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1.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(3): 557-562, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2207192

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a viral disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. There is an increased incidence of a thromboembolic phenomenon in patients with COVID-19 infection. Pulmonary embolism is the most common thrombotic presentation in COVID-19 patients. Extra-pulmonary thrombosis is an unusual thrombotic complication of COVID-19 disease. METHODS: This study was conducted at The Aga Khan University Hospital from June-July'2021. Patients clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: We report three cases with the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia associated with extra-pulmonary thrombosis from June to July 2021. The mean age of the patients were 66.3 and two of them (66.6%) were male. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis in all the three patients. Extra-pulmonary thrombosis was identified in the celiac artery and splenic veins in case 1, left common iliac artery in case 2, and left ventricular apical thrombus in case 3. All the patients were treated with anticoagulation. In total, two patients were discharged home after total recovery, while the third patient died. CONCLUSIONS: The take-home message is that COVID-19 infection is a pro-thrombotic condition that can provoke arterial and venous thrombosis. Extra-pulmonary thrombosis is increasingly identified with COVID-19 infection. It is important to remember that the patient might have no potential risk factor for thromboses, as COVID-19 infection per se is a risk to induce thrombosis.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology
2.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 132(11)2022 Nov 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204737
3.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 178-188, 2022 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201748

Реферат

Background & objectives: Autopsy study has been considered the gold standard method for studying the effects of any disease on the body. Since COVID-19 is a novel disease, autopsy is crucial to understand its pathophysiology. This study was conducted to analyze the microscopic and macroscopic findings of various organs in COVID-19 and to associate those findings with clinical observations and laboratory findings. Methods: Conventional invasive autopsies were performed on 33 patients with COVID-19 from September 7, 2020 to December 23, 2020. All the organs were removed by routine dissection techniques and preserved in 10 per cent formalin. The tissues were processed and stained according to standard practices using haematoxylin-eosin (H & E) and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) stain. Results: The study included 28 males and 5 females with a median age of 61 yr (range 30-90 yr). Massive pulmonary oedema and thrombi in the lungs were the characteristic features macroscopically. On microscopic examination, diffuse alveolar damage in the exudative/proliferative phase was found in 29 (87.88%) cases. Among the other notable microscopic findings were bronchopneumonia and lung abscesses due to secondary bacterial infection (n=17, 51.52%), acute tubular injury (n=21, 63.64%) and thrombi in the lungs, heart, and kidneys. Interpretation & conclusions: COVID-19 primarily affected the respiratory and the renal systems in the vast majority of severely affected patients in our study. We also found signs of hypercoagulability, as evidenced by widespread thrombi in multiple organs, along with a raised d-dimer level and a hyperinflammatory state manifested by elevated inflammatory markers. Our autopsy findings and altered laboratory investigations support the role of immune-mediated cellular injury along with direct virus-mediated cellular damage.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Autopsy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Lung/pathology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/pathology
4.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 119(25): 429-435, 2022 06 24.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198562

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is the third worldwide coronavirus-associated disease outbreak in the past 20 years. Lung involvement, with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe cases, is the main clinical feature of this disease; the cardiovascular system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract can also be affected. The pathophysiology of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary organ damage was almost completely unknown when the pandemic began. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search concerning the structural changes and pathophysiology of COVID-19, with a focus on imaging techniques. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical, electron-microscopic and molecular pathological analyses of tissues obtained by autopsy have improved our understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology, including molecular regulatory mechanisms. Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) has been found to be a prominent pattern of damage in the affected organs of COVID-19 patients. In IA, an existing vessel changes by invagination of the endothelium and formation of an intraluminal septum, ultimately giving rise to two new lumina. This alters hemodynamics within the vessel, leading to a loss of laminar flow and its replacement by turbulent, inhomogeneous flow. IA, which arises because of ischemia due to thrombosis, is itself a risk factor for the generation of further microthrombi; these have been detected in the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and placenta of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Studies of autopsy material from various tissues of COVID-19 patients have revealed ultrastructural evidence of altered microvascularity, IA, and multifocal thrombi. These changes may contribute to the pathophysiology of post-acute interstitial fibrotic organ changes as well as to the clinical picture of long COVID.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Shock ; 57(1): 1-6, 2022 01 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191212

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms of hypoxemia and treatment strategies for type H and type L acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been elucidated. MAIN TEXT: SARS-CoV-2 mainly targets the lungs and blood, leading to ARDS, and systemic thrombosis or bleeding. Angiotensin II-induced coagulopathy, SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperfibrin(ogen)olysis, and pulmonary and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation due to immunothrombosis contribute to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Type H ARDS is associated with hypoxemia due to diffuse alveolar damage-induced high right-to-left shunts. Immunothrombosis occurs at the site of infection due to innate immune inflammatory and coagulofibrinolytic responses to SARS-CoV-2, resulting in microvascular occlusion with hypoperfusion of the lungs. Lung immunothrombosis in type L ARDS results from neutrophil extracellular traps containing platelets and fibrin in the lung microvasculature, leading to hypoxemia due to impaired blood flow and a high ventilation/perfusion (VA/Q) ratio. COVID-19-associated ARDS is more vascular centric than the other types of ARDS. D-dimer levels have been monitored for the progression of microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. Early anticoagulation therapy in critical patients with high D-dimer levels may improve prognosis, including the prevention and/or alleviation of ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Right-to-left shunts and high VA/Q ratios caused by lung microvascular thrombosis contribute to hypoxemia in type H and L ARDS, respectively. D-dimer monitoring-based anticoagulation therapy may prevent the progression to and/or worsening of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hemostasis/physiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinolysis , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Microvessels/physiopathology , Phenotype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy
6.
QJM ; 114(11): 810-811, 2022 Jan 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190228

Тема - темы
Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Humans
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 941742, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154719

Реферат

Background: Thromboinflammation may influence disease outcome in COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate complement and endothelial cell activation in patients with confirmed COVID-19 compared to controls with clinically suspected but excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: In a prospective, observational, single-center study, patients presenting with clinically suspected COVID-19 were recruited in the emergency department. Blood samples on presentation were obtained for analysis of C5a, sC5b-9, E-selectin, Galectin-3, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Results: 153 cases and 166 controls (suffering mainly from non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viral infections, non-infectious inflammatory conditions and bacterial pneumonia) were included. Hospital admission occurred in 62% and 45% of cases and controls, respectively. C5a and VCAM-1 concentrations were significantly elevated and E-selectin concentrations decreased in COVID-19 out- and inpatients compared to the respective controls. However, relative differences in outpatients vs. inpatients in most biomarkers were comparable between cases and controls. Elevated concentrations of C5a, Galectin-3, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on presentation were associated with the composite outcome of ICU- admission or 30-day mortality in COVID-19 and controls, yet more pronounced in COVID-19. C5a and sC5b-9 concentrations were significantly higher in COVID-19 males vs. females, which was not observed in the control group. Conclusions: Our data indicate an activation of the complement cascade and endothelium in COVID-19 beyond a nonspecific inflammatory trigger as observed in controls (i.e., "over"-activation).


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Biomarkers , Complement System Proteins , E-Selectin , Endothelial Cells , Female , Galectin 3 , Humans , Inflammation , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
10.
Thromb Res ; 220: 100-106, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150681

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 disease, which has recently become an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world, is remarkably associated with thrombotic complications. Although many factors are responsible for these increased thrombotic complications in COVID-19 disease, its relationship with a marker that increases the risk of thrombosis such as Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 1 (SCUBE1) has not yet been clarified. This is the first study to examine the potential diagnostic and prognostic value of SCUBE1 levels in patients with COVID-19. In this study, we aimed to clarify the relationship between the increased risk of thrombosis and SCUBE1 in the course of COVID-19 disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 553 patients with COVID-19 and 553 healthy controls were compared in terms of SCUBE1 levels. Additionally, patients with COVID-19 were divided into two groups according to their SCUBE1 levels and compared in terms of severity of disease, thrombotic complications and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: SCUBE1 levels were significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Plasma SCUBE1 levels were significantly higher in patients with severe disease and thrombotic complications, those with mild to moderate disease, and those without thrombotic complications (p < 0.001, for both). In addition, SCUBE1 was found to be an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SCUBE1 may be one of the major determinants of thrombotic complications, which is an increased cause of mortality and morbidity in COVID-19 patients so inhibition of this peptide may be among the therapeutic targets in patients with COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Hospital Mortality , COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Plasma , Severity of Illness Index , Calcium-Binding Proteins
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 16.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163420

Реферат

Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (PEVs) play important roles in hemostasis and thrombosis. There are three major types of PEVs described based on their size and characteristics, but newer types may continue to emerge owing to the ongoing improvement in the methodologies and terms used to define various types of EVs. As the literature on EVs is growing, there are continuing attempts to standardize protocols for EV isolation and reach consensus in the field. This review provides information on mechanisms of PEV production, characteristics, cellular interaction, and their pathological role, especially in autoimmune and infectious diseases. We also highlight the mechanisms through which PEVs can activate parent cells in a feedback loop.


Тема - темы
Extracellular Vesicles , Thrombosis , Blood Platelets , Hemostasis , Humans
12.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 82(2): 149-155, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141600

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Elevated estimated blood viscosity (EBV), derived from hematocrit and globulins, is associated with thrombotic complications, organ failure, and higher mortality in COVID-19 patients. Although informative, EBV does not account for cellular interactions or fibrinogen. OBJECTIVE: Investigate whether patients with acute and recent COVID-19 have altered whole blood viscosity (WBV) when measured at both high and low shear rates using in vitro blood samples from patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 58 patients: 15 in the intensive care unit with acute COVID-19, 32 convalescent (9 < 8weeks [W] from acute infection, 23 > 8 W), and 11 controls without COVID-19. WBV was measured at high (300 s-1) and low (5 s-1) shear rates (HSR, LSR) using a scanning capillary viscometer.RESULTSAcute and convalescent patients < 8 W had mean WBV at LSR (16.0 centipoise [cP] and 15.1 cP) and HSR (5.1 cP and 4.7 cP). Mean WBV of convalescent > 8 W and control patients were 12.3 cP and 13.0 cP at LSR, and 4.1 cP and 4.2 cP at HSR. Acute and < 8 W patients had significantly higher WBV at both HSR and LSR compared to patients > 8 W (all p≤0.01). No significant differences in WBV were observed between acute and < 8 W patients, or between patients > 8 W and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperviscosity provides a possible explanation for thrombotic risk in acute and convalescent (< 8 W) patients. These findings have important implications for thromboprophylaxis.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anticoagulants , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Blood Viscosity , Thrombosis/etiology
13.
Curr Med Imaging ; 18(13): 1439-1442, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141254

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Paragangliomas are tumors of neuroendocrine origin, may appear in different localizations, and are related to the autonomic nervous system. Paragangliomas are generally asymptomatic and may rarely appear with adrenergic symptoms, and clinical findings depend on the catecholamines they secrete. Extra-adrenal paragangliomas are mostly benign, like all paragangliomas. Malignancy criteria consist of local recurrence, metastasis after total resection, and presence of distant metastasis during primary diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: This report presents the case of a 31-year-old man with jugular paraganglioma, multiple skeletal metastases, and a long-segment tumor thrombus. Imaging procedures showed a continuous tumor thrombus extending from the posterior fossa to the right atrium and metastases in C2, T1, T6, T8, L5, and right humerus. Histopathological assessment of the metastasis in C2 identified malignant paraganglioma. Curative surgery was not an option for this patient, hence combined chemotherapy was given. CONCLUSION: In cases of malignant paraganglioma with multiple distant metastases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are feasible treatment methods.


Тема - темы
Paraganglioma , Thrombosis , Male , Humans , Adult , Paraganglioma/diagnostic imaging , Paraganglioma/surgery , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Heart Atria/pathology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Catecholamines , Adrenergic Agents
14.
Immunol Rev ; 312(1): 61-75, 2022 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136897

Реферат

Tissue factor (TF) is a procoagulant protein released from activated host cells, such as monocytes, and tumor cells on extracellular vesicles (EVs). TF + EVs are observed in the circulation of patients with various types of diseases. In this review, we will summarize the association between TF + EVs and activation of coagulation and survival in different types of diseases, including cancer, sepsis, and infections with different viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus (IAV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We will also discuss the source of TF + EVs in various diseases. EVTF activity is associated with thrombosis in pancreatic cancer patients and coronavirus disease 2019 patients (COVID-19) and with disseminated intravascular coagulation in cancer patients. EVTF activity is also associated with worse survival in patients with cancer and COVID-19. Monocytes are the major sources of TF + EVs in sepsis, and viral infections, such as HIV, Ebola virus, and SARS-CoV-2. In contrast, alveolar epithelial cells are the major source of TF + EVs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in COVID-19 and influenza A patients. These studies indicate that EVTF activity could be used as a biomarker to identify patients that have an increased risk of coagulopathy and mortality.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Extracellular Vesicles , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Sepsis , Thrombosis , Biomarkers/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/pathology , Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Pancreatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboplastin/metabolism
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19842, 2022 Nov 18.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133613

Реферат

COVID-19 is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The infected lung epithelial cells secrete a group of chemokines and cytokines, which triggers harmful cytokine storms and hyper-thrombotic responses. Recent studies have proposed that viral-induced senescence is responsible for cytokine release and inflammation in COVID-19 patients. However, it is unknown whether cellular senescence is commonly triggered after viral infection and how inflammation and thrombosis, hyper-activated in these patients, are functionally connected. To address these questions, we conducted a bioinformatics-based meta-analysis using single-cell and bulk RNA sequencing datasets obtained from human patient studies, animal models, and cell lines infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. We found that the senescence phenotype is robustly upregulated in most SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, especially in the infected lung epithelial cells. Notably, the upregulation of Tissue factor (F3), a key initiator of the extrinsic blood coagulation pathway, occurs concurrently with the upregulation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors. Furthermore, F3 levels are positively correlated with the senescence and hyper-coagulation gene signatures in COVID-19 patients. Together, these data demonstrate the prevalence of senescence in respiratory viral infection and suggest F3 as a critical link between inflammation, thrombosis, and senescence in these disease states.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Animals , Thromboplastin/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammation , Cytokines/metabolism
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7169, 2022 Nov 23.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133431

Реферат

Population-based studies can provide important evidence on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. Here we compare rates of thrombosis and thrombocytopenia following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with the background (expected) rates in the general population. In addition, we compare the rates of the same adverse events among persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 with background rates. Primary care and linked hospital data from Catalonia, Spain informed the study, with participants vaccinated with BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 (27/12/2020-23/06/2021), COVID-19 cases (01/09/2020-23/06/2021) or present in the database as of 01/01/2017. We included 2,021,366 BNT162b2 (1,327,031 with 2 doses), 592,408 ChAdOx1, 174,556 COVID-19 cases, and 4,573,494 background participants. Standardised incidence ratios for venous thromboembolism were 1.18 (95% CI 1.06-1.32) and 0.92 (0.81-1.05) after first- and second dose BNT162b2, and 0.92 (0.71-1.18) after first dose ChAdOx1. The standardised incidence ratio for venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 was 10.19 (9.43-11.02). Standardised incidence ratios for arterial thromboembolism were 1.02 (0.95-1.09) and 1.04 (0.97-1.12) after first- and second dose BNT162b2, 1.06 (0.91-1.23) after first-dose ChAdOx1 and 4.13 (3.83-4.45) for COVID-19. Standardised incidence ratios for thrombocytopenia were 1.49 (1.43-1.54) and 1.40 (1.35-1.45) after first- and second dose BNT162b2, 1.28 (1.19-1.38) after first-dose ChAdOx1 and 4.59 (4.41- 4.77) for COVID-19. While rates of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia were generally similar to background rates, the standardised incidence ratio for pulmonary embolism with thrombocytopenia after first-dose BNT162b2 was 1.70 (1.11-2.61). These findings suggest that the safety profiles of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 are similar, with rates of adverse events seen after vaccination typically similar to background rates. Meanwhile, rates of adverse events are much increased for COVID-19 cases further underlining the importance of vaccination.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7167, 2022 Nov 23.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133430

Реферат

Population-based studies can provide important evidence on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. Using data from the United Kingdom, here we compare observed rates of thrombosis and thrombocytopenia following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and infection with SARS-CoV-2 with background (expected) rates in the general population. First and second dose cohorts for ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 between 8 December 2020 and 2 May 2021 in the United Kingdom were identified. A further cohort consisted of people with no prior COVID-19 vaccination who were infected with SARS-Cov-2 identified by a first positive PCR test between 1 September 2020 and 2 May 2021. The fourth general population cohort for background rates included those people in the database as of 1 January 2017. In total, we included 3,768,517 ChAdOx1 and 1,832,841 BNT162b2 vaccinees, 401,691 people infected with SARS-CoV-2, and 9,414,403 people from the general population. An increased risk of venous thromboembolism was seen after first dose of ChAdOx1 (standardized incidence ratio: 1.12 [95% CI: 1.05 to 1.20]), BNT162b2 (1.12 [1.03 to 1.21]), and positive PCR test (7.27 [6.86 to 7.72]). Rates of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis were higher than otherwise expected after first dose of ChAdOx1 (4.14 [2.54 to 6.76]) and a SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive test (3.74 [1.56 to 8.98]). Rates of arterial thromboembolism after vaccination were no higher than expected but were increased after a SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive test (1.39 [1.21 to 1.61]). Rates of venous thromboembolism with thrombocytopenia were higher than expected after a SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive test (5.76 [3.19 to 10.40]).


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , United Kingdom
18.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 64(2-3): 150-152, 2022.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130715
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 211-218, 2021 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113619

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: Thromboinflammation, resulting from a complex interaction between thrombocytopathy, coagulopathy, and endotheliopathy, contributes to increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. MR-proADM, as a surrogate of adrenomedullin system disruption, leading to endothelial damage, has been reported as a promising biomarker for short-term prognosis. We evaluated the role of MR-proADM in the mid-term mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A prospective, observational study enrolling COVID-19 patients from August to October 2020. A blood sample for laboratory test analysis was drawn on arrival in the emergency department. The primary endpoint was 90-day mortality. The area under the curve (AUC) and Cox regression analyses were used to assess discriminatory ability and association with the endpoint. RESULTS: A total of 359 patients were enrolled, and the 90-day mortality rate was 8.9%. ROC AUC for MR-proADM predicting 90-day mortality was 0.832. An optimal cutoff of 0.80 nmol/L showed a sensitivity of 96.9% and a specificity of 58.4%, with a negative predictive value of 99.5%. Circulating MR-proADM levels (inverse transformed), after adjusting by a propensity score including eleven potential confounders, were an independent predictor of 90-day mortality (HR: 0.162 [95% CI: 0.043-0.480]) CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that MR-proADM has a role in the mid-term prognosis of COVID-19 patients and might assist physicians with risk stratification.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Adrenomedullin , Biomarkers , Humans , Inflammation , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Protein Precursors , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur J Haematol ; 109(6): 619-632, 2022 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112972

Реферат

In late February 2021, a prothrombotic syndrome was encountered for the first time in some of the recipients of ChAdOx1 CoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca, University of Oxford, and Serum Institute of India). Since the hallmark of this syndrome is the development of thrombocytopenia and/or thrombosis between 4 and 42 days after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, it was named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Other names include "vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia" and "thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome" by the Centers for Disease Control and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). VITT appears similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in that "platelet activating" autoantibodies are produced in both these conditions due to prior exposure of COVID-19 vaccine and heparin respectively, in turn causing thrombotic complications and consumptive thrombocytopenia. In this article, recent advances in the understanding of pathobiology, clinical features, investigative work-up, and management of VITT are reviewed.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccines/adverse effects
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