levels of antibody-dependent complement activation along the complement cascade. Here, we used an ELISA assay to assess complement protein binding (C1q) and the deposition of C4b, C3b, and C5b to S and N antigens in the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 from different test groups: non-infected, single and double vaccinees, non-hospitalised convalescent (NHC) COVID-19 patients and convalescent hospitalised (ITU-CONV) COVID-19 patients. C1q binding correlates strongly with antibody responses, especially IgG1 levels. However, detection of downstream complement components, C4b, C3b and C5b shows some variability associated with the subject group from whom the sera were obtained. In the ITU-CONV, detection of C3b-C5b to S was observed consistently, but this was not the case in the NHC group. This is in contrast to responses to N, where median levels of complement deposition did not differ between the NHC and ITU-CONV groups. Moreover, for S but not N, downstream complement components were only detected in sera with higher IgG1 levels. Therefore, the classical pathway is activated by antibodies to multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens, but the downstream effects of this activation may differ depending the disease status of the subject and on the specific antigen targeted.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Complement Activation , Complement C1q , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Nucleoproteins , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(11): e1010951, 2022 Nov.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140720

Реферат

SARS-CoV-2 continues to acquire mutations in the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) that impact ACE2 receptor binding, folding stability, and antibody recognition. Deep mutational scanning prospectively characterizes the impacts of mutations on these biochemical properties, enabling rapid assessment of new mutations seen during viral surveillance. However, the effects of mutations can change as the virus evolves, requiring updated deep mutational scans. We determined the impacts of all single amino acid mutations in the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 RBDs on ACE2-binding affinity, RBD folding, and escape from binding by the LY-CoV1404 (bebtelovimab) monoclonal antibody. The effects of some mutations in Omicron RBDs differ from those measured in the ancestral Wuhan-Hu-1 background. These epistatic shifts largely resemble those previously seen in the Alpha variant due to the convergent epistatically modifying N501Y substitution. However, Omicron variants show additional lineage-specific shifts, including examples of the epistatic phenomenon of entrenchment that causes the Q498R and N501Y substitutions present in Omicron to be more favorable in that background than in earlier viral strains. In contrast, the Omicron substitution Q493R exhibits no sign of entrenchment, with the derived state, R493, being as unfavorable for ACE2 binding in Omicron RBDs as in Wuhan-Hu-1. Likely for this reason, the R493Q reversion has occurred in Omicron sub-variants including BA.4/BA.5 and BA.2.75, where the affinity buffer from R493Q reversion may potentiate concurrent antigenic change. Consistent with prior studies, we find that Omicron RBDs have reduced expression, and identify candidate stabilizing mutations that ameliorate this deficit. Last, our maps highlight a broadening of the sites of escape from LY-CoV1404 antibody binding in BA.1 and BA.2 compared to the ancestral Wuhan-Hu-1 background. These BA.1 and BA.2 deep mutational scanning datasets identify shifts in the RBD mutational landscape and inform ongoing efforts in viral surveillance.


Тема - темы
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Mutation
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267796, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140390

Реферат

The current global COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a public health crisis with more than 168 million cases reported globally and more than 4.5 million deaths at the time of writing. In addition to the direct impact of the disease, the economic impact has been significant as public health measures to contain or reduce the spread have led to country wide lockdowns resulting in near closure of many sectors of the economy. Antibodies are a principal determinant of the humoral immune response to COVID-19 infections and may have the potential to reduce disease and spread of the virus. The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represents a therapeutic option that can be produced at large quantity and high quality. In the present study, a mAb combination mixture therapy was investigated for its capability to specifically neutralize SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate that each of the antibodies bind the spike protein and neutralize the virus, preventing it from infecting cells in an in vitro cell-based assay, including multiple viral variants that are currently circulating in the human population. In addition, we investigated the effects of two different mutations in the Fc portion (YTE and LALA) of the antibody on Fc effector function and the ability to alleviate potential antibody-dependent enhancement of disease. These data demonstrate the potential of a combination of two mAbs that target two different epitopes on the SARS-CoV2 spike protein to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans while extending serum half-life and preventing antibody-dependent enhancement of disease.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 37, 2022 Jun 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139298

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Calls for the coronavirus to be treated as an endemic illness, such as the flu, are increasing. After achieving high coverage of COVID-19 vaccination, therapeutic drugs have become important for future SARS-CoV-2 variant outbreaks. Although many monoclonal antibodies have been approved for emergency use as treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection, some monoclonal antibodies are not authorized for variant treatment. Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies are unmet medical needs. METHODS: We used a DNA prime-protein boost approach to generate high-quality monoclonal antibodies. A standard ELISA was employed for the primary screen, and spike protein-human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 blocking assays were used for the secondary screen. The top 5 blocking clones were selected for further characterization, including binding ability, neutralization potency, and epitope mapping. The therapeutic effects of the best monoclonal antibody against SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated in a hamster infection model. RESULTS: Several monoclonal antibodies were selected that neutralize different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). These VOCs include Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Kappa and Lambda variants. The high neutralizing antibody titers against the Beta variant would be important to treat Beta-like variants. Among these monoclonal antibodies, mAb-S5 displays the best potency in terms of binding affinity and neutralizing capacity. Importantly, mAb-S5 protects animals from SARS-CoV-2 challenge, including the Wuhan strain, D614G, Alpha and Delta variants, although mAb-S5 exhibits decreased neutralization potency against the Delta variant. Furthermore, the identified neutralizing epitopes of monoclonal antibodies are all located in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein but in different regions. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach generates high-potency monoclonal antibodies against a broad spectrum of VOCs. Multiple monoclonal antibody combinations may be the best strategy to treat future SARS-CoV-2 variant outbreaks.


Тема - темы
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
19.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 1118195, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138216

Реферат

Background: Mitochondria have been involved in host defense upon viral infections. Factor Xa (FXa), a coagulating factor, may also have influence on mitochondrial functionalities. The aim was to analyze if in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC), the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike protein subunits, S1 and S2 (S1+S2), could alter mitochondrial metabolism and what is the role of FXA. Methods: HPMEC were incubated with and without recombinants S1+S2 (10 nmol/L each). Results: In control conditions, S1+S2 failed to modify FXa expression. However, in LPS (1 µg/mL)-incubated HPMEC, S1+S2 significantly increased FXa production. LPS tended to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential with respect to control, but in higher and significant degree, it was reduced when S1+S2 were present. LPS did not significantly modify cytochrome c oxidase activity as compared with control. Addition of S1+S2 spike subunits to LPS-incubated HPMEC significantly increased cytochrome c oxidase activity with respect to control. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was also increased by S1+S2 with respect to control and LPS alone. Protein expression level of uncoupled protein-2 (UCP-2) was markedly expressed when S1+S2 were added together to LPS. Rivaroxaban (50 nmol/L), a specific FXa inhibitor, significantly reduced all the above-mentioned alterations induced by S1+S2 including UCP-2 expression. Conclusions: In HPMEC undergoing to preinflammatory condition, COVID-19 S1+S2 spike subunits promoted alterations in mitochondria metabolism suggesting a shift from aerobic towards anaerobic metabolism that was accompanied of high FXa production. Rivaroxaban prevented all the mitochondrial metabolic changes mediated by the present COVID-19 S1 and S2 spike subunits suggesting the involvement of endogenous FXa.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Factor Xa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Rivaroxaban/pharmacology , Rivaroxaban/metabolism , Electron Transport Complex IV/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism
20.
Sci Adv ; 8(47): eadc9179, 2022 11 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137353

Реферат

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) persists, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) emerge, accumulating spike (S) glycoprotein mutations. S receptor binding domain (RBD) comprises a free fatty acid (FFA)-binding pocket. FFA binding stabilizes a locked S conformation, interfering with virus infectivity. We provide evidence that the pocket is conserved in pathogenic ß-coronaviruses (ß-CoVs) infecting humans. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and VOCs bind the essential FFA linoleic acid (LA), while binding is abolished by one mutation in common cold-causing HCoV-HKU1. In the SARS-CoV S structure, LA stabilizes the locked conformation, while the open, infectious conformation is devoid of LA. Electron tomography of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells reveals that LA treatment inhibits viral replication, resulting in fewer deformed virions. Our results establish FFA binding as a hallmark of pathogenic ß-CoV infection and replication, setting the stage for FFA-based antiviral strategies to overcome COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , SARS-CoV-2
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