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1.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 67(5): 20-28, 2021 10 06.
Статья в Русский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203924

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The association between vitamin D deficiency and the severity of COVID-19 is currently being actively discussed around the world. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and compare it with the incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 in eight Federal Districts of the Russian Federation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 304,564 patients (234,716 women; 77,1%) with serum 25(OH)D levels results performed September 2019 through October 2020. RESULTS: Only 112,877 people (37.1%) had a normal serum 25(OH)D level, others had a deficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was presented with the same frequency in women and men, and no differences were found depending on the geographical location and age in subjects from 18 to 74 years old. However, subjects over 75 years more often had vitamin D deficiency, while subjects under 18 years had normal levels in over 50% cases. In addition, 21,506 patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR with further comparison of results with serum 25(OH)D level. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was detected in 3,193 subjects, negative in 18,313. There were no differences in the morbidity in a vitamin D deficiency and a normal level. Thus, 14.8% subjects had positive PCR rates among vitamin D deficiency patients (4,978 tests), 14.9% when 25(OD)D level was from 20 to 30 ng/ml (7,542 tests), 15.0% among those who had 25(OH)D 30- 50 ng/ml (6,622 tests), and 13.9% when vitamin D was more than 50 ng/ml (4,612 tests). CONCLUSION: There was no association between the COVID-19 incidence and vitamin D status in different regions of Russia. Although the nutrient deficiency persists in all regions and is most often diagnosed in people over 75 years old.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Young Adult
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200271

Реферат

The genomic activity of vitamin D is associated with metabolic effects, and the hormone has a strong impact on several physiological functions and, therefore, on health. Among its renowned functions, vitamin D is an immunomodulator and a molecule with an anti-inflammatory effect, and, recently, it has been much studied in relation to its response against viral infections, especially against COVID-19. This review aims to take stock of the correlation studies between vitamin D deficiency and increased risks of severe COVID-19 disease and, similarly, between vitamin D deficiency and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Based on this evidence, supplementation with vitamin D has been tested in clinical trials, and the results are discussed. Finally, this study includes a biochemical analysis on the effects of vitamin D in the body's defense mechanisms against viral infection. In particular, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions are considered in relation to energy metabolism, and the potential, beneficial effect of vitamin D in COVID-19 is described, with discussion of its influence on different biochemical pathways. The proposed, broader view of vitamin D activity could support a better-integrated approach in supplementation strategies against severe COVID-19, which could be valuable in a near future of living with an infection becoming endemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
3.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 23(2): 293-297, 2022 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174753

Реферат

Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at high risk for adverse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Further, COVID-19 infection is associated with numerous cardiovascular (CV) complications including arrhythmia, myocardial injury, cardiomyopathy, and thrombotic events. Increased susceptibility to COVID-19 and CV complications related to COVID-19 may be in part related to immune dysregulation and inflammation associated with CV disease which is exacerbated with viral infection. Vitamin D plays a major role in immune function and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, which may prove important in the context of CVD and COVID-19. To date, studies have shown minimal benefit for vitamin D supplementation in patients with COVID-19, though there are no studies specific to patients with CVD and related complications. Further, given that vitamin D has important protective effects on the CV system, including augmentation of myocardial contractility and anti-thrombotic effects, it is unknown if supplementation with vitamin D can mitigate CVD complications associated with COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Vitamin D/physiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
4.
Menopause ; 29(11): 1329-1330, 2022 11 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135661
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19823, 2022 Nov 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119366

Реферат

We explored the association between COVID-19 severity and vitamin D status using information from Danish nation-wide health registers, the COVID-19 surveillance database and stored blood samples from the national biobank. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured using tandem mass spectroscopy. The association between 25(OH)D levels and COVID-19 severity, classified hierarchical as non-hospitalized, hospitalized but not admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), admitted to ICU, and death, was evaluated by proportional odds ratios (POR) assuming proportionality between the four degrees of severity. Among 447 adults tested SARS-CoV-2 positive in the spring of 2020, low levels of 25(OH)D were associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19. Thus, odds of experiencing more severe COVID-19 among individuals with insufficient (25 to < 50 nmol/L) and sufficient (≥ 50 nmol/L) 25(OH)D levels were approximately 50% of that among individuals with deficient levels (< 25 nmol/L) (POR = 0.49 (95% CI 0.25-0.94), POR = 0.51 (95% CI 0.27-0.96), respectively). Dividing sufficient vitamin D levels into 50 to < 75 nmol/L and ≥ 75 nmol/L revealed no additional beneficial effect of higher 25(OH)D levels. In this observational study, low levels of 25(OH)D were associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19. A possible therapeutic role of vitamin D should be evaluated in well-designed interventional studies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19397, 2022 Nov 12.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119266

Реферат

Vitamin D deficiency has long been associated with reduced immune function that can lead to viral infection. Several studies have shown that Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increases the risk of infection with COVID-19. However, it is unknown if treatment with Vitamin D can reduce the associated risk of COVID-19 infection, which is the focus of this study. In the population of US veterans, we show that Vitamin D2 and D3 fills were associated with reductions in COVID-19 infection of 28% and 20%, respectively [(D3 Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.80, [95% CI 0.77, 0.83]), D2 HR = 0.72, [95% CI 0.65, 0.79]]. Mortality within 30-days of COVID-19 infection was similarly 33% lower with Vitamin D3 and 25% lower with D2 (D3 HR = 0.67, [95% CI 0.59, 0.75]; D2 HR = 0.75, [95% CI 0.55, 1.04]). We also find that after controlling for vitamin D blood levels, veterans receiving higher dosages of Vitamin D obtained greater benefits from supplementation than veterans receiving lower dosages. Veterans with Vitamin D blood levels between 0 and 19 ng/ml exhibited the largest decrease in COVID-19 infection following supplementation. Black veterans received greater associated COVID-19 risk reductions with supplementation than White veterans. As a safe, widely available, and affordable treatment, Vitamin D may help to reduce the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Pandemics , Dietary Supplements , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Cholecalciferol , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
7.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116113

Реферат

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in 25(OH)D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels and in the vitamin D status of Korean adults before and during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This study compared serum 25(OH)D levels before and after the pandemic in 1483 adults aged 19 years and older who were screened at a university hospital. Subjects were selected only from participants tested in the same season before and after the pandemic. The pre-COVID-19 testing period was from 1 March 2018 to 31 November 2019; the testing period in the COVID-19 era was from 1 June 2020 to 31 November 2021. The mean 25(OH)D level for all participants was 21.4 ± 10.2 ng/mL prior to the outbreak of COVID-19, which increased to 23.6 ± 11.8 ng/mL during the COVID-19 lockdown period (p < 0.001). The increase was particularly dramatic in elderly females (28.8 ± 12.3 ng/mL to 37.7 ± 18.6 ng/mL, p = 0.008). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency decreased in both males (48.4% to 44.5%, p = 0.005) and females (57.0% to 46.0%, p < 0.001). In conclusion, 25(OH)D levels in Korean adults increased during the COVID-19 era, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency decreased accordingly.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Male , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115936

Реферат

Vitamin D (VD) is a fat-soluble vitamin, and pivotal for maintaining health. Several genetic markers have been related to a deficient VD status; these markers could confer an increased risk to develop osteoporosis and other chronic diseases. A VD deficiency could also be a determinant of a severe COVID-19 disease. This study aimed to interrogate genetic/biological databases on the biological implications of a VD deficiency and its association with diseases, to further explore its link with COVID-19. The genetic variants of both a VD deficiency and COVID-19 were identified in the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) catalog and other sources. We conducted enrichment analyses (considering corrected p-values < 0.05 as statistically significant) of the pathways, and gene-disease associations using tools, such as FUMA, REVIGO, DAVID and DisGeNET, and databases, such as the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO). There were 26 and 46 genes associated with a VD deficiency and COVID-19, respectively. However, there were no genes shared between the two. Genes related to a VD deficiency were involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, retinol, drugs and xenobiotics, and were associated with the metabolic syndrome and related factors (obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus), as well as with neoplasms. There were few enriched pathways and disease connections for the COVID-19-related genes, among which some of the aforementioned comorbidities were also present. In conclusion, genetic factors that influence the VD levels in the body are most prominently associated with nutritional and metabolic diseases. A VD deficiency in high-risk populations could be therefore relevant in a severe COVID-19, underlining the need to examine whether a VD supplementation could reduce the severity of this disease.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/genetics , Vitamin D/genetics , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamins
9.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 20(3): 186-193, 2022 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820676

Реферат

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the mechanisms by which vitamin D and its metabolites regulate the immune system to facilitate the ability of the body to prevent and/or treat SARS-CoV2 and other respiratory infections and encourage further research into the role that vitamin D supplementation plays in preventing/treating such infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV2 and other respiratory infections. Clinical trials in general demonstrate that correction of vitamin D deficiency reduces the risk of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death from SARS-CoV2 infection. The airway epithelium and alveolar macrophages express the enzyme, CYP27B1, that produces the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, and the vitamin D receptor, VDR. Vitamin D and its metabolites promote the innate immune response, which provides the first line of defense against viral and bacterial infections while restricting the adaptive immune response, which if unchecked promotes the inflammatory response leading to the acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. The rationale for treating vitamin D deficiency to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection and supplementing patients with vitamin D early in the course of SARS-CoV2 infection rests primarily on the ability of vitamin D metabolites to promote an effective immune response to the infection.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Immunity, Innate/physiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18147, 2022 Oct 28.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096806

Реферат

Recently accumulated evidence implicates a close association of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency to the incidence and clinical manifestations of the COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2). Populations with insufficient VitD including patients with osteoporosis are more susceptible to SARS-COV-2 infection and patients with COVID-19 worsened or developed osteoporosis. It is currently unknown, however, whether osteoporosis and COVID-19 are linked by VitD insufficiency. In this study, 42 common targets for VitD on both COVID-19 and osteoporosis were identified among a total of 243 VitD targets. Further bioinformatic analysis revealed 8 core targets (EGFR, AR, ESR1, MAPK8, MDM2, EZH2, ERBB2 and MAPT) in the VitD-COVID-19-osteoporosis network. These targets are involved in the ErbB and MAPK signaling pathways critical for lung fibrosis, bone structural integrity, and cytokines through a crosstalk between COVID-19 and osteoporosis via the VitD-mediated conventional immune and osteoimmune mechanisms. Molecular docking confirmed that VitD binds tightly to the predicted targets. These findings support that VitD may target common signaling pathways in the integrated network of lung fibrosis and bone structural integrity as well as the immune systems. Therefore, VitD may serve as a preventive and therapeutic agent for both COVID-19 and osteoporosis.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Osteoporosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Osteoporosis/drug therapy
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071516

Реферат

Vitamin D has an immune-modulating effect on respiratory tract infections. For this reason, it has been proposed as part of the treatment in COVID-19. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with worse clinical outcomes of this disease. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation modifies the disease course. Therefore, eleven studies involving randomised clinical trials are analysed, in which groups of COVID-19 patients with or without vitamin D supplementation as part of the treatment are compared. A control group was treated with best available therapy, and in some of the clinical trials, also with a placebo. According to the outcomes, it seems that patients benefit from receiving a daily or maintained in time vitamin D dose regardless of vitamin D serum levels at the beginning of the trial. The administration of a single vitamin D dose does not seem to have any effect on the health status of these patients. However, the outcomes are heterogeneous and larger clinical trials are necessary.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071508

Реферат

The highly transmittable and infectious COVID-19 remains a major threat worldwide, with the elderly and comorbid individuals being the most vulnerable. While vaccines are currently available, therapeutic drugs will help ease the viral outbreak and prevent serious health outcomes. Epigenetic modifications regulate gene expression through changes in chromatin structure and have been linked to viral pathophysiology. Since epigenetic modifications contribute to the life cycle of the virus and host immune responses to infection, epigenetic drugs are promising treatment targets to ameliorate COVID-19. Deficiency of the multifunctional secosteroid hormone vitamin D is a global health threat. Vitamin D and its receptor function to regulate genes involved in immunity, apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Amassed evidence also indicates the biological relations of vitamin D with reduced disease risk, while its receptor can be modulated by epigenetic mechanisms. The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D suggest a role for vitamin D as a COVID-19 therapeutic agent. Therefore, this review highlights the epigenetic effects on COVID-19 and vitamin D while also proposing a role for vitamin D in COVID-19 infections.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Aged , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/genetics , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Epigenesis, Genetic , Hormones , Chromatin
13.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(9): 1779-1782, 2022 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067709

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible relationship between vitamin D and coronavirus disease-2019 in an urban population known to have relatively low vitamin D levels. METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted in Bursa, Turkey, and comprised data of 30 family health centers from March 1 to December 15, 2020, related to diagnosed inpatients of coronovairus disease-2019. The diagnosis was based on polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. Vitamin D levels of these patients were obtained from previous records and compared with those without polymerase chain reaction positivity. Vitamin D levels of positive patients who survived were compared with those who died of coronavirus disease-2019. Data was analysed using SPSS 21. RESULTS: Of the 2,105 patients whose data was retrieved, 212(10%) were positive for coronavirus disease-2019, while 1,893(90%) were negative. Among the positive patients, 89(42%) were men and 123(58%) were women. The overall median age was 45 years (Q1-Q3(Q1: first quartile, Q3: third quartile): 35-56 years). Vitamin D level was not significantly different between the positive and negative patients (p>0.05). Among the positive patients, 2(0.9%) patients did not have new admissions to the designated centers and their data was excluded, 206(97.2%) survived and 4(1.9%) died. There was no significant difference in vitamin D levels between those who survived and those who died (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant relationship found between vitamin D levels and coronavirus disease-2019 infection and related deaths.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066143

Реферат

Vitamin D deficiency has increased in the general population and is a public health issue. Vitamin D plays an important role in regulating the immune system, e.g., by modulating the production of inflammatory cytokines. In most countries, the recommended maximal daily dose of vitamin D3 is 4000 IU (100 µg) per day. In this study, we investigated whether a single vitamin D3 bolus can reduce the levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL) 6, IL8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) within one month. Fifty healthy Saudi males were recruited from the local community in Jeddah city and were orally supplemented with a single dose of 80,000 IU vitamin D3. Serum samples were collected at time points 0, 1 and 30 days, and serum levels of IL6, IL8 and TNF, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO4-) were determined. On average, the vitamin D3 bolus resulted in a significant increase in vitamin D status as well as in a significant decrease in the levels of inflammatory cytokines even one month after supplementation without changing serum Ca2+, PO4- or lipid levels. In conclusion, single high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation is safe for reducing inflammation markers and may lead to an update of current recommendations for vitamin D intake, in order to prevent critical health problems.


Тема - темы
Cholecalciferol , Vitamin D Deficiency , Biomarkers , Calcium , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Male , Parathyroid Hormone , Phosphates , Saudi Arabia , Triglycerides , Tumor Necrosis Factors , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066138

Реферат

Sarcopenia (Sp) is the loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with aging that results in an involution of muscle function and strength. Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem worldwide, especially among the elderly, and hypovitaminosis D leads to musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact and presence of a possible linkage between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) CYP2R1 (rs10741657), GC (rs2282679), and VDR (rs2228570), serum 25-OH/D concentrations and the link with the degree of sarcopenia in 19 institutionalized elderly men not supplemented with vitamin D. Levels of 25-OH vitamin D were quantified with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and 3 SNPs were genotyped with KASPar assays. Significant differences in 25-OH/D concentration were determined between the bi-allelic combinations of rs228679 and rs228570. We detected statistically significant weak positive correlations between the AA (rs10741657 and rs228570) and TT (rs228679) and alleles and 25-OH/D and the probability of having higher 25-OH/D concentrations was 2- to 3-fold higher. However, the GG alleles of the 3 SNPs showed that the probability of having optimal 25-0H/D concentrations decreases by 32% for rs10741657, 38% for rs228679, and 74% for rs228570, showing a strong negative correlation between the degree of sarcopenia and 25-OH/D levels. Allelic variations in CYP2R1 (rs10741657), GC (rs2282679), and VDR (rs10741657) affect vitamin D levels and decisively influence the degree of sarcopenia in institutionalized elderly people.


Тема - темы
Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase , Cytochrome P450 Family 2 , Receptors, Calcitriol , Sarcopenia , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D-Binding Protein , Aged , Aging/genetics , Calcifediol , Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase/genetics , Cytochrome P450 Family 2/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Sarcopenia/genetics , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D Deficiency/genetics , Vitamin D-Binding Protein/genetics , Vitamins
16.
Anticancer Res ; 42(10): 5043-5048, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056774

Реферат

BACKGROUND/AIM: Identify potential mechanisms involving gene expression changes through which vitamin D supplementation could be beneficial in preventing adverse COVID-19 outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a literature review to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the blood between severe and mild COVID-19 patients. We compared these with the top DEGs induced by 6 months of 10,000 IU/day vitamin D supplementation in healthy adults who were vitamin D deficient/insufficient. We used bioinformatic tools to look for a vitamin D response element (VDRE) in DEGs. RESULTS: FOLR3, RGS1, GPR84, and LRRN3 were the most significantly altered genes by 6 months of 10,000 IU/day vitamin D supplementation whose expression levels were also involved in COVID-19 severity. FOLR3 and GPR84 were found to be consistently up-regulated and RGS1 and LRRN3 consistently down-regulated in severe COVID-19 infection. FOLR3 and LRRN3 were down-regulated and RGS1 and GPR84 were up-regulated by 10,000 IU/day vitamin D supplementation. CONCLUSION: FOLR3 and RGS1 are expressed in neutrophils and lymphocytes, respectively. Vitamin D supplementation may decrease the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as has been reported in patients admitted with severe symptoms. There is evidence that vitamin D directly influences the expression of the RGS1 gene through vitamin D receptor binding. A potential negative VDRE (nVDRE) in an intron of the FOLR3 gene was found, which was homologous with two known nVDREs. Combined with other transcription factor elements near the newly identified nVDRE, these observations may explain the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates these genes, thus influencing COVID-19 outcomes.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Carrier Proteins , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Folic Acid , Humans , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Receptors, Calcitriol/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamins/therapeutic use
17.
Anticancer Res ; 42(10): 5027-5034, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056773

Реферат

Official public health pronouncements about sun exposure and vitamin D can be summarized as follows: First, there is no such thing as a safe tan. Therefore, avoid exposing the skin to sunshine. Second, in the absence of sunshine, a daily intake of 800 IU/day (20 mcg/d) vitamin D or less is sufficient for the health needs of almost all members of the population. However, exposure of the skin to sunlight induces multiple mechanisms that lower blood pressure, while also initiating production of vitamin D, which is needed to produce a hormone that regulates multiple systems including the cellular biology that affects cancer mortality. Disease-prevention relationships point to a beneficial threshold for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D; the index of vitamin D nutrition] that is at least 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml). To ensure the threshold for all adults, an average per-day minimum total input of vitamin D3 from sunshine/UVB exposure, and/or from food (natural food like fish or fortified food like milk), and/or vitamin supplementation of at least 4,000 IU/d (100 mcg/d) is required. Strong, although not Level-1, evidence indicates that the maintenance of that threshold will lower mortality overall, lower mortality from cancer, and lower the risk of certain other diseases such as respiratory infection and COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Vitamin D Deficiency , Animals , Cholecalciferol , Dietary Supplements , Hormones , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Public Health , Sunlight/adverse effects , Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
18.
Anticancer Res ; 42(10): 5009-5015, 2022 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056772

Реферат

A symposium entitled "Vitamin D in Prevention and Therapy" was held on May 4-5, 2022, in Homburg, Germany to discuss important new advances in the field, including identification of new vitamin D signaling pathways, of new biologic effects of vitamin D-compounds (e.g., on the microbiome), and convincing proof of the relevance of vitamin D deficiency for the risk and outcome of many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardio-vascular, auto-immune, metabolic, and infectious diseases. Concerning the COVID-19-pandemic, an inverse association between 25(OH)D serum concentrations and SARS-CoV-2-infections, morbidity, and mortality was shown. In relation to cancer, several meta-analyses recently demonstrated an association of vitamin D-supplementation with significantly decreased mortality rates, which presumably would reduce health care costs. Considering the impressive body of evidence and the high safety of oral supplementation and food fortification with vitamin D, it was concluded that there is now an urgent need to act. In many countries worldwide, health care authorities need to increase efforts to address vitamin D deficiency, e.g., via food fortification and/or supplementation with vitamin D, and/or promoting moderate UV-exposure. It was estimated that in many countries, vitamin D intakes of the order of appr. 1,000 IE (25 µg)/day would be needed to bring and/or keep the vast majority of people over a serum 25(OH)D threshold of 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l), which would be difficult to obtain alone from food fortification. New developments in personalized medicine may represent helpful tools to identify populations at risk for vitamin D deficiency and their responsiveness to vitamin D treatment.


Тема - темы
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Dietary Supplements , Food, Fortified , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamins
19.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 32(3): 51-56, 2022 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056417

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with osteoporosis, cancer, and autoimmune disease; evidence on its association with depression remains controversial. During the COVID-19 pandemic, preventive measures lead to reduced outdoor time and sunlight exposure, which is the major source of vitamin D. This study aims to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Thai medical students during the pandemic and to determine its association with depression. METHODS: Medical students of year 4 and year 5 rotating in the Srinakharinwirot University Hospital who had no diseases associated with vitamin D deficiency and had not taken vitamin D supplement in the past year were invited to participate. Their total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were assessed with ELISA. Their demographic data were recorded, including age, sex, family income, class year, grade point average, current and history of psychiatrist-diagnosed psychiatric illnesses, other underlying diseases, and perceived difficulties in academic, relationship, substance use, and social supports. Students' depressive symptoms were assessed using the Thai version of Patient Health Questionnaire-adolescent (PHQ-A). RESULTS: A total of 63 female and 36 male medical students participated. 47.5% were year 4 and 52.5% were year 5. The mean vitamin D level was 21.7 ng/mL. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency during the COVID-19 pandemic was 52.6% (using the cut-off of <20 ng/mL) or 69.5% (using the cut-off of <30 ng/mL). The mean vitamin D level in year 4 students was significantly lower than that in year 5 students (12.2 vs 30.2 ng/mL, t = -10.00, p < 0.01). Vitamin D level was associated with age (r = 0.38, p < 0.01) and sex (marginally) [t = -1.80, p = 0.07]. In linear regression analysis, vitamin D level remained associated with the year of class after adjusting for age and sex (B = 18.67, p < 0.01). The mean PHQ-A score was 5.8. 16 participants were identified to have depression. Vitamin D level was not correlated with PHQ-A score (r = 0.03, p = 0.80). In stepwise regression analysis, only total perceived difficulties score remained a predictor for PHQ-A score. In linear regression analysis, vitamin D level was not associated with PHQ-A score after adjusting for total perceived difficulties score (B = -0.02, p = 0.46). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in Thai medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic was high (52.6% or 69.5%), probably owing to a lack of sunlight exposure. Nonetheless, vitamin D level was not associated with depressive symptoms, probably owing to the small sample size or delayed onset of depressive symptoms.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
20.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e937741, 2022 Oct 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056392

Реферат

BACKGROUND The course of COVID-19 disease is associated with immune deregulation and excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Vitamin D has an immunomodulatory effect. We aimed to assess the possible correlation between the incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and serum vitamin D concentration. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 505 successive patients admitted to a COVID-19-dedicated hospital were included in the retrospective analysis. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR throat swab test results were determined for each patient. The course of COVID-19 was assessed on the basis of the serum Vitamin Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), which includes respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and state of consciousness), as well as number of days spent in the intensive care unit (ICU) and need for oxygen therapy. RESULTS There was no difference in 25-OHD concentration between COVID-19-confirmed and negative results of the PCR tests. No correlation was found between serum 25-OHD in the COVID(+) group and the need for and time spend in the ICU, as well as the MEWS score. Multivariate analyses showed a positive correlation between need for oxygen therapy and lower 25-OHD concentration, as well as older age (P<0.001) and similar positive correlation between need for ventilation therapy with lower 25-OHD concentration, as well as older age (P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS Our findings do not support a potential link between vitamin D concentrations and the incidence of COVID-19, but low vitamin D serum level in COVID-19 patients might worsen the course of the disease and increase the need for oxygen supplementation or ventilation therapy.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Cytokines , Humans , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamins
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